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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647567/stearoyl-coa-desaturase-regulates-sorafenib-resistance-via-modulation-of-er-stress-induced-differentiation
#1
Mark Kin Fai Ma, Eunice Yuen Ting Lau, Doris Hoi Wing Leung, Jessica Lo, Nicole Pui Yu Ho, Lily Kwan Wai Cheng, Stephanie Ma, Chi Ho Lin, John A Copland, Jin Ding, Regina Cheuk Lam Lo, Irene Oi Lin Ng, Terence Kin Wah Lee
We investigated the functional role and clinical significance of Stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in regulation of liver tumor-initiating cells (T-ICs) and sorafenib resistance, aiming to develop a novel therapeutic strategy against hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) METHODS We evaluated the clinic-pathological relevance of SCD1 and its correlation with sorafenib resistance in large cohorts of HCC clinical samples by qPCR and immunohistochemical analyses. Lentiviral-based overexpression and knockdown approaches were performed to characterize functional roles of SCD1 in regulation of liver T-ICs and sorafenib resistance...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645725/cell-surface-n-glycan-alteration-in-hepad38-cell-lines-expressing-hepatitis-b-virus
#2
Surya Agung Priyambada, Ryo Misaki, Toru Okamoto, Yuta Okamoto, Takao Ohashi, Keiji Ueda, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Kazuhito Fujiyama
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the smallest partially double-stranded DNA virus known to infect humans. Worldwide, more than 50% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases are related to chronic Hepatitis B. Development of HCC from normal liver cells is characterized by changes in cell surface N-glycans, which can promote the invasive behavior of tumor cells, leading ultimately to the progression of cancer. However, little is understood about the cell surface N-glycans of HBV-infected liver cells. We try to address this by taking advantage of the HepAD38 cell line, which can replicate HBV in the absence of tetracycline [tet(-)] in growth medium...
June 20, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645512/the-rna-seq-analysis-suggests-a-potential-multi-component-complement-system-in-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#3
Lingling Wang, Huan Zhang, Leilei Wang, Daoxiang Zhang, Zhao Lv, Zhaoqun Liu, Weilin Wang, Zhi Zhou, Limei Qiu, Hao Wang, Jun Li, Linsheng Song
The complement system is one of the major effector mechanisms of immune system, playing essential roles in both the innate and adaptive immune responses. In the present study, the counterparts of vertebrate complement components were identified by screening the sequenced genome of Crassostrea gigas, resulting in the identification of 792 gene models containing complement-related domains. The transcriptome of haemocytes at 6, 12 and 24 h post lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulation showed differential expression of 77 C1q domain containing proteins, 53 C-type lectins and 42 fibrinogen-related proteins...
June 20, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641547/recent-advances-on-the-role-of-micrornas-in-both-insulin-resistance-and-cancer
#4
Adele Vivacqua, Paola De Marco, Antonino Belfiore, Marcello Maggiolini
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is a pathological condition characterized by the failure of target cells to uptake and metabolizes glucose in response to insulin. In particular, the elevated concentrations of glucose, insulin and free insulin growth factor-1, which result from insulin resistance, may generate a pro-inflammatory and pro-tumorigenic state. These alterations may underlie the increased risk to develop various types of cancer as well as the worse cancer prognosis observed in obese and diabetic patients...
June 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637023/cationic-liquid-crystalline-nanoparticles-for-the-delivery-of-synthetic-rnai-based-therapeutics
#5
Emanuela Gentile, Taro Oba, Jing Lin, Ruping Shao, Feng Meng, Xiaobo Cao, Heather Y Lin, Majidi Mourad, Apar Pataer, Veerabhadran Baladandayuthapani, Dong Cai, Jack A Roth, Lin Ji
RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapeutics have been used to silence the expression of targeted pathological genes. Small interfering RNA (siRNAs) and microRNA (miRNAs) inhibitor have performed this function. However, short half-life, poor cellular uptake, and nonspecific distribution of small RNAs call for the development of novel delivery systems to facilitate the use of RNAi. We developed a novel cationic liquid crystalline nanoparticle (CLCN) to efficiently deliver synthetic siRNAs and miRNAs. CLCNs were prepared by using high-speed homogenization and assembled with synthetic siRNA or miRNA molecules in nuclease-free water to create CLCN/siRNA or miRNA complexes...
