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Hyeok-Il Kwon, Eun-Ha Kim, Young-Il Kim, Su-Jin Park, Young-Jae Si, In-Won Lee, Hiep Dinh Nguyen, Kwang Min Yu, Min-Ah Yu, Ju Hwan Jung, Won-Suk Choi, Jin Jung Kwon, Su Jeong Ahn, Yun Hee Baek, Dam Van Lai, Ok-Jun Lee, Si-Wook Kim, Min-Suk Song, Sun-Woo Yoon, Chul-Joong Kim, Richard J Webby, In-Pil Mo, Young Ki Choi
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N6) and A(H5N8) virus infections resulted in the culling of more than 37 million poultry in the Republic of Korea during the 2016/17 winter season. Here we characterize two representative viruses, A/Environment/Korea/W541/2016 [Em/W541(H5N6)] and A/Common Teal/Korea/W555/2017 [CT/W555(H5N8)], and evaluate their zoonotic potential in various animal models. Both Em/W541(H5N6) and CT /W555(H5N8) are novel reassortants derived from various gene pools of wild bird viruses present in migratory waterfowl arising from eastern China...
March 14, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Haixin Ai, Xuewei Wu, Mengyuan Qi, Li Zhang, Huan Hu, Qi Zhao, Jian Zhao, Hongsheng Liu
In recent years, new strains of influenza virus such as H7N9, H10N8, H5N6 and H5N8 had continued to emerge. There was an urgent need for discovery of new anti-influenza virus drugs as well as accurate and efficient large-scale inhibitor screening methods. In this study, we focused on six influenza virus proteins that could be anti-influenza drug targets, including neuraminidase (NA), hemagglutinin (HA), matrix protein 1 (M1), M2 proton channel (M2), nucleoprotein (NP) and non-structural protein 1 (NS1). Structure-based molecular docking was utilized to identify potential inhibitors for these drug targets from 13144 compounds in the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform...
March 2, 2018: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
Young-Il Kim, Young-Jae Si, Hyeok-Il Kwon, Eun-Ha Kim, Su-Jin Park, Norbert John Robles, Hiep Dinh Nguyen, Min-Ah Yu, Kwang-Min Yu, Youn-Jeong Lee, Myoung-Heon Lee, Young Ki Choi
We investigated influenza A(H5N6) viruses from migratory birds in Chungnam and Gyeonggi Provinces, South Korea following a reported die-off of poultry in nearby provinces in November 2017. Genetic analysis and virulence studies in chickens and ducks identified our isolate from December 2017 as a novel highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. It resulted from reassortment between the highly virulent H5N8 strain from Korea with the N6 gene from a low-pathogenic H3N6 virus from the Netherlands.
February 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Kaijian Luo, Kai Zhang, Lu Liu, Xuejuan Shen, Peirong Jiao, Yafen Song, Jiamin Lv, Mei Wang, Yongfa Liu, Wenbao Qi, Tao Ren, David M Irwin, Ming Liao, Yongyi Shen
The H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have circulated within poultry in China since 2013. Infections of H5N6 in wild birds were reported since 2014. In order to investigate the infection history of H5N6 in wild birds, we conducted a retrospective analysis of H5 positive wild bird samples collected in 2013, the year H5N6 was discovered in poultry. We isolated a new HPAI H5N6 virus from a dead heron collected in 2013. The virus had high identity in all eight gene sequences to those collected from poultry in 2013 (for example, A/chicken/Shenzhen/1845/2013, 99...
January 30, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Han Ju, Jian Zhang, Zhuosen Sun, Zheng Huang, Wenbao Qi, Bing Huang, Peng Zhan, Xinyong Liu
Inspired by our initial discovery about a series of neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors targeting the 150-cavity, in present study, we designed, synthesized, and biologically tested a panel of novel oseltamivir derivatives with C-1 modification, targeting the 430-cavity, an additional binding site which widely and stably existed in both group-1 and group-2 NAs. Some of the synthesized compounds displayed robust anti-influenza potencies against H5N1 and H5N6 viruses. Among them, compound 8b exerted the greatest inhibition, with IC50 values of 0...
February 1, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Hien Dang Thanh, Van Trung Tran, Duc Tan Nguyen, Vu-Khac Hung, Wonyong Kim
Avian influenza A H5N6 virus is a highly contagious infectious agent that affects domestic poultry and humans in South Asian countries. Vietnam may be an evolutionary hotspot for influenza viruses and therefore could serve as a source of pandemic strains. In 2015, two novel reassortant H5N6 influenza viruses designated as A/quail/Vietnam/CVVI01/2015 and A/quail/Vietnam/CVVI03/2015 were isolated from dead quails during avian influenza outbreaks in central Vietnam, and the whole genome sequences were analyzed...
