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Nutrition therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925712/quantitative-assessment-of-nutrition-in-patients-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos
#1
Małgorzata Szczuko, Magdalena Skowronek, Marta Zapałowska-Chwyć, Andrzej Starczewski
Background: PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) is called a pathology of the XX century and affects at least 10-15% women of childbearing age. The therapy involves pharmacotherapy of hormonal imbalance, as well as the change of lifestyle, including the diet. Objective: Performing the quantitative assessment of components of diets of women with PCOS, comparing the results with current dietary standards for Polish people and defining dietary requirements for the patients...
2016: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925407/population-level-decline-in-bmi-and-systolic-blood-pressure-following-mass-hiv-treatment-evidence-from-rural-kwazulu-natal
#2
Pascal Geldsetzer, Andrea B Feigl, Frank Tanser, Dickman Gareta, Deenan Pillay, Till Bärnighausen
OBJECTIVE: Clinic-based studies have shown that patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gain weight after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study aimed to determine whether the scale-up of ART was associated with a population-level increase in body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) in a community with high HIV and obesity prevalence. METHODS: A household survey was conducted in rural KwaZulu-Natal before ART scale-up (in 2004) and when ART coverage had reached 25% (in 2010)...
December 7, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925046/longitudinal-assessment-of-nutritional-risk-in-patients-under-chemo-or-radiotherapy
#3
Isabelle Mastelaro, Mariana Pietrobom Pupin, Sofia Miranda de Figueiredo Ribeiro, Harley Francisco de Oliveira, Fernanda Maris Peria, Selma Freire de Carvalho da Cunha
Objective: To compare nutritional risk in adult patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the beginning, middle, and end of oncologic treatment. Method: This prospective, comparative study included 83 adult patients, 44 undergoing chemotherapy (CT group) and 39 undergoing radiotherapy (RT group) at an oncology treatment center. Nutritional risk was determined by NRS-2002 in the beginning, middle, and end of therapy. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica 8...
October 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923526/the-effect-of-intradialytic-intralipid-therapy-in-pediatric-hemodialysis-patients
#4
Orly Haskin, Scott M Sutherland, Cynthia J Wong
OBJECTIVE: Growth of children on maintenance hemodialysis is poor. Oral nutritional supplements are the preferred way to augment nutrition; however, many children have difficulties adhering to prescribed oral supplements. In our unit, we have been utilizing intralipid (IL) therapy as nutritional supplement during hemodialysis sessions. The aim of this study was to assess the safety, efficacy, and benefits of intradialytic IL therapy. DESIGN: A retrospective chart review...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923508/surfacing-role-of-probiotics-in-cancer-prophylaxis-and-therapy-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Subramanyam Dasari, Chandrasekhar Kathera, Avilala Janardhan, Arthala Praveen Kumar, Buddolla Viswanath
Cancers figure among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cancer and its associated infections are always complicated even when specific cancer regimens are available. It is well proved that Lactobacillus and other probiotic bacteria can modulate-ameliorate specific mechanisms against various infections including cancers. The present systematic review is intended to focus on the 'cellular and molecular mechanisms' of probiotic bacteria in the prevention and treatment of various cancers...