June 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630667/evaluation-of-radical-scavenging-system-in-amoeba-chaos-carolinense-during-nutrient-deprivation
#6
Yuru Deng, Edlyn Li-Hui Lee, Ketpin Chong, Zakaria A Almsherqi
The frequent appearance of non-lamellar membrane arrangements such as cubic membranes (CMs) in cells under stressed or pathological conditions points to an intrinsic cellular response mechanism. CM represents highly curved, three-dimensional nano-periodic structures that correspond to mathematically well-defined triply periodic minimal surfaces. Specifically, cellular membrane may transform into CM organization in response to pathological, inflammatory and oxidative stress conditions. CM organization, thus, may provide an advantage to cope with various types of stress...
August 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628858/unravelling-the-structural-interactions-between-pkr-kinase-domain-and-its-small-molecule-inhibitors-using-computational-approaches
#7
Sagar Barage, Abhijeet Kulkarni, Jayanta K Pal, Manali Joshi
The RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), an eIF2α kinase plays an important role in anti-viral response, apoptosis and cell survival. It is also implicated to play a role in several cancers, metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders. A few ATP competitive inhibitors of the PKR have been reported in the literature with promising results in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to unravel the structural interactions between these inhibitors and the PKR kinase domain using molecular simulations and docking...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627653/mir-543-functions-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-glioma-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#8
Liang Xu, Ju Yu, Zhongyong Wang, Qing Zhu, Wenjie Wang, Qing Lan
Gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system tumors and account for approximately 80% of malignant brain tumors. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding, regulatory RNA molecules that mediate the expression levels of specific proteins. As a member of the miRNA family, miR-543 plays a tumor suppressive or an oncogenic role in different types of tumors. However, the expression and role of miR-543 in glioma remain unknown. In the present study, the expression level of miR-543 in glioma cell lines and tissues was investigated...
June 12, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624461/emetine-inhibits-replication-of-rna-and-dna-viruses-without-generating-drug-resistant-virus-variants
#9
Nitin Khandelwal, Yogesh Chander, Thachamvally Riyesh, Krishan Dutt Rawat, Pratibha Saini, Chikkahonnaiah Nishanth, Shalini Sharma, Naresh Jindal, Bhupendra N Tripathi, Sanjay Barua, Naveen Kumar
At a noncytotoxic concentration, emetine was found to inhibit replication of DNA viruses [buffalopoxvirus (BPXV) and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1)] as well as RNA viruses [peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV)]. Using the time-of-addition and virus step-specific assays, we showed that emetine treatment resulted in reduced synthesis of viral RNA (PPRV and NDV) and DNA (BPXV and BHV-1) as well as inhibiting viral entry (NDV and BHV-1). In addition, emetine treatment also resulted in decreased synthesis of viral proteins...
June 14, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622037/inhibition-of-the-akt-mtor-pathway-augments-the-anticancer-effects-of-sorafenib-in-thyroid-cancer
#10
Heqing Yi, Xuemei Ye, Bin Long, Ting Ye, Lijun Zhang, Fengqin Yan, Yang Yang, Linfa Li
BACKGROUND: Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor that has been approved for the treatment of patients with advanced (131)iodine ((131)I) refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). However, the progression-free survival of patients with advanced (131)I refractory DTC is short, and most DTC patients eventually acquire resistance to sorafenib. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies need to be developed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The thyroid cancer cell lines 8505C and FTC133 were treated with sorafenib in the presence or absence of BEZ235 or small interfering RNA (siRNA) directed against AKT...
