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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103598/coronavirus-infections-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-respiratory-tract-show-distinct-features-in-hospitalized-children
#1
Yuanyuan Li, Haipeng Li, Ruyan Fan, Bo Wen, Jian Zhang, Xiaoying Cao, Chengwu Wang, Zhanyi Song, Shuochi Li, Xiaojie Li, Xinjun Lv, Xiaowang Qu, Renbin Huang, Wenpei Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Coronavirus (CoV) infections induce respiratory tract illnesses and central nervous system (CNS) diseases. We aimed to explore the cytokine expression profiles in hospitalized children with CoV-CNS and CoV-respiratory tract infections. METHODS: A total of 183 and 236 hospitalized children with acute encephalitis-like syndrome and respiratory tract infection, respectively, were screened for anti-CoV IgM antibodies. The expression profiles of multiple cytokines were determined in CoV-positive patients...
January 20, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097694/serial-cytokine-alterations-and-abnormal-neuroimaging-in-newborn-infants-with-encephalopathy
#2
Fiona M O'Hare, R William G Watson, Amanda O'Neill, Ricardo Segurado, Deirdre Sweetman, Paul Downey, Eoghan Mooney, John Murphy, Veronica Donoghue, Eleanor J Molloy
AIM: Inflammatory cytokines may play a role in the final common pathway in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischaemic injury in experimental models. We aimed to profile the systemic pro- and anti-inflammatory response over the first week of life in term infants at risk of neonatal encephalopathy. METHOD: In a tertiary referral university neonatal intensive care unit, serial blood samples were analysed from 41 term infants (requiring resuscitation at birth) in this prospective observational pilot study...
January 17, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096423/trogocytosis-of-peptide-mhc-class-ii-complexes-from-dendritic-cells-confers-antigen-presenting-ability-on-basophils
#3
Kensuke Miyake, Nozomu Shiozawa, Toshihisa Nagao, Soichiro Yoshikawa, Yoshinori Yamanishi, Hajime Karasuyama
Th2 immunity plays important roles in both protective and allergic responses. Nevertheless, the nature of antigen-presenting cells responsible for Th2 cell differentiation remains ill-defined compared with the nature of the cells responsible for Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation. Basophils have attracted attention as a producer of Th2-inducing cytokine IL-4, whereas their MHC class II (MHC-II) expression and function as antigen-presenting cells are matters of considerable controversy. Here we revisited the MHC-II expression on basophils and explored its functional relevance in Th2 cell differentiation...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090321/gm-csf-signalling-blockade-and-chemotherapeutic-agents-act-in-concert-to-inhibit-the-function-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-in-vitro
#4
Tessa Gargett, Susan N Christo, Timothy R Hercus, Nazim Abbas, Nimit Singhal, Angel F Lopez, Michael P Brown
Immune evasion is a recently defined hallmark of cancer, and immunotherapeutic approaches that stimulate an immune response to tumours are gaining recognition. However tumours may evade the immune response and resist immune-targeted treatment by promoting an immune-suppressive environment and stimulating the differentiation or recruitment of immunosuppressive cells. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have been identified in a range of cancers and are often associated with tumour progression and poor patient outcomes...
December 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089377/phase-ii-trial-of-albumin-bound-paclitaxel-and-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-as-an-immune-modulator-in-recurrent-platinum-resistant-ovarian-cancer
#5
John B Liao, Ron E Swensen, Kelsie J Ovenell, Katie M Hitchcock-Bernhardt, Jessica L Reichow, Minjun C Apodaca, Leonard D'Amico, Jennifer S Childs, Doreen M Higgins, Barbara J Buening, Barbara A Goff, Mary L Disis
BACKGROUND: Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) stimulates immunity via recruitment of antigen presenting cells and tumor specific T-cell stimulation. Albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) followed by GM-CSF may enhance antitumor responses and prolong remissions in ovarian cancer. Immune phenotypes present before treatment may identify responders to chemo-immunotherapy. METHODS: Recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer patients received nab-paclitaxel, 100mg/m(2) days 1, 8, 15 followed by GM-CSF 250μg days 16-26 every 28days for 6 planned cycles...
