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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325843/a-biochemical-framework-for-eif4e-dependent-mrna-export-and-nuclear-re-cycling-of-the-export-machinery
#1
Laurent Volpon, Biljana Culjkovic-Kraljacic, Hye Seon Sohn, Alexis Blanchett-Cohen, Michael J Osborne, Katherine L B Borden
The eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E acts in the nuclear export and translation of a subset of mRNAs. Both of these functions contribute to its oncogenic potential. While the biochemical mechanisms that underlie translation are relatively well understood, the molecular basis for eIF4E's role in mRNA export remains largely unexplored. To date over 3000 transcripts, many encoding oncoproteins, were identified as potential nuclear eIF4E export targets. These target RNAs typically contain a ~50 nucleotide eIF4E sensitivity element (4ESE) in the 3' UTR and a 7-methylguanosine cap on the 5' end...
March 21, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323041/quantitative-analyses-of-the-3d-nuclear-landscape-recorded-with-super-resolved-fluorescence-microscopy
#2
Volker J Schmid, Marion Cremer, Thomas Cremer
Recent advancements of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy have revolutionized microscopic studies of cells, including the exceedingly complex structural organization of cell nuclei in space and time. In this paper we describe and discuss tools for (semi-) automated, quantitative 3D analyses of the spatial nuclear organization. These tools allow the quantitative assessment of highly resolved different chromatin compaction levels in individual cell nuclei, which reflect functionally different regions or sub-compartments of the 3D nuclear landscape, and measurements of absolute distances between sites of different chromatin compaction...
March 18, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319069/the-branched-chain-amino-acid-transaminase-1-sustains-growth-of-antiestrogen-resistant-and-er%C3%AE-negative-breast-cancer
#3
V Thewes, R Simon, M Hlevnjak, M Schlotter, P Schroeter, K Schmidt, Y Wu, T Anzeneder, W Wang, P Windisch, M Kirchgäßner, N Melling, N Kneisel, R Büttner, U Deuschle, H P Sinn, A Schneeweiss, S Heck, S Kaulfuss, H Hess-Stumpp, J G Okun, G Sauter, A E Lykkesfeldt, M Zapatka, B Radlwimmer, P Lichter, M Tönjes
Antiestrogen-resistant and triple-negative breast tumors pose a serious clinical challenge because of limited treatment options. We assessed global gene expression changes in antiestrogen-sensitive compared with antiestrogen-resistant (two tamoxifen resistant and two fulvestrant resistant) MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. The branched-chain amino acid transaminase 1 (BCAT1), which catalyzes the first step in the breakdown of branched-chain amino acids, was among the most upregulated transcripts in antiestrogen-resistant cells...
March 20, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303895/total-extracellular-small-rna-profiles-from-plasma-saliva-and-urine-of-healthy-subjects
#4
Ashish Yeri, Amanda Courtright, Rebecca Reiman, Elizabeth Carlson, Taylor Beecroft, Alex Janss, Ashley Siniard, Ryan Richholt, Chris Balak, Joel Rozowsky, Robert Kitchen, Elizabeth Hutchins, Joseph Winarta, Roger McCoy, Matthew Anastasi, Seungchan Kim, Matthew Huentelman, Kendall Van Keuren-Jensen
Interest in circulating RNAs for monitoring and diagnosing human health has grown significantly. There are few datasets describing baseline expression levels for total cell-free circulating RNA from healthy control subjects. In this study, total extracellular RNA (exRNA) was isolated and sequenced from 183 plasma samples, 204 urine samples and 46 saliva samples from 55 male college athletes ages 18-25 years. Many participants provided more than one sample, allowing us to investigate variability in an individual's exRNA expression levels over time...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301169/conformational-dynamics-of-cyanocobalamin-and-its-conjugates-with-peptide-nucleic-acids
#5
Tomasz Pieńko, Aleksandra J Wierzba, Monika Wojciechowska, Dorota Gryko, Joanna Trylska
Vitamin B12 also called cobalamin (Cbl) is an important enzymatic co-factor taken up by mammalian and also by many bacterial cells. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is a synthetic DNA analogue that has the ability to bind in a complementary manner to natural nucleic acids. Provided that PNA is efficiently delivered to cells, it could act as a steric blocker of functional DNA or RNA and regulate gene expression at the level of transcription or translation. Recently, Cbl has been examined as a transporter of various molecules to cells...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291636/correlation-between-messenger-rna-expression-and-protein-expression-of-immune-checkpoint-associated-molecules-in-bladder-urothelial-carcinoma-a-retrospective-study
#6
Constance Le Goux, Diane Damotte, Sophie Vacher, Mathilde Sibony, Nicolas Barry Delongchamps, Anne Schnitzler, Benoit Terris, Marc Zerbib, Ivan Bieche, Géraldine Pignot
OBJECTIVES: Immunotherapy for bladder cancer seems to have promising results. Here, we evaluated the association between messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels and possible prognostic value of the programmed cell death 1/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) immune checkpoint pathways during bladder carcinogenesis. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Tumor samples were obtained from 155 patients (84 with muscle-invasive bladder cancer [MIBC], and 71 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer [NMIBC]) and normal bladder tissue from 15 patients...