February 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Ryota Tsunekuni, Yuji Yaguchi, Yuki Kashima, Kaoru Yamashita, Nobuhiro Takemae, Junki Mine, Taichiro Tanikawa, Yuko Uchida, Takehiko Saito
From 29 November 2016 to 24 January 2017, sixty-three cases of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infections were detected in wild birds in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. Here, we analyzed the genetic, temporal, and geographic correlations of these 63 HPAIVs to elucidate their dissemination throughout the prefecture. Full-genome sequence analysis of the Ibaraki isolates showed that 7 segments (PB2, PB1, PA, HA, NP, NA, NS) were derived from G1.1.9 strains while the M segment was from G1.1 strains; both groups of strains circulated in south China...
February 1, 2018: Archives of Virology
Nancy Beerens, Guus Koch, Rene Heutink, Frank Harders, D P Edwin Vries, Cynthia Ho, Alex Bossers, Armin Elbers
A novel highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N6) virus affecting wild birds and commercial poultry was detected in the Netherlands in December 2017. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the virus is a reassortant of H5N8 clade viruses and not related to the Asian H5N6 viruses that caused human infections.
April 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Shaoxia Lu, Zongzheng Zhao, Jiajie Zhang, Weidong Wang, Xin He, Mengqi Yu, Chunmao Zhang, Xiang Li, Zhendong Guo, Xiaoyu Yang, Lina Liu, Min Zhi, Tian Fu, Xinru Lv, Wenge Ma, Mengying Liao, Hongliang Chai, Linna Liu, Jun Qian, Jianzhang Ma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Kaituo Liu, Min Gu, Shunlin Hu, Ruyi Gao, Juan Li, Liwei Shi, Wenqi Sun, Dong Liu, Zhao Gao, Xiulong Xu, Jiao Hu, Xiaoquan Wang, Xiaowen Liu, Sujuan Chen, Daxin Peng, Xinan Jiao, Xiufan Liu
During surveillance for avian influenza viruses, three H5N6 viruses were isolated in chickens obtained from live bird markets in eastern China, between January 2015 and April 2016. Sequence analysis revealed a high genomic homology between these poultry isolates and recent human H5N6 variants whose internal genes were derived from genotype S H9N2 avian influenza viruses. Glycan binding assays revealed that all avian H5N6 viruses were capable of binding to both human-type SAα-2,6Gal receptors and avian-type SAα-2,3Gal receptors...
January 6, 2018: Archives of Virology
Sander Herfst, Chris K P Mok, Judith M A van den Brand, Stefan van der Vliet, Miruna E Rosu, Monique I Spronken, Zifeng Yang, Dennis de Meulder, Pascal Lexmond, Theo M Bestebroer, J S Malik Peiris, Ron A M Fouchier, Mathilde Richard
Since their emergence in 1997, A/H5N1 influenza viruses of the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 lineage have diversified in multiple genetic and antigenic clades upon continued circulation in poultry in several countries in Eurasia and Africa. Since 2009, reassortant viruses carrying clade hemagglutinin (HA) and internal and neuraminidase (NA) genes of influenza A viruses of different avian origin have been detected, yielding various HA-NA combinations, such as A/H5N1, A/H5N2, A/H5N3, A/H5N5, A/H5N6, and A/H5N8...
January 2018: MSphere
Nahed Yehia, Mahmoud M Naguib, Ruiyun Li, Naglaa Hagag, Mohamed El-Husseiny, Zainab Mosaad, Ahmed Nour, Neveen Rabea, Wafaa M Hasan, Mohamed K Hassan, Timm Harder, Abdel-Satar A Arafa
Recently, an increased incidence of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 in poultry linked to infected migratory birds has been reported from different European, Asian and African countries. In Egypt, incursion of HPAI H5N8 virus of clade has been recently registered. Full genomic characterization of 3 virus isolates from wild birds and poultry (backyard and commercial farm sectors) showed high nucleotide similarity among the HA, NA, M, and NS gene segments of the three Egyptian HPAI H5N8 viruses, indicating that they are descendants of a common ancestral virus...
December 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Sukhyun Ryu, Jun-Sik Lim, Benjamin J Cowling, Byung Chul Chun
An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N6) virus occurred between November 20, 2016, and March 1, 2017 in poultry farms, in the Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea. To identify the risk of transmission of H5N6 to depopulation workers, active and passive surveillance was conducted. Virological testing of respiratory swabs with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed for workers who reported respiratory symptoms. Among 4633 depopulation workers, 22 reported respiratory symptoms, but all tested negative for H5N6...
December 13, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Marni E Cueno, Izuho Suzuki, Shiori Shimotomai, Takuma Yokoyama, Kai Nagahisa, Kenichi Imai
Avian influenza viruses easily spread allowing viral re-assortment to simply occur which in-turn increases the potential for a pandemic. A novel 2013 H5N6 influenza strain was detected among the avian population and was reported to continuously evolve, however, this was never structurally demonstrated. Here, we elucidated the putative structural evolution of the novel H5N6 influenza strain. Throughout this study, we analyzed 2013-2017 H5N6 HA protein models. Model quality was first verified before further analyses and structural comparison was made using superimposition...