January 12, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081374/cytokine-profiles-in-aqueous-humor-and-plasma-of-hiv-infected-individuals-with-ocular-syphilis-or-cytomegalovirus-retinitis
#6
Matilde Ruiz-Cruz, Santiago Ávila-Rios, Christopher E Ormsby, Yuria Ablanedo-Terrazas, Claudia Alvarado-de la Barrera, Leticia Kuri-Cervantes, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
PURPOSE: To characterize the immunologic profile in aqueous humor (AqH) of HIV-infected individuals with cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVr) or ocular syphilis and to assess if AqH and plasma represent independent cytokine compartments. METHODS: Concentrations of 27 cytokines in AqH and plasma of HIV-infected individuals with CMVr (n = 23) or ocular syphilis (n = 16) were measured by multiplex assay. Cytokine profiles of both groups were compared. RESULTS: Individuals with CMVr had higher plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-7, IL-8, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-γ, IFN-α2, G-CSF, IP-10 and IL-1α; as well as higher AqH concentrations of IL-1α, IP-10 and GM-CSF than those with ocular syphilis...
January 12, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074746/oncology-s-trojan-horse-using-viruses-to-battle-cancer
#7
Heena J Mavani, Jeannette Y Wick
: In 2016, the American health care system was faced with more than 1.6 million new cases of cancer, and individuals older than 65 years of age will be affected disproportionately. Many older individuals are poor candidates for traditional treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation) because of actual or potential treatment-related adverse events. Researchers continuously look for novel therapeutic strategies, and an exciting new one is on the horizon: virotherapy. Viruses' ability to infect and kill human cells makes them promising cancer treatments...
December 1, 2016: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073161/the-pnpla3-i148m-variant-modulates-the-fibrogenic-phenotype-of-human-hepatic-stellate-cells
#8
Francesca Virginia Bruschi, Thierry Claudel, Matteo Tardelli, Alessandra Caligiuri, Thomas M Stulnig, Fabio Marra, Michael Trauner
: The genetic polymorphism I148M of PNPLA3 is robustly associated with hepatic steatosis and its progression to steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cancer. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are key players in the development of liver fibrosis, but the role of PNPLA3 and its variant I148M in this process is poorly understood. Here we analyzed the expression of PNPLA3 during human HSC activation and thereby explored how a PNPLA3 variant impacts on hepatic fibrogenesis. We show that PNPLA3 gene and protein expression increase during the early phases of activation and remain elevated in fully activated HSCs (p<0...
January 10, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065580/fatigue-favors-in-vitro-th1-and-th17-like-cell-expansion-and-reduces-corticoid-sensitivity-in-ms-patients
#9
Hélcio Alvarenga-Filho, Marisa Salles, Joana Hygino, Thais B Ferreira, Priscila M Sacramento, Clarice Monteiro, Claudia Cristina F Vasconcelos, Regina Maria Papais Alvarenga, Cleonice A M Bento
Fatigue is a common "ghost" symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease mediated by T cells that target myelin antigens of the central nervous system. As fatigue has been associated with inflammatory states, its occurrence may negatively impact MS progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of fatigue on the cytokine profile of patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) MS. For our study, blood were collected from MS patients in clinical remission phase with (n=15) and without (n=15) fatigue...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064136/impact-of-probable-interaction-of-low-temperature-and-ambient-fine-particulate-matter-on-the-function-of-rats-alveolar-macrophages
#10
Bin Luo, Jiangtao Liu, Gaoqiang Fei, Ting Han, Kai Zhang, Lina Wang, Hongxia Shi, Li Zhang, Ye Ruan, Jingping Niu
The present study aimed to explore the probable interaction of low temperature and ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on rat alveolar macrophages (AMs). AMs were separated from rat BALF and exposed to PM2.5 (0, 25, 50, 100μg/ml) under different temperature (18, 24, 30, 37°C) for 8h. Results indicated that viability and phagocytosis function of AMs decreased with the decline of temperature and the rise of PM2.5 dose, and the strongest toxicity was shown in the highest PM2.5 (100μg/ml) exposure group at 18°C...