March 10, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288791/efficacy-and-safety-of-sofosbuvir-plus-daclatasvir-for-treatment-of-hcv-associated-cryoglobulinemia-vasculitis
#7
David Saadoun, Stanislas Pol, Yasmina Ferfar, Laurent Alric, Christophe Hezode, Si Nafa Si Ahmed, Luc de Saint Martin, Cloé Comarmond, Anne Sophie Bouyer, Lucile Musset, Thierry Poynard, Matthieu Resche Rigon, Patrice Cacoub
Circulating mixed cryoglobulins are detected in 40%-60% of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and overt cryoglobulinemia vasculitis (CryoVas) develops in about 15% of patients. Remission of vasculitis has been associated with viral clearance, but few studies have reported the effectiveness of direct acting antiviral drugs in these patients. We performed open-label, prospective, multi-center study of the effectiveness and tolerance of an all-oral, interferon- and ribavirin-free regimen of sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir in patients with HCV-associated CryoVas...
March 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283525/molecular-viability-testing-of-uv-inactivated-bacteria
#8
Kris M Weigel, Felicia K Nguyen, Moira R Kearney, John S Meschke, Gerard A Cangelosi
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is effective at detecting bacterial DNA in samples, but it is unable to differentiate viable bacteria from inactivated cells or free DNA fragments. New PCR-based analytical strategies have been developed to address this limitation. Molecular viability testing (MVT) correlates bacterial viability with the ability to rapidly synthesize species-specific ribosomal RNA precursor (pre-rRNA) in response to brief nutritional stimulation. Previous studies demonstrated that MVT can assess bacterial inactivation by chlorine, serum, and low-temperature pasteurization...
March 10, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266272/multiscale-molecular-simulations-applied-to-nucleic-acid-dendrimer-interactions-studies
#9
Fernando Danilo González-Nilo, Ingrid Araya-Durán, Valeria Márquez-Miranda
BACKGROUND: Dendrimers are monodisperse, regular, three-dimensional and small-scale macromolecules that can be used to release substances such as drugs, markers, and genetic material into the cells. Among these substances, nucleic acids such as plasmid DNA, antisense oligonucleotides (asODN), and small-interfering RNA (siRNA) are widely used as therapeutic macromolecules for the treatment and prevention of diverse diseases. Several studies were focused on the modification of dendrimers aiming to improve their affinity for nucleic acids and their ability to release nucleic acids inside the cells...
March 5, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260069/chemosensitizing-effect-of-shrna-mediated-ercc1-silencing-on-a-xuanwei-lung-adenocarcinoma-cell-line-and-its-clinical-significance
#10
Weiwei Wang, Lijun Zhang, Liang Liu, Yongfa Zheng, Yong Zhang, Siyuan Yang, Rongliang Shi, Shaojia Wang
Lung cancer is a common fatal malignancy in both men and women. Xuanwei, Yunnan has the highest incidence of lung cancer in China. The area has a specific risk factor in the domestic combustion of bituminous coal, and lung cancer patients from this area tend to be resistant to platinum-based treatments. However, little is known about the mechanism of platinum resistance in patients from Xuanwei. Herein, we used lentiviral infection with shRNA to silence expression of the DNA repair enzyme ERCC1 in XWLC05 both in its RNA and protein expression level, a lung adenoma cell line derived from a patient from Xuanwei...