January 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Hye Kwon Kim, Hee-Jong Kim, Ji Yeong Noh, Le Van Phan, Ji Hyung Kim, Daesub Song, Woonsung Na, Aram Kang, Thi Lan Nguyen, Jeong-Hwa Shin, Dae Gwin Jeong, Sun-Woo Yoon
In Korea, H5-subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has caused huge economic losses in poultry farms through outbreaks of H5N1 since 2003, H5N8 since 2013 and H5N6 since 2016. Although it was reported that long-distance migratory birds may play a major role in the global spread of avian influenza viruses (AIVs), transmission from such birds to poultry has not been confirmed. Intermediate hosts in the wild also may be a potential factor in viral transmission. Therefore, a total of 367 serum samples from wild animals were collected near major migratory bird habitats from 2011 to 2016 and tested by AIV-specific blocking ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test...
March 2018: Archives of Virology
Zongzheng Zhao, Zhendong Guo, Chunmao Zhang, Lina Liu, Ligong Chen, Cheng Zhang, Zhongyi Wang, Yingying Fu, Jianming Li, Huabin Shao, Qingping Luo, Jun Qian, Linna Liu
Since 2013, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6 viruses have emerged in poultry and caused sporadic infections in humans, increasing global concerns regarding their potential as human pandemic threats. Here, we characterized the receptor-binding specificities, pathogenicities and transmissibilities of three H5N6 viruses isolated from poultry in China. The surface genes hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) were closely related to the human-originating strain A/Changsha/1/2014 (H5N6). Phylogenetic analyses showed that the HA genes were clustered in the 2...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Bin Xiang, Jianpeng Liang, Renrong You, Lujie Han, Kun Mei, Libin Chen, Ruojing Chen, Yifan Zhang, Xu Dai, Pei Gao, Ming Liao, Chencheng Xiao, Tao Ren
Since the first outbreak of H5N6 reported in Laos at 2013, there has been a dramatic increase in H5N6 strains isolated from waterfowl in China, particularly Southern China. However, pathogenicity and transmissibility of the virus in different birds remain largely unknown. In this study, a novel H5N6 virus, termed QY01, that belonged to group C in was isolated from an apparently healthy domestic goose in Guangdong province, southern China in 2016. In order to simulate the natural transmission of different kinds of birds, we evaluated its pathogenicity and transmissibility in chickens, domestic geese and pigeons...
December 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
Yuko Sakai-Tagawa, Seiya Yamayoshi, Chiharu Kawakami, Mai Q Le, Yuko Uchida, Takehiko Saito, Chairul A Nidom, Ira Humaira, Kathy Toohey-Kurth, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Ming-Tsan Liu, Yuelong Shu, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Seasonal influenza virus routinely causes epidemic infections throughout the world. Sporadic infections by H5N1, H5N6, and H7N9 viruses are also reported. To treat patients suffering from such viral infections, broadly reactive and highly sensitive influenza rapid diagnostic tests (IRDTs) are required. Here, we examined the reactivity and sensitivity of 25 IRDTs available in Japan for the detection of seasonal H1N1pdm09, H3N2, and type B viruses, as well as highly pathogenic H5 and H7 viruses. All of the IRDTs tested detected the seasonal viruses and H5 and H7 viruses albeit with different sensitivities...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xiaoli Hao, Jiongjiong Wang, Jiao Hu, Xiaolong Lu, Zhao Gao, Dong Liu, Juan Li, Xiaoquan Wang, Min Gu, Zenglei Hu, Xiaowen Liu, Shunlin Hu, Xiulong Xu, Daxin Peng, Xinan Jiao, Xiufan Liu
H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) of genotype S frequently donate internal genes to facilitate the generation of novel reassortants such as H7N9, H10N8, H5N2 and H5N6 AIVs, posing an enormous threat to both human health and poultry industry. However, the pathogenicity and transmission of reassortant H5 viruses with internal gene cassette of genotype S H9N2-origin in chickens and mice remain unknown. In this study, four H5 reassortants carrying the HA and NA genes from different clades of H5 viruses and the remaining internal genes from an H9N2 virus of the predominant genotype S were generated by reverse genetics...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
A Shibata, T Hiono, H Fukuhara, R Sumiyoshi, A Ohkawara, K Matsuno, M Okamatsu, H Osaka, Y Sakoda
The transportation of poultry and related products for international trade contributes to transboundary pathogen spread and disease outbreaks worldwide. To prevent pathogen incursion through poultry products, many countries have regulations about animal health and poultry product quarantine. However, in Japan, animal products have been illegally introduced into the country in baggage and confiscated at the airport. Lately, the number of illegally imported poultry and the incursion risk of transboundary pathogens through poultry products have been increasing...
October 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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