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Yuhai Bi, Quanjiao Chen, Qianli Wang, Jianjun Chen, Tao Jin, Gary Wong, Chuansong Quan, Jun Liu, Jun Wu, Renfu Yin, Lihua Zhao, Mingxin Li, Zhuang Ding, Rongrong Zou, Wen Xu, Hong Li, Huijun Wang, Kegong Tian, Guanghua Fu, Yu Huang, Alexander Shestopalov, Shoujun Li, Bing Xu, Hongjie Yu, Tingrong Luo, Lin Lu, Xun Xu, Yang Luo, Yingxia Liu, Weifeng Shi, Di Liu, George Fu Gao
Constant surveillance of live poultry markets (LPMs) is currently the best way to predict and identify emerging avian influenza viruses (AIVs) that pose a potential threat to public health. Through surveillance of LPMs from 16 provinces and municipalities in China during 2014-2016, we identified 3,174 AIV-positive samples and isolated and sequenced 1,135 AIVs covering 31 subtypes. Our analysis shows that H5N6 has replaced H5N1 as one of the dominant AIV subtypes in southern China, especially in ducks. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that H5N6 arose from reassortments of H5 and H6N6 viruses, with the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase combinations being strongly lineage specific...
November 25, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
Wenshuai Wang, Xiaoyu Sun, Yanbing Li, Jinpeng Su, Zhiyang Ling, Tianlong Zhang, Fang Wang, Hong Zhang, Hualan Chen, Jianping Ding, Bing Sun
As influenza A viruses remain a major threat to human health worldwide, the discovery of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that recognize conserved epitopes would facilitate the development of antibody-based therapeutic strategies. Here we report that a VH4-4-encoded human mAb named 3E1 could neutralize H1 and H5 subtype viruses in vitro and protect mice against the H1N1 and H5N6 viruses by inhibiting the low pH-induced conformational rearrangement of haemagglutinin (HA), hence blocking membrane fusion...
December 2, 2016: Nature Communications
Teng Zhao, Yan-Hua Qian, Shan-Hui Chen, Guo-Lin Wang, Meng-Na Wu, Yong Huang, Guang-Yuan Ma, Li-Qun Fang, Gregory C Gray, Bing Lu, Yi-Gang Tong, Mai-Juan Ma, Wu-Chun Cao
In 2014, a sentinel chicken surveillance for avian influenza viruses was conducted in aquatic bird habitat near Wuxi City, Jiangsu Province, China. Two H7N2, one H5N6, and two H9N2 viruses were isolated. Sequence analysis revealed that the H7N2 virus is a novel reassortant of H7N9 and H9N2 viruses and H5N6 virus is a reassortant of H5N1 clade 2.3.4 and H6N6 viruses. Substitutions V186 and L226 (H3 numbering) in the hemagglutinin (HA) gene protein was found in two H7N2 viruses but not in the H5N6 virus. Two A138 and A160 mutations were identified in the HA gene protein of all three viruses but a P128 mutation was only observed in the H5N6 virus...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hongbo Guo, Erik de Vries, Ryan McBride, Jojanneke Dekkers, Kim M Bouwman, Corwin Nycholat, M Helene Verheije, James C Paulson, Frank J M van Kuppeveld, Cornelis A M de Haan
Emergence and intercontinental spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5Nx) virus clade is unprecedented. H5N8 and H5N2 viruses have caused major economic losses in the poultry industry in Europe and North America, and lethal human infections with H5N6 virus have occurred in Asia. Knowledge of the evolution of receptor-binding specificity of these viruses, which might affect host range, is urgently needed. We report that emergence of these viruses is accompanied by a change in receptor-binding specificity...
February 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jin Tian, Xiaoliang Hu, Dafei Liu, Hongxia Wu, Liandong Qu
Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides (IOPs) are a potential drug for the prevention and treatment of cancer, cardiopathy, diabetes, AIDs, pancreatitis and other diseases. In this study, we found that IOP can act as a broad-spectrum antiviral drug against feline viruses in the in vitro experiment. Using cell models of feline calicivirus (FCV), we demonstrated that IOP treatment was capable of exhibiting anti-FCV strain F9 activity in cell-based assays and also showed low cytotoxicity. Investigation of the mechanism of action of the compound revealed that IOP treatment induces its inhibitory actions directly on virus particles through blocking viral binding/absorpting...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Zhijie Zhang, Rui Li, Lufang Jiang, Chenglong Xiong, Yue Chen, Genming Zhao, Qingwu Jiang
BACKGROUND: Novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) of H7N9, H10N8, and H5N6 are currently circulating in China's poultry flocks, occasionally infecting human and other mammals. Human infected AIV H5N6 in China during 2014-2015 is believed to be a triple reassortant originated from H6N6 and two clades of H5 viruses. The current report suggests that its reassortment history is more complicated. METHODS: Genomes of human infected isolates of AIV H5N6 were searched from the NCBI Influenza Virus Sequence Database and the Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data...
