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Fetal gene expression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214892/baicalin-attenuates-cardiac-dysfunction-and-myocardial-remodeling-in-a-chronic-pressure-overload-mice-model
#1
Yanqing Zhang, Pingping Liao, Meng'en Zhu, Wei Li, Dan Hu, Siming Guan, Long Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Baicalin has been shown to be effective for various animal models of cardiovascular diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension, atherosclerosis and myocardial ischaemic injury. However, whether baicalin plays a role in cardiac hypertrophy remains unknown. Here we investigated the protective effects of baicalin on cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload and explored the potential mechanisms involved. METHODS: C57BL/6J-mice were treated with baicalin or vehicle following transverse aortic constriction or Sham surgery for up to 8 weeks, and at different time points, cardiac function and heart size measurement and histological and biochemical examination were performed...
February 16, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211990/homozygous-mutation-in-prune1-in-an-oji-cree-male-with-a-complex-neurological-phenotype
#2
Gregory Costain, Andrea Shugar, Pradeep Krishnan, Saadet Mahmutoglu, Suzanne Laughlin, Peter Kannu
The PRUNE1 gene encodes a member of the phosphoesterases (DHH) protein superfamily that is highly expressed in the human fetal brain and involved in the regulation of cell migration. Homozygous or compound heterozygous PRUNE1 mutations were recently identified in five individuals with brain malformations from four families. We present a case of a 2-year-old male with a complex neurological phenotype and abnormalities on brain MRI. Re-annotation of clinical whole-exome sequencing data revealed a homozygous likely pathogenic variant in PRUNE1 (c...
March 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211875/a-hyaluronan-hydrogel-scaffold-based-xeno-free-culture-system-for-ex-vivo-expansion-of-human-corneal-epithelial-stem-cells
#3
D Chen, Y Qu, X Hua, L Zhang, Z Liu, S C Pflugfelder, D-Q Li
PurposeTo develop a hyaluronan hydrogel scaffold-based xeno-free culture system for ex vivo cultivation of human corneal epithelial stem cells (CESCs).Patients and MethodsCESCs were cultivated from donor limbal explants on the HyStem-C Hydrogel bio-scaffold in 12-well plates for 3 weeks. Group A used the traditional supplemented hormonal epidermal medium (SHEM) and group B used the defined SHEM (without fetal bovine serum and toxin A, adding 20% serum replacement). The growth and morphology of the cultured cells were assessed by phase contrast microscope...
February 17, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209772/maternal-smoke-exposure-decreases-mesenchymal-proliferation-and-modulates-rho-gtpase-dependent-actin-cytoskeletal-signaling-in-fetal-lungs
#4
Uchenna Unachukwu, Jordis Trischler, Monica Goldklang, Rui Xiao, Jeanine D'Armiento
The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal smoke exposure results in fetal lung growth retardation due to dysregulation in various signaling pathways, including the Wnt (wingless-related integration site)/β-catenin pathway. Pregnant female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (100-150 mg/m(3)) or room air, and offspring were humanely killed on 12.5, 14.5, 16.5, and 18.5 d post coitum (dpc). We assessed lung stereology with Cavalieri estimation; apoptosis with proliferating cell nuclear antigen, TUNEL, and caspase assays; and gene expression with quantitative PCR (qPCR) and RNA sequencing on lung epithelium and mesenchyme retrieved by laser capture microdissection...
February 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202385/long-term-consequences-of-disrupting-adenosine-signaling-during-embryonic-development
#5
REVIEW
Scott A Rivkees, Christopher C Wendler
There is growing evidence that disruption in the prenatal environment can have long-lasting effects on an individual's health in adulthood. Research on the fetal programming of adult diseases, including cardiovascular disease, focuses on epi-mutations, which alter the normal pattern of epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation, miRNA expression, or chromatin modification, rather than traditional genetic alteration. Thus, understanding how in utero chemical exposures alter epigenetics and lead to adult disease is of considerable public health concern...