November 24, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922234/long-term-azithromycin-therapy-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#6
Nagehan Emiralioğlu, Zeynelabidin Öztürk, Ebru Yalçın, Deniz Doğru, Uğur Özçelik, Nural Kiper
Inflammation is a central contributor to the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF) pulmonary disease; so limiting the excessive production of inflammatory mediators represents a major therapeutic strategy for slowing the decline in lung function and improving survival. The macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZM) has anti-inflammatory properties and immunomodulatory effects that may be beneficial in CF. The aim of this study was to document the long term use of AZM effect on pulmonary function, nutritional status and number of pulmonary exacerbations in patients with CF...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922103/hypothalamic-activation-is-essential-for-endotoxemia-induced-acute-muscle-wasting
#7
Kaipeng Duan, Qiyi Chen, Minhua Cheng, Chenyan Zhao, Zhiliang Lin, Shanjun Tan, Fengchan Xi, Tao Gao, Jialiang Shi, Juanhong Shen, Weiqin Li, Wenkui Yu, Jieshou Li, Ning Li
Growing evidence suggests acute skeletal muscle wasting is a key factor affecting nutritional support and prognosis in critical patients. Previously, plenty of studies of muscle wasting focused on the peripheral pathway, little was known about the central role. We tested the hypothesis whether central inflammatory pathway and neuropeptides were involved in the process. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated rats, hypothalamic NF-κB pathway and inflammation were highly activated, which was accompanied with severe muscle wasting...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921418/-diabetic-foot-syndrome-from-the-perspective-of-internist-educated-in-podiatry
#8
Alexandra Jirkovská
Podiatry is the science dealing with the diagnostics and treatment of the foot and ankle and associated tissues and structures by all appropriate methods and also with the local manifestation of the overall processes in this area. Diabetic foot disease is defined as infection, ulceration or destruction of tissues of the foot associated with neuropathy and/or peripheral artery disease in the lower extremity of people with diabetes according to the latest edition of the International Consensus. Successful treatment and prevention of diabetic foot syndrome depends on a holistic approach, in which it is seen as part of the multiple organ involvement...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921058/celiac-crisis-associated-with-herpes-simplex-virus-esophagitis
#9
Alan Chen, Christopher M Linz, Julie L Tsay, Ming Jin, Samer S El-Dika
Celiac crisis is a rare presentation of celiac disease that is characterized by life-threatening electrolyte abnormalities, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, and diarrhea. Triggers for celiac crisis include major surgeries, pancreatitis, and infections of cytomegalovirus, and salmonella. A 24-year-old woman presented with celiac crisis associated with severe herpes simplex virus (HSV) esophagitis. This case demonstrates that nutritional deficiencies seen in celiac disease can result in a relative immunodeficiency, which may lead to other infectious complications...
August 2016: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920641/severe-de-novo-hepatitis-b-recovered-from-late-onset-liver-insufficiency-with-prolonged-ascites-and-hypoalbuminemia-due-to-hepatitis-b-virus-genotype-bj-with-precore-mutation
#10
Akira Sato, Toshiya Ishii, Fumiaki Sano, Takayuki Yamada, Hideaki Takahashi, Nobuyuki Matsumoto
De novo hepatitis B is associated with a high risk of hepatic failure often resulting in fatal fulminant hepatitis even when nucleotide analogues are administered. A 77-year-old female developed de novo hepatitis B after R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) treatment for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) isolated from the patient was of genotype Bj, with a precore mutation (G1896A) exhibiting an extremely high viral load at the onset of hepatitis...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919521/unsolved-forgotten-and-ignored-features-of-the-placebo-response-in-medicine
#11
REVIEW
Paul Enck, Sibylle Klosterhalfen, Katja Weimer
PURPOSE: We aimed to identify topics of research that have been neglected, undervalued, or overseen in the past 2 decades of placebo/nocebo research. METHODS: A highly specialized literature database containing >3200 articles on the placebo or nocebo effects or response was screened for articles covering placebo effects in nutrition, sports medicine, physical therapy, and psychotherapy; for article covering gender, age, and culture as influencing factors; for articles dealing with long-term outcome, multimodality; and for articles related to technical (eHealth, mHealth) aspects of placebo effects...
December 2, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918868/handgrip-dynamometry-and-patient-generated-subjective-global-assessment-in-patients-with-nonresectable-lung-cancer
#12
Ana T Barata, Carla Santos, Marília Cravo, Maria do Céu Vinhas, Catarina Morais, Elisabete Carolino, Lino Mendes, Jorge Roldão Vieira, Jorge Fonseca
INTRODUCTION: Undernutrition is frequently associated with advanced lung cancer. Accurate nutritional assessment tools are important to provide the proper nutritional therapy. Handgrip dynamometry has already been used in these patients, and the findings suggest that it is a good indicator of nutritional status. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between nutritional status and handgrip strength (HGS) in patients with nonresectable lung cancer...
December 5, 2016: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915963/kidney-transplant-recipients-requiring-critical-care-admission-within-one-year-of-transplant
#13
Okechukwu O Okidi, David Van Dellen, Cassandra Sobajo, Angela Summers, John R Greer, Titus Augustine
OBJECTIVES: Kidney transplant is the gold standard for treatment of renal failure. With the increasing age of the recipient population, which carries significant comorbidities, and the use of more marginal organs, there is potential for increased critical care admissions. In this study, we investigated the incidence, indications, and outcomes of patients admitted to critical care within 1 year of transplant. We also aimed to identify any precipitating factors or events that may trigger these admissions, as well as establish variables that could affect mortality...