February 14, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259942/high-expression-of-rbm8a-predicts-poor-patient-prognosis-and-promotes-tumor-progression-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Rong Liang, Yan Lin, Jia-Zhou Ye, Xue-Xin Yan, Zhi-Hui Liu, Yong-Qiang Li, Xiao-Ling Luo, Hai-Hong Ye
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a huge threat for human health worldwide. As a complicated tumor, the molecular basis for HCC development especially metastasis requires exploration. Although RNA binding motif (RBM) proteins are closely related to various cancers, the clinical importance and underlying mechanisms of RBM8A in HCC remain elusive. In this study, we found that RBM8A was highly expressed in HCC tumor tissues compared to normal liver tissues. Overexpression of RBM8A was associated with HbsAg and Edmondson pathological grading...
February 15, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257865/early-pregnancy-related-changes-in-toll-like-receptors-expression-in-ovine-trophoblasts-and-peripheral-blood-leukocytes
#12
Mehmet Salih Kaya, Mehmet Kose, Aydin Guzeloglu, Zekeriya Kıyma, Mehmet Osman Atli
In the present study, we aimed to 1) demonstrate the presence of all 10 toll-like receptors (TLRs) in ovine trophoblasts, and 2) investigate the expression profiles of TLR1-10 mRNAs in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) in ewes during early pregnancy. For those purposes, ovine trophoblasts (n = 6) were collected from pregnant ewes on day 13. PBLs were collected from non-pregnant (n = 6) and pregnant ewes (n = 17) on days of mating (d) 0 and 18. TLR mRNAs in ovine trophoblasts were visualized by free-floating in situ hybridization (ISH)...
April 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253401/netrin-4-mediates-corneal-hemangiogenesis-but-not-lymphangiogenesis-in-the-mouse-model-of-suture-induced-neovascularization
#13
Anna-Karina B Maier, Sabrina Klein, Norbert Kociok, Aline I Riechardt, Enken Gundlach, Nadine Reichhart, Olaf Strauß, Antonia M Joussen
Purpose: Netrin-4, a secreted protein, is found in the basement membrane of blood vessels and acts as a key regulator of angiogenesis. Here we investigated the role of Netrin-4 in the mouse-model of suture-induced corneal hem- and lymphangiogenesis. Methods: Corneal hem- and lymphangiogenesis were induced in Netrin-4-deficient (Ntn4-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice by placing three 11-0 nylon sutures intrastromally. Fourteen days after suturing, the vascularized area was analyzed via corneal flat mount immunohistochemistry...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252003/integrating-liquid-biopsies-into-the-management-of-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Giulia Siravegna, Silvia Marsoni, Salvatore Siena, Alberto Bardelli
During cancer progression and treatment, multiple subclonal populations of tumour cells compete with one another, with selective pressures leading to the emergence of predominant subclones that replicate and spread most proficiently, and are least susceptible to treatment. At present, the molecular landscapes of solid tumours are established using surgical or biopsy tissue samples. Tissue-based tumour profiles are, however, subject to sampling bias, provide only a snapshot of tumour heterogeneity, and cannot be obtained repeatedly...
March 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251047/sirna-crosslinked-nanoparticles-for-the-treatment-of-inflammation-induced-liver-injury
#15
Yaqin Tang, Ziying Zeng, Xiao He, Tingting Wang, Xinghai Ning, Xuli Feng
RNA interference mediated by small interfering RNA (siRNA) provides a powerful tool for gene regulation, and has a broad potential as a promising therapeutic strategy. However, therapeutics based on siRNA have had limited clinical success due to their undesirable pharmacokinetic properties. This study presents pH-sensitive nanoparticles-based siRNA delivery systems (PNSDS), which are positive-charge-free nanocarriers, composed of siRNA chemically crosslinked with multi-armed poly(ethylene glycol) carriers via acid-labile acetal linkers...