February 12, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196369/leveraging-online-resources-to-prioritize-candidate-genes-for-functional-analyses-using-the-fetal-testis-as-a-test-case
#6
Kathryn S McClelland, Humphrey H-C Yao
With each new microarray or RNA-seq experiment, massive quantities of transcriptomic information are generated with the purpose to produce a list of candidate genes for functional analyses. Yet an effective strategy remains elusive to prioritize the genes on these candidate lists. In this review, we outline a prioritizing strategy by taking a step back from the bench and leveraging the rich range of public databases. This in silico approach provides an economical, less biased, and more effective solution. We discuss the publicly available online resources that can be used to answer a range of questions about a gene...
February 15, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193876/vulnerability-of-primitive-human-placental-trophoblast-to-zika-virus
#7
Megan A Sheridan, Dinar Yunusov, Velmurugan Balaraman, Andrei P Alexenko, Shinichiro Yabe, Sergio Verjovski-Almeida, Danny J Schust, Alexander W Franz, Yoel Sadovsky, Toshihiko Ezashi, R Michael Roberts
Infection of pregnant women by Asian lineage strains of Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to brain abnormalities in their infants, yet it is uncertain when during pregnancy the human conceptus is most vulnerable to the virus. We have examined two models to study susceptibility of human placental trophoblast to ZIKV: cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast derived from placental villi at term and colonies of trophoblast differentiated from embryonic stem cells (ESC). The latter appear to be analogous to the primitive placenta formed during implantation...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191781/direct-isolation-and-characterization-of-human-nephron-progenitors
#8
Stefano Da Sacco, Matthew E Thornton, Astgik Petrosyan, Maria Lavarreda-Pearce, Sargis Sedrakyan, Brendan H Grubbs, Roger E De Filippo, Laura Perin
Mature nephrons originate from a small population of uninduced nephrogenic progenitor cells (NPs) within the cap mesenchyme. These cells are characterized by the coexpression of SIX2 and CITED1. Many studies on mouse models as well as on human pluripotent stem cells have advanced our knowledge of NPs, but very little is known about this population in humans, since it is exhausted before birth and strategies for its direct isolation are still limited. Here we report an efficient protocol for direct isolation of human NPs without genetic manipulation or stepwise induction procedures...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191465/pedf-is-associated-with-the-termination-of-chondrocyte-phenotype-and-catabolism-of-cartilage-tissue
#9
P Klinger, S Lukassen, F Ferrazzi, A B Ekici, T Hotfiel, B Swoboda, T Aigner, K Gelse
Objective. To investigate the expression and target genes of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in cartilage and chondrocytes, respectively. Methods. We analyzed the expression pattern of PEDF in different human cartilaginous tissues including articular cartilage, osteophytic cartilage, and fetal epiphyseal and growth plate cartilage, by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR. Transcriptome analysis after stimulation of human articular chondrocytes with rhPEDF was performed by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and confirmed by qRT-PCR...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190779/lentiviral-transfer-of-%C3%AE-globin-with-fusion-gene-nup98-hoxa10hd-expands-hematopoietic-stem-cells-and-ameliorates-murine-%C3%AE-thalassemia
#10
Hui Fen Zhao, Allistair Abraham, Yoon-Sang Kim, Yong-Dong Wang, Tamara Pestina, Jun Zhan, Keith Humphries, Arthur W Nienhuis, Derek A Persons
Recently, an engineered Homeobox-nucleoporin fusion gene, NUP98-HOXA10HD or NA10HD, was reported to expand and maintain murine hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). We postulated that NA10HD would increase the number of human γ-globin-expressing cells to therapeutic levels. We developed a double gene lentiviral vector encoding both human γ-globin and NA10HD, which was used to transduce human peripheral blood CD34(+) cells and increased engraftment 2- to 2.5-fold at 15 weeks post-transplantation in immunodeficient mice...