December 2, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915421/the-frequency-and-treatment-of-pneumothorax-associated-with-pulmonary-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-infection
#14
Masaki Ikeda, Koji Takahashi, Teruya Komatsu, Toru Tanaka, Tatsuo Kato, Takuji Fujinaga
OBJECTIVES: Characteristics of pneumothorax associated with nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) infection are rarely reported, especially in terms of surgical treatments. Our objectives were to show the tendency and clinical courses of pneumothorax due to NTM and discuss the way of therapy in our hospital. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 557 patients with NTM infection over a period of 5 years at the Nagara Medical Center. RESULTS: A total of 12 out of the 557 patients (2...
December 3, 2016: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913762/aspen-felanpe-clinical-guidelines-nutrition-support-of-adult-patients-with-enterocutaneous-fistula
#15
Vanessa J Kumpf, Jose Eduardo de Aguilar-Nascimento, Jose Ignacio Diaz-Pizarro Graf, Amber M Hall, Liam McKeever, Ezra Steiger, Marion F Winkler, Charlene W Compher
BACKGROUND: The management of patients with enterocutaneous fistula (ECF) requires an interdisciplinary approach and poses a significant challenge to physicians, wound/stoma care specialists, dietitians, pharmacists, and other nutrition clinicians. Guidelines for optimizing nutrition status in these patients are often vague, based on limited and dated clinical studies, and typically rely on individual institutional or clinician experience. Specific nutrient requirements, appropriate route of feeding, role of immune-enhancing formulas, and use of somatostatin analogues in the management of patients with ECF are not well defined...
December 2, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911464/two-successful-insertions-of-peripherally-inserted-central-catheter-in-a-super-elderly-patient-with-bilateral-pacemaker-placement
#16
Wenyan Sun, Yufen Ma, Bing Liu, Ruibing Ge, Kai Wang, Qi Song
Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) have been placed through the peripheral veins, and the best location for the tip of the PICCs is the lower third of the superior vena cava (SVC) and cavo-atrial junction. PICCs are commonly used in intravenous administration, parenteral nutrition therapy, chemotherapy, as well as in critical care units. The success rates in venipuncture are enhanced when ultrasonographic guides are used by the bedside PICC teams. There have been few reports of PICCs placed in super elderly patients with permanent cardiac pacemakers...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910746/nutrition-and-diabetes-mellitus-how-are-they-interlinked
#17
Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has risen exponentially, and the number of incidences increases every day. The purpose of this article is to summarize the experimental evidence supporting the important association between nutrition and diet-based therapy for the control and management of T2DM. Evidence from several in vitro, in vivo, and human studies broadly found that nutrition-based therapy enriched with several important phytochemical constituents modulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and it ameliorates glucolipotoxicity and insulin resistance...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909225/recovery-of-the-immune-system-after-exercise
#18
Jonathan M Peake, Oliver Neubauer, Neil P Walsh, Richard J Simpson
The notion that prolonged, intense exercise causes an 'open window' of immunodepression during recovery after exercise is well accepted. Repeated exercise bouts or intensified training without sufficient recovery may increase the risk of illness. However, except for salivary IgA, clear and consistent markers of this immunodepression remain elusive. Exercise increases circulating neutrophil and monocyte counts, and reduces circulating lymphocyte count during recovery. This lymphopenia results from preferential egress of lymphocyte subtypes with potent effector functions (e...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909096/excitatory-hindbrain-forebrain-communication-is-required-for-cisplatin-induced-anorexia-and-weight-loss
#19
Amber L Alhadeff, Ruby A Holland, Huiyuan Zheng, Linda Rinaman, Harvey J Grill, Bart C De Jonghe
: Cisplatin chemotherapy is commonly used to treat cancer despite severe energy balance side effects. In rats, cisplatin activates nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) projections to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN), and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) projections from the lPBN to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We previously demonstrated that CeA glutamate receptor signaling mediates cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss. Here, we use neuroanatomical tracing, immunofluorescence and confocal imaging to demonstrate that virtually all NTS→lPBN and lPBN→CeA CGRP projections co-express vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), providing evidence that excitatory projections mediate cisplatin-induced energy balance dysregulation...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908485/managing-fluid-and-electrolyte-disorders-in-kidney-disease
#20
REVIEW
Cathy Langston
Because of the role of the kidneys in maintaining homeostasis in the body, kidney disease leads to derangements of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance. The most effective therapy of a uremic crisis is careful management of fluid balance, which involves thoughtful assessment of hydration, a fluid treatment plan personalized for the specific patient, and repeated and frequent reassessment of fluid and electrolyte balance. Disorders of sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, and phosphorus are commonly encountered in kidney disease and some may be life-threatening...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
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