December 28, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063981/macrophage-activation-status-determines-the-internalization-of-mesoporous-silica-particles-of-different-sizes-exploring-the-role-of-different-pattern-recognition-receptors
#11
Audrey Gallud, Olesja Bondarenko, Neus Feliu, Natalia Kupferschmidt, Rambabu Atluri, Alfonso Garcia-Bennett, Bengt Fadeel
Mesoporous silica-based particles are promising candidates for biomedical applications. Here, we address the importance of macrophage activation status for internalization of AMS6 (approx. 200 nm in diameter) versus AMS8 (approx. 2 μm) mesoporous silica particles and the role of different phagocytosis receptors for particle uptake. To this end, FITC-conjugated silica particles were used. AMS8 were found to be non-cytotoxic both for M-CSF-stimulated (anti-inflammatory) and GM-CSF-stimulated (pro-inflammatory) macrophages, whereas AMS6 exhibited cytotoxicity towards M-CSF-stimulated, but not GM-CSF-stimulated macrophages; this toxicity was, however, mitigated in the presence of serum...
December 27, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063941/nitro-oleic-acid-regulates-growth-factor-induced-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-derived-macrophages
#12
Hana Verescakova, Gabriela Ambrozova, Lukas Kubala, Tomas Perecko, Adolf Koudelka, Ondrej Vasicek, Tanja K Rudolph, Anna Klinke, Steven R Woodcock, Bruce A Freeman, Michaela Pekarova
Many diseases accompanied by chronic inflammation are connected with dysregulated activation of macrophage subpopulations. Recently, we reported that nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FAs), products of metabolic and inflammatory reactions of nitric oxide and nitrite, modulate macrophage and other immune cell functions. Bone marrow cell suspensions were isolated from mice and supplemented with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in combination with NO2-OA for different times...
January 4, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063891/gm-csf-and-il-4-produced-by-nkt-cells-inversely-regulate-il-1%C3%AE-production-by-macrophages
#13
Sehee Ahn, Dongjin Jeong, Sae Jin Oh, Jiye Ahn, Seung Hyo Lee, Doo Hyun Chung
Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are distinct T cell subset that link innate and adaptive immune responses. IL-1β, produced by various immune cells, plays a key role in the regulation of innate immunity in vivo. However, it is unclear whether NKT cells regulate IL-1β production by macrophages. To address this, we co-cultured NKT cells and peritoneal macrophages in the presence of TCR stimulation and inflammasome activators. Among cytokines secreted from NKT cells, GM-CSF enhanced IL-1β production by macrophages via regulating LPS-mediated pro-IL-1β expression and NLRP3-dependent inflammasome activation, whereas IL-4 enhanced M2-differentiation of macrophages and decreased IL-1β production...
January 4, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062695/the-clonal-invariant-nkt-cell-repertoire-in-people-with-type-1-diabetes-is-characterized-by-a-loss-of-clones-expressing-high-affinity-tcrs
#14
Anna S Tocheva, Salah Mansour, Tristan G H Holt, Samuel Jones, Andrew Chancellor, Joseph P Sanderson, Efrem Eren, Tim J Elliott, Richard I G Holt, Stephan D Gadola
Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells in healthy people express iNKT-TCRs with widely varying affinities for CD1d, suggesting different roles for high- and low-affinity iNKT clones in immune regulation. However, the functional implications of this heterogeneity have not yet been determined. Functionally aberrant iNKT responses have been previously demonstrated in different autoimmune diseases, including human type 1 diabetes, but their relationship to changes in the iNKT clonal repertoire have not been addressed. In this study, we directly compared the clonal iNKT repertoire of people with recent onset type 1 diabetes and age- and gender-matched healthy controls with regard to iNKT-TCR affinity and cytokine production...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060313/generation-of-human-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-from-whole-blood
#15
Wilfried Posch, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Doris Wilflingseder
Dendritic cells (DCs) recognize foreign structures of different pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi, via a variety of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) expressed on their cell surface and thereby activate and regulate immunity. The major function of DCs is the induction of adaptive immunity in the lymph nodes by presenting antigens via MHC I and MHC II molecules to naïve T lymphocytes. Therefore, DCs have to migrate from the periphery to the lymph nodes after the recognition of pathogens at the sites of infection...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060224/granulocytic-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-increased-in-early-phases-of-primary-hiv-infection-depending-on-trail-plasma-level