February 9, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189027/the-flame-retardant-2-2-4-4-tetrabromodiphenyl-ether-enhances-the-expression-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-in-the-placental-cell-model-jeg-3
#11
Yun Zhu, Yan Qin Tan, Chi Chiu Wang, Lai K Leung
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are chemicals used as flame retardants in household products. After disposing of these items, PBDEs leach from the products by surface water. BDE-47 is a PBDE congener commonly isolated from contaminated food and is the most studied isomer. The placenta is the major source of hormones during pregnancy, and an elevated level of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) is associated with premature delivery. In the present study, we examined changes in the placental CRH expression under BDE-47 exposure in the JEG-3 cell model system...
January 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188034/follistatin-like-1-expression-is-decreased-in-the-alveolar-epithelium-of-hypoplastic-rat-lungs-with-nitrofen-induced-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#12
Toshiaki Takahashi, Julia Zimmer, Florian Friedmacher, Prem Puri
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Pulmonary hypoplasia (PH), characterized by incomplete alveolar development, remains a major therapeutic challenge associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) is a crucial regulator of alveolar formation and maturation, which is strongly expressed in distal airway epithelium. Fstl1-deficient mice exhibit reduced airspaces, impaired alveolar epithelial cell differentiation, and insufficient production of surfactant proteins similar to PH in human CDH...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179229/exogenous-amino-acids-suppress-glucose-oxidation-and-potentiate-hepatic-glucose-production-in-late-gestation-fetal-sheep
#13
Laura D Brown, Jaden R Kohn, Paul J Rozance, William W Hay, Stephanie R Wesolowski
Acute amino acid (AA) infusion increases AA oxidation rates in normal late gestation fetal sheep. Because fetal oxygen consumption rate does not change with increased AA oxidation, we hypothesized that AA infusion would suppress glucose oxidation pathways and that the additional carbon supply from AA would activate hepatic glucose production. To test this, late gestation fetal sheep were infused intravenously for 3h with saline or exogenous AA (AA). Glucose tracer metabolic studies were performed and skeletal muscle and liver tissues samples were collected...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178526/crl4-dcaf8-ubiquitin-ligase-targets-histone-h3k79-and-promotes-h3k9-methylation-in-the-liver
#14
Gaofeng Li, Tong Ji, Jiang Chen, Yufei Fu, Lidan Hou, Yan Feng, Tingyue Zhang, Tianyu Song, Jie Zhao, Yoko Endo, Hui Lin, Xiujun Cai, Yong Cang
Transcription from chromosomes is regulated by posttranslational modifications to histones, such as methylation and ubiquitination. Monoubiquitination of histones H2A and H2B influences H3 methylation to reinforce the activation or repression of gene expression. Here, we provide evidence that H3 polyubiquitination represses transcription of fetal and cell-cycle genes in postnatal mouse liver by crosstalk with H3K9 methylation. We found that the CRL4 ubiquitin ligase targets H3 for polyubiquitination at K79 via the DCAF8 substrate receptor in hepatocytes...
February 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177135/unveiling-and-initial-characterization-of-neural-crest-like-cells-in-mesenchymal-populations-from-the-human-periodontal-ligament
#15
L Ramírez-García, R Cevallos, K Gazarian
OBJECTIVE: To identify cells with neural crest properties in mesenchymal populations isolated from human periodontal ligament. BACKGROUND: Evidence from tracing experiments on animal embryos revealed proof that dental tissues are among the homing sites of craniofacial neural crest migratory cells. In humans, similar migratory cells were found in early embryos, but whether these cells are progeny of oral multipotent stem cells needs to be confirmed. Searching for the cells with neural crest characteristics in periodontal ligament mesenchymal populations can lead to a solution to the problem...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174237/single-cell-transcriptomics-of-the-human-placenta-inferring-the-cell-communication-network-of-the-maternal-fetal-interface
#16
Mihaela Pavličev, Günter P Wagner, Arun Rajendra Chavan, Kathryn Owens, Jamie Maziarz, Caitlin Dunn-Fletcher, Suhas G Kallapur, Louis Muglia, Helen Jones
Organismal function is, to a great extent, determined by interactions among their fundamental building blocks, the cells. In this work, we studied the cell-cell interactome of fetal placental trophoblast cells and maternal endometrial stromal cells, using single-cell transcriptomics. The placental interface mediates the interaction between two semiallogenic individuals, the mother and the fetus, and is thus the epitome of cell interactions. To study these, we inferred the cell-cell interactome by assessing the gene expression of receptor-ligand pairs across cell types...