February 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248256/integrated-proteomic-and-transcriptomic-based-approaches-to-identifying-signature-biomarkers-and-pathways-for-elucidation-of-daoy-and-uw228-subtypes
#16
Roger Higdon, Jessie Kala, Devan Wilkins, Julia Fangfei Yan, Manveen K Sethi, Liang Lin, Siqi Liu, Elizabeth Montague, Imre Janko, John Choiniere, Natali Kolker, William S Hancock, Eugene Kolker, Susan Fanayan
Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor. Patient survival has remained largely the same for the past 20 years, with therapies causing significant health, cognitive, behavioral and developmental complications for those who survive the tumor. In this study, we profiled the total transcriptome and proteome of two established MB cell lines, Daoy and UW228, using high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and label-free nano-LC-MS/MS-based quantitative proteomics, coupled with advanced pathway analysis...
February 3, 2017: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241071/structure-of-a-pentameric-virion-associated-fiber-with-a-potential-role-in-orsay-virus-entry-to-host-cells
#17
Yanlin Fan, Yusong R Guo, Wang Yuan, Ying Zhou, Matthew V Holt, Tao Wang, Borries Demeler, Nicolas L Young, Weiwei Zhong, Yizhi J Tao
Despite the wide use of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism, the first virus naturally infecting this organism was not discovered until six years ago. The Orsay virus and its related nematode viruses have a positive-sense RNA genome, encoding three proteins: CP, RdRP, and a novel δ protein that shares no homology with any other proteins. δ can be expressed either as a free δ or a CP-δ fusion protein by ribosomal frameshift, but the structure and function of both δ and CP-δ remain unknown. Using a combination of electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography, computational and biophysical analyses, here we show that the Orsay δ protein forms a ~420-Å long, pentameric fiber with an N-terminal α-helical bundle, a β-stranded filament in the middle, and a C-terminal head domain...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237646/recurrence-associated-genes-in-papillary-thyroid-cancer-an-analysis-of-data-from-the-cancer-genome-atlas
#18
Ming-Nan Chien, Po-Sheng Yang, Jie-Jen Lee, Tao-Yeuan Wang, Yi-Chiung Hsu, Shih-Ping Cheng
BACKGROUND: Recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer is not uncommon, but incorporating clinicopathologic parameters to predict recurrence is suboptimal. The aim of this study was to identify systemically recurrence-associated genes using The Cancer Genome Atlas RNA sequencing database. METHODS: A total of 504 patients with transcriptome sequencing data of the primary neoplasm were included in this study. High and low levels of expression of each gene were defined by median splits...
February 22, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235401/expression-of-socs1-and-the-downstream-targets-of-its-putative-tumor-suppressor-functions-in-prostate-cancer
#19
Martin Chevrier, Diwakar Bobbala, Alberto Villalobos-Hernandez, Md Gulam Musawwir Khan, Sheela Ramanathan, Caroline Saucier, Gerardo Ferbeyre, Sameh Geha, Subburaj Ilangumaran
BACKGROUND: Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) is considered a tumor suppressor due to frequent epigenetic and micro-RNA-mediated repression of its gene expression in diverse cancers. In prostate cancer (PCa), elevated expression of miR-30d that targets SOCS1 mRNA is associated with increased risk of disease recurrence. SOCS1 can mediate its tumor suppressor functions by diverse mechanisms such as inhibiting the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, promoting the tumor suppressor functions of p53, attenuating MET receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and blocking the oncogenic potential of the cell cycle inhibitor p21(CIP1) (p21)...
February 24, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219352/retinoic-acid-promotes-expression-of-germline-specific-genes-in-chicken-blastoderm-cells-by-stimulating-smad1-5-phosphorylation-in-a-feeder-free-culture-system
#20
Xiaochuan Tang, Shiyong Xu, Hongpeng Zhang, Qing Chen, Rongyang Li, Wangjun Wu, Minli Yu, Honglin Liu
BACKGROUND: Producing transgenic chickens with chicken blastodermal cells (cBCs) is inefficient due to the extremely low germline transmission capacity of cBCs. As chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) have been reported as an efficient method for producing transgenic chickens, the inefficiency of cBCs could potentially be resolved by inducing them to differentiate into germ cells. However, whether chemical inducers are able to enhance cBCs germline competence in vitro is unknown and the molecular mechanisms of differentiation of chicken pluripotent cells into germ cells are poorly understood...
February 20, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
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