June 2017: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618933/high-expression-of-long-non-coding-rna-zeb1-as1-promotes-colorectal-cancer-cell-proliferation-partially-by-suppressing-p15-expression
#11
Huangbo Gong, Hao Wen, Xuhui Zhu, Yifan Lian, Xiaojun Yang, Zhuyin Qian, Jin Zhu
This study aims to investigate the function of long non-coding RNA ZEB1-AS1, reveal its molecular mechanism in colorectal cancer cell growth, and evaluate its clinical significance in colorectal cancer patients. ZEB1-AS1 has reported in the development of several cancers, but the biological role of it in colorectal cancer has not been discussed. In this report, ZEB1-AS1 expression level was measured with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in 63 pairs of colorectal cancer tissues and paired adjacent non-tumor colorectal tissues...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610761/comparative-proteomic-analysis-provides-insight-into-the-biological-role-of-protein-phosphatase-inhibitor-2-from-arabidopsis
#12
Nagib Ahsan, Mingjie Chen, Fernanda Salvato, Rashaun S Wilson, R Shyama Prasad Rao, Jay J Thelen
Protein phosphatase inhibitor-2 (PPI-2) is a conserved eukaryotic effector protein that inhibits type one protein phosphatases (TOPP). A transfer-DNA knockdown of AtPPI-2 resulted in stunted growth in both vegetative and reproductive phases of Arabidopsis development. At the cellular level, AtPPI-2 knockdown had 35 to 40% smaller cells in developing roots and leaves. This developmental phenotype was rescued by transgenic expression of the AtPPI-2 cDNA behind a constitutive promoter. Comparative proteomics of developing leaves of wild type (WT) and AtPPI-2 mutant revealed reduced levels of proteins associated with chloroplast development, ribosome biogenesis, transport, and cell cycle regulation processes...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610652/novel-insights-into-the-role-of-cell-free-seminal-mrnas-on-semen-quality-and-cryotolerance-of-spermatozoa-in-bulls-bos-taurus
#13
Munivenkatappa Shilpa, Sellappan Selvaraju, Venkataswamy GirishKumar, Sivashanmugam Parthipan, Krishnan B Binsila, Arunachalam Arangasamy, Janivara Parameshwaraiah Ravindra
The aim of the present study was to ascertain the effectiveness of seminal plasma mRNAs as markers to assess the reproductive performance of bulls. Semen samples (33 ejaculates) from 11 bulls were evaluated for sperm kinematic and functional parameters. Total RNA was isolated from cell-free seminal (cfs) using TRIzol LS reagent and the concentration of cfs-RNA was 24.4±2.3µgmL-1 seminal plasma. The cfs-RNA was fragmented to a size of 25-500bp. Of the cfs-mRNAs screened using real time PCR, expression of protamine 1 (PRM1) was positively (P<0...
June 14, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609403/early-antiretroviral-therapy-reduces-hiv-dna-following-perinatal-hiv-infection
#14
Caroline Foster, Matthew Pace, Steve Kaye, Emily Hopkins, Mathew Jones, Nicola Robinson, Sarah Fidler, John Frater
: The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the size of the HIV reservoir has implications for virological remission in adults, but is not well characterised in perinatally acquired infection (PaHIV). In a prospective observational study of 20 children with PaHIV and sustained viral suppression on ART for >5 years, proviral DNA was significantly higher in deferred (>4 years) versus early (first year of life) ART recipients (p = 0.0062), and correlated with age of initiation (p = 0.13; r = 0...
June 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608334/in-vitro-analysis-of-argonaute-mediated-target-cleavage-and-translational-repression-in-plants
#15
Yukihide Tomari, Hiro-Oki Iwakawa
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs, which negatively regulate expression of complementary target genes at the post-transcriptional level. In plants, miRNAs are mainly loaded onto ARGONAUTE1 to form RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs), which mediate target mRNA cleavage as well as translational repression. The cell-free system derived from tobacco BY-2 protoplasts has become a powerful tool not only for the analysis of RISC assembly mechanism but also for mechanistic dissection of plant RISC functions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605041/calcium-binding-protein-39-promotes-hepatocellular-carcinoma-growth-and-metastasis-by-activating-erk-signaling-pathway
#16
Lingxi Jiang, Qian Yan, Shuo Fang, Ming Liu, Li Yan, Yun-Fei Yuan, Yan Li, Yinghui Zhu, Jiali Qi, Xiaodong Yang, Dora Lai Wan Kwong, Xin-Yuan Guan
Calcium binding protein (CAB39) is a key regulator of a group of STE20 kinases. Here we report that CAB39 was frequently up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which was significantly associated with tumor metastasis (P=0.000), poorer disease-free survival rate (P=0.027) and poor prognosis (P=0.000). Ectopic expression of CAB39 in immortalized human liver cell line LO2 and HCC cell lines QGY-7703 and BEL-7402 could increase foci formation, colony formation in soft agar, tumor formation in nude mice and cell motility...