#16
N Tumino, M T Bilotta, C Pinnetti, A Ammassari, A Antinori, F Turchi, C Agrati, R Casetti, V Bordoni, E Cimini, I Abbate, M R Capobianchi, F Martini, A Sacchi
BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSC) are expanded in HIV-1 infected individuals and correlated with disease progression. The phase of HIV infection during which MDSC expansion occurs, and the mechanisms that regulate this expansion remain to be established. In this study we evaluated the frequency of MDSC in patients during primary HIV infection, and factors involved in MDSC control. METHODS: Patients with primary (PHI) and chronic (CHI) HIV infection were enrolled...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059551/wnt-signaling-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyps
#17
Robert Böscke, Eszter K Vladar, Michael Könnecke, Birgit Hüsing, Robert Linke, Ralph Pries, Norbert Reiling, Jeffrey D Axelrod, Jayakar V Nayak, Barbara Wollenberg
The signaling pathways that sustain the disease process of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) remain poorly understood. We sought to determine the expression levels of Wnt signaling genes in CRSwNP, and to study the role of the Wnt pathway in inflammation and epithelial remodeling in the nasal mucosa. Microarrays and RT-qPCR comparing gene expression in matched nasal polyps (NP) and inferior turbinates (IT) revealed that WNT2B, WNT3A, WNT4, WNT7A, WNT7B and FZD2 were upregulated, and FZD1, LRP5, LRP6 and WIF1 downregulated in NPs...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054389/health-effects-of-laser-printer-emissions-a-controlled-exposure-study
#18
Stefan Karrasch, Myriam Simon, Britta Herbig, Jeanette Langner, Stefan Seeger, Angelika Kronseder, Stefan Peters, Gisela Dietrich-Gümperlein, Rudolf Schierl, Dennis Nowak, Rudolf A Jörres
Ultrafine particles emitted from laser printers are suspected to elicit adverse health effects. We performed 75-minute exposures to emissions of laser printing devices (LPDs) in a standardized, randomized, cross-over manner in 23 healthy subjects, 14 mild, stable asthmatics and 15 persons reporting symptoms associated with LPD emissions. Low level exposures (LLE) ranged at the particle background (3,000 cm(-3) ), high level exposures (HLE) at 100,000 cm(-3) . Examinations before and after exposures included spirometry, body plethysmography, transfer factors for CO and NO (TLCO, TLNO), bronchial and alveolar NO, cytokines in serum and nasal secretions (IL-1β, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF, IFNγ, TNFα), serum ECP, and IgE...
January 5, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052994/local-delivery-of-the-tlr9-ligand-cpg-down-regulates-host-immune-and-inflammatory-responses-ameliorating-established-leishmania-viannia-panamensis-chronic-infection
#19
Allison K Ehrlich, Olga L Fernández, Daniel Rodriguez-Pinto, Tiago M Castilho, Maria J Corral Caridad, Karen Goldsmith-Pestana, Nancy Gore Saravia, Diane McMahon-Pratt
Infection by Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis, the predominant etiologic agent for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia, is characterized by a chronic mixed-inflammatory response. Current treatment options are plagued by toxicity, lengthy treatment regimens and growing evidence of drug resistance. Immunotherapy, modulating the immune system to mount a protective response, may provide an alternate therapeutic approach. We investigated the ability of the TLR9 ligand, CpG, to modulate established disease in the L...
January 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051154/therapeutic-effects-of-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-acute-lung-injury-mice
#20
Hua Zhu, Yi Xiong, Yunqiu Xia, Rong Zhang, Daiyin Tian, Ting Wang, Jihong Dai, Lijia Wang, Hongbing Yao, Hong Jiang, Ke Yang, Enmei Liu, Yujun Shi, Zhou Fu, Li Gao, Lin Zou
The incidence and mortality of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are still very high, but stem cells show some promise for its treatment. Here we found that intratracheal administration of human umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) significantly improved survival and attenuated the lung inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI mice. We also used the proteins-chip and bioinformatics to analyze interactions between UC-MSCs treatment and immune-response alternations of ALI mice...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
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