October 25, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jeffrey Butler, Cameron R Stewart, Daniel S Layton, Phouvong Phommachanh, Jennifer Harper, Jean Payne, Ryan M Evans, Stacey Valdeter, Som Walker, Gemma Harvey, Songhua Shan, Matthew P Bruce, Christina L Rootes, Tamara J Gough, Andreas Rohringer, Grantley R Peck, Sarah J Fardy, Adam J Karpala, Dayna Johnson, Jianning Wang, Bounlom Douangngeun, Christopher Morrissy, Frank Y K Wong, Andrew G D Bean, John Bingham, David T Williams
Avian influenza viruses of H5 subtype can cause highly pathogenic disease in poultry. In March 2014, a new reassortant H5N6 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza virus emerged in Lao People's Democratic Republic. We have assessed the pathogenicity, pathobiology and immunological responses associated with this virus in chickens. Infection caused moderate to advanced disease in 6 of 6 chickens within 48 h of mucosal inoculation. High virus titers were observed in blood and tissues (kidney, spleen, liver, duodenum, heart, brain and lung) taken at euthanasia...
2016: PloS One
Jie Zhou, Jie Wu, Xianqiao Zeng, Guofeng Huang, Lirong Zou, Yingchao Song, Divya Gopinath, Xin Zhang, Min Kang, Jinyan Lin, Benjamin J Cowling, William G Lindsley, Changwen Ke, Joseph Sriyal Malik Peiris, Hui-Ling Yen
Zoonotic infections by avian influenza viruses occur at the human-poultry interface, but the modes of transmission have not been fully investigated. We assessed the potential for airborne and fomite transmission at live poultry markets in Guangzhou city and in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), China, during 2014 and 2015. Viral genome and infectious avian influenza A viruses of H5N6, H7N9, and H9N2 subtypes were detected predominantly from particles larger or equal to 1 μm in diameter in the air sampled with cyclone-based bioaerosol samplers at the live poultry markets in Guangzhou...
September 1, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Duc-Huy Chu, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Keita Matsuno, Takahiro Hiono, Kohei Ogasawara, Lam Thanh Nguyen, Long Van Nguyen, Tien Ngoc Nguyen, Thuy Thu Nguyen, Dong Van Pham, Dang Hoang Nguyen, Tho Dang Nguyen, Thanh Long To, Hung Van Nguyen, Hiroshi Kida, Yoshihiro Sakoda
A total of 3,045 environmental samples and oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs from apparently healthy poultry have been collected at three live bird markets (LBMs) at which practices were applied to reduce avian influenza (AI) virus transmission (intervention LBMs) and six conventional LBMs (non-intervention LBMs) in Thua Thien Hue province in 2014 to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention LBMs. The 178 AI viruses, including H3 (19 viruses), H4 (2), H5 (8), H6 (30), H9 (114), and H11 (5), were isolated from domestic ducks, muscovy ducks, chickens, and the environment...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Shisong Fang, Tian Bai, Lei Yang, Xin Wang, Bo Peng, Hui Liu, Yijie Geng, Renli Zhang, Hanwu Ma, Wenfei Zhu, Dayan Wang, Jinquan Cheng, Yuelong Shu
Sporadic human infections with the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H5N6) virus have been reported in different provinces in China since April 2014. From June 2015 to January 2016, routine live poultry market (LPM) surveillance was conducted in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province. H5N6 viruses were not detected until November 2015. The H5N6 virus-positive rate increased markedly beginning in December 2015, and viruses were detected in LPMs in all districts of the city. Coincidently, two human cases with histories of poultry exposure developed symptoms and were diagnosed as H5N6-positive in Shenzhen during late December 2015 and early January 2016...
August 3, 2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Yuhai Bi, Haizhou Liu, Chaochao Xiong, Di Liu, Weifeng Shi, Mingxin Li, Siling Liu, Jing Chen, Guang Chen, Yong Li, Guoxiang Yang, Yongsong Lei, Yanping Xiong, Fumin Lei, Hanzhong Wang, Quanjiao Chen, Jianjun Chen, George F Gao
In May 2014, China formally confirmed the first human infection with the novel H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) in Sichuan Province. Before the first human case was reported, surveillance of AIVs in wild birds resulted in the detection of three H5N6 viruses in faecal samples from migratory waterfowl in Chenhu wetlands, Hubei Province, China. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that these three novel viruses were closely related to the H5N6 virus that has caused human infections in China since 2014. A Bayesian phylogenetic reconstruction of all eight segments suggests multiple reassortment events in the evolution of these viruses...
2016: Scientific Reports
Udayan Joseph, Yvonne C F Su, Dhanasekaran Vijaykrishna, Gavin J D Smith
Since 2013, there have been several alarming influenza-related events; the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses into North America, the detection of H10N8 and H5N6 zoonotic infections, the ongoing H7N9 infections in China and the continued zoonosis of H5N1 viruses in parts of Asia and the Middle East. The risk of a new influenza pandemic increases with the repeated interspecies transmission events that facilitate reassortment between animal influenza strains; thus, it is of utmost importance to understand the factors involved that promote or become a barrier to cross-species transmission of Influenza A viruses (IAVs)...