June 12, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603040/a-real-time-control-system-of-gene-expression-using-ligand-bound-nucleic-acid-aptamer-for-metabolic-engineering
#17
Jing Wang, Xun Cui, Le Yang, Zhe Zhang, Liping Lv, Haoyuan Wang, Zhenmin Zhao, Ningzi Guan, Lichun Dong, Rachel Chen
Artificial control of bio-functions through regulating gene expression is one of the most important and attractive technologies to build novel living systems that are useful in the areas of chemical synthesis, nanotechnology, pharmacology, cell biology. Here, we present a novel real-time control system of gene regulation that includes an enhancement element by introducing duplex DNA aptamers upstream promoter and a repression element by introducing a RNA aptamer upstream ribosome binding site. With the presence of ligands corresponding to the DNA aptamers, the expression of the target gene can be potentially enhanced at the transcriptional level by strengthening the recognition capability of RNAP to the recognition region and speeding up the separation efficiency of the unwinding region due to the induced DNA bubble around the thrombin-bound aptamers; while with the presence of RNA aptamer ligand, the gene expression can be repressed at the translational level by weakening the recognition capability of ribosome to RBS due to the shielding of RBS by the formed aptamer-ligand complex upstream RBS...
June 8, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600979/circulating-microvesicle-number-function-and-small-rna-content-vary-with-age-gender-smoking-status-lipid-and-hormone-profiles
#18
Anoop K Enjeti, Anita Ariyarajah, Angel D'Crus, Michael Seldon, Lisa F Lincz
BACKGROUND: Characterization of circulating microvesicles (MV) in healthy subjects in relation to various biological factors is not well studied. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the influence of age, gender, smoking status, lipid and hormone profiles on circulating MV in healthy subjects. METHODS: Platelet free plasma from 143 volunteer blood donors (males=80, females=63) was evaluated by standardized flow cytometry for MV expressing CD41 (platelet-derived), CD105 (endothelial-derived), CD235 (red cell-derived), TF (tissue factor) and phosphatidylserine (PS) MV...
April 20, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600503/transcriptome-sequencing-identifies-anln-as-a-promising-prognostic-biomarker-in-bladder-urothelial-carcinoma
#19
Shuxiong Zeng, Xiaowen Yu, Chong Ma, Ruixiang Song, Zhensheng Zhang, Xiaoyuan Zi, Xin Chen, Yang Wang, Yongwei Yu, Junjie Zhao, Rongchao Wei, Yinghao Sun, Chuanliang Xu
The prognosis of bladder urothelial carcinoma (BLCA) varies greatly even for patients with similar pathological characteristics. We conducted transcriptome sequencing on ten pairs of BLCA samples and adjacent normal tissues to identify differentially expressed genes. Anillin (ANLN) was identified as a transcript that was significantly up-regulated in BLCA samples compared with normal tissues. Prognostic power of candidate gene was studied using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry on 40 and 209 patients, respectively...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599472/nucleus-accumbens-1-gadd45gip1-axis-mediates-cisplatin-resistance-through-cellular-senescence-in-ovarian-cancer
#20
Kentaro Nakayama, Munmun Rahman, Mohammed Tanjimur Rahman, Kohei Nakamura, Emi Sato, Hiroshi Katagiri, Tomoka Ishibashi, Masako Ishikawa, Kouji Iida, Sultana Razia, Noriyuki Ishikawa, Satoru Kyo
Nucleus accumbens-1 (NAC1), a nuclear factor belonging to the bric-a-brac-tramtrack-broad complex/pox virus and zinc finger gene family, is known to serve important roles in the proliferation and growth of tumor cells, and in chemotherapy resistance. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms through which NAC1 contributes to drug resistance remain unclear. In the present study, the role of NAC1 in drug resistance in ovarian cancer was investigated. NAC1 expression was markedly negatively associated with growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible 45γ-interacting protein 1 (GADD45GIP1) expression in ovarian cancer...
June 2017: Oncology Letters
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