February 7, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169274/armc5-deletion-causes-developmental-defects-and-compromises-t-cell-immune-responses
#17
Yan Hu, Linjiang Lao, Jianning Mao, Wei Jin, Hongyu Luo, Tania Charpentier, Shijie Qi, Junzheng Peng, Bing Hu, Mieczyslaw Martin Marcinkiewicz, Alain Lamarre, Jiangping Wu
Armadillo repeat containing 5 (ARMC5) is a cytosolic protein with no enzymatic activities. Little is known about its function and mechanisms of action, except that gene mutations are associated with risks of primary macronodular adrenal gland hyperplasia. Here we map Armc5 expression by in situ hybridization, and generate Armc5 knockout mice, which are small in body size. Armc5 knockout mice have compromised T-cell proliferation and differentiation into Th1 and Th17 cells, increased T-cell apoptosis, reduced severity of experimental autoimmune encephalitis, and defective immune responses to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection...
February 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168960/sex-specific-neurodevelopmental-programming-by-placental-insulin-receptors-on-stress-reactivity-and-sensorimotor-gating
#18
Stefanie L Bronson, Jennifer C Chan, Tracy L Bale
BACKGROUND: Diabetes, obesity, and overweight are prevalent pregnancy complications that predispose offspring to neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Although male individuals are three to four times more likely than female individuals to develop these disorders, the mechanisms driving the sex specificity of disease vulnerability remain unclear. Because defective placental insulin receptor (InsR) signaling is a hallmark of pregnancy metabolic dysfunction, we hypothesized that it may be an important contributor and novel mechanistic link to sex-specific neurodevelopmental changes underlying disease risk...
December 30, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168362/practical-methods-for-handling-human-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-in-serum-free-and-serum-containing-culture-conditions-under-hypoxia-implications-for-regenerative-medicine
#19
Dai Murabayashi, Mai Mochizuki, Yuichi Tamaki, Taka Nakahara
Stem cell-based therapies depend on the reliable expansion of patient-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. The supplementation of cell culture media with serum is associated with several risks; accordingly, serum-free media are commercially available for cell culture. Furthermore, hypoxia is known to accelerate the expansion of MSCs. The present study aimed to characterize the properties of periodontal ligament-derived MSCs (PDLSCs) cultivated in serum-free and serum-containing media, under hypoxic and normoxic conditions...
February 6, 2017: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166970/effects-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-during-late-pregnancy-on-the-cell-apoptosis-and-related-gene-expression-in-ovine-fetal-liver
#20
Yingchun Liu, Chi Ma, Hui Li, Lingyao Li, Feng Gao, Changjin Ao
This study investigated the effect of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) during late pregnancy on the cell apoptosis and related gene expression in ovine fetal liver. Eighteen time-mated Mongolian ewes with singleton fetuses were allocated to three groups at d 90 of pregnancy: Restricted Group 1 (RG1, 0.18 MJ ME kg BW(-0.75) d(-1), n = 6), Restricted Group 2 (RG2, 0.33 MJ ME kg BW(-0.75) d(-1), n = 6) and a Control Group (CG, ad libitum, 0.67 MJ ME kg BW (-0.75) d (-1), n = 6). Fetuses were recovered at slaughter on d 140...
March 1, 2017: Theriogenology
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