July 18, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
Kuibiao Li, Hui Liu, Zhicong Yang, Tiegang Li, Biao Di, Zongqiu Chen, Jianyun Lu, Guangyan Chen, Ping Zhao, Lei Yang, Wenzhe Su, Xincai Xiao, Lei Luo, Weiqiang Li, Chuangming Lin, Gongli Li, Xiaoqing Mei, Xiaoping Tang, Ming Wang, Bojian Zheng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Duong Mai Thuy, Thomas P Peacock, Vu Thi Ngoc Bich, Thomas Fabrizio, Dang Nguyen Hoang, Nguyen Dang Tho, Nguyen Thi Diep, Minh Nguyen, Le Nguyen Minh Hoa, Hau Thi Thu Trang, Marc Choisy, Ken Inui, Scott Newman, Nguyen Vu Trung, Rogier van Doorn, Thanh Long To, Munir Iqbal, Juliet E Bryant
Despite their classification as low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV), A/H9N2 viruses cause significant losses in poultry in many countries throughout Asia, the Middle East and North Africa. To date, poultry surveillance in Vietnam has focused on detection of influenza H5 viruses, and there is limited understanding of influenza H9 epidemiology and transmission dynamics. We determined prevalence and diversity of influenza A viruses in chickens from live bird markets (LBM) of 7 northern Vietnamese provinces, using pooled oropharyngeal swabs collected from October to December 2014...
October 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Xianying Zeng, Pucheng Chen, Liling Liu, Guohua Deng, Yanbing Li, Jianzhong Shi, Huihui Kong, Huapeng Feng, Jie Bai, Xin Li, Wenjun Shi, Guobin Tian, Hualan Chen
The Goose/Guangdong-lineage H5 viruses have evolved into diverse clades and subclades based on their hemagglutinin (HA) gene during their circulation in wild birds and poultry. Since late 2013, the clade viruses have become widespread in poultry and wild bird populations around the world. Different subtypes of the clade H5 viruses, including H5N1, H5N2, H5N6, and H5N8, have caused vast disease outbreaks in poultry in Asia, Europe, and North America. In this study, we developed a new H5N1 inactivated vaccine by using a seed virus (designated as Re-8) that contains the HA and NA genes from a clade 2...
May 2016: Avian Diseases
Peirong Jiao, Jin Cui, Yafen Song, Hui Song, Zhishan Zhao, Siyu Wu, Nannan Qu, Nianchen Wang, Guowen Ouyang, Ming Liao
New reassortant H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were isolated from apparently healthy domestic ducks in Southern China in 2014. Our results show that the viruses grew efficiently in eggs and replicated systemically in chickens. They were completely lethal in chicken (100% mortality), and the mean death time was 6 to 7 days post-inoculation. The viruses could transmit in chickens by naïve contact. BLAST analysis revealed that their HA gene was most closely related to A/wild duck/Shangdong/628/2011 (H5N1), and their NA genes were most closely related to A/swine/Guangdong/K6/2010 (H6N6)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shelan Liu, Jianping Sha, Zhao Yu, Yan Hu, Ta-Chien Chan, Xiaoxiao Wang, Hao Pan, Wei Cheng, Shenghua Mao, Run Ju Zhang, Enfu Chen
The unprecedented epizootic of avian influenza viruses, such as H5N1, H5N6, H7N1 and H10N8, has continued to cause disease in humans in recent years. In 2013, another novel influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China, and 30% of those patients died. Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to avian influenza and are more likely to develop severe complications and to die, especially when infection occurs in the middle and late trimesters. Viremia is believed to occur infrequently, and thus vertical transmission induced by avian influenza appears to be rare...
July 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
Mai-Juan Ma, Shan-Hui Chen, Guo-Lin Wang, Teng Zhao, Yan-Hua Qian, Meng-Na Wu, Ying Liu, Gregory C Gray, Bing Lu, Wu-Chun Cao
During 12 recent months of periodic influenza virus surveillance at 9 live poultry markets in Wuxi City China, we identified multiple highly pathogenic H5N6, H5N8, H5N2, and H5N1 avian influenza viruses. The variety of potentially pandemic viruses in this low-risk area is disconcerting and portends an increased pandemic threat.
March 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Huanhuan Ren, Guiqin Wang, Shuangshuang Wang, Honglin Chen, Zhiwei Chen, Hongxing Hu, Genhong Cheng, Paul Zhou
Newly emerging highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2, H5N3, H5N5, H5N6, H5N8 and H5N9 viruses have been spreading in poultry and wild birds. The H5N6 viruses have also caused 10 human infections with 4 fatal cases in China. Here, we assessed the cross-neutralization and cross-protection of human and mouse monoclonal antibodies against 2 viruses: a HPAI H5N8 virus, A/chicken/Netherlands/14015526/2014 (NE14) and a HPAI H5N6 virus, A/Sichuan/26221/2014 (SC14). The former was isolated from an infected chicken in Netherlands in 2014 and the latter was isolated from an infected human patient in Sichuan, China...
August 2016: MAbs
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