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Fetal gene expression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675560/patterns-of-differential-gene-expression-in-a-cellular-model-of-human-islet-development-and-relationship-to-type-2-diabetes-predisposition
#1
Marta Perez-Alcantara, Christian Honoré, Agata Wesolowska-Andersen, Anna L Gloyn, Mark I McCarthy, Mattias Hansson, Nicola L Beer, Martijn van de Bunt
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Most type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants identified via genome-wide association studies (GWASs) appear to act via the pancreatic islet. Observed defects in insulin secretion could result from an impact of these variants on islet development and/or the function of mature islets. Most functional studies have focused on the latter, given limitations regarding access to human fetal islet tissue. Capitalising upon advances in in vitro differentiation, we characterised the transcriptomes of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines differentiated along the pancreatic endocrine lineage, and explored the contribution of altered islet development to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes...
April 19, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674978/reporter-based-isolation-of-developmental-myogenic-progenitors
#2
Eyemen Kheir, Gabriella Cusella, Graziella Messina, Giulio Cossu, Stefano Biressi
The formation and activity of mammalian tissues entail finely regulated processes, involving the concerted organization and interaction of multiple cell types. In recent years the prospective isolation of distinct progenitor and stem cell populations has become a powerful tool in the hands of developmental biologists and has rendered the investigation of their intrinsic properties possible. In this protocol, we describe how to purify progenitors with different lineage history and degree of differentiation from embryonic and fetal skeletal muscle by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674204/preeclamptic-plasma-stimulates-the-expression-of-mirnas-leading-to-a-decrease-in-endothelin-1-production-in-endothelial-cells
#3
Mayara Caldeira-Dias, Marcelo R Luizon, Elenice Deffune, Jose E Tanus-Santos, Paula P Freire, Robson F Carvalho, Heloisa Bettiol, Viviane C Cardoso, Marco Antonio Barbieri, Ricardo C Cavalli, Valéria C Sandrim
Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a multisystem pregnancy syndrome characterized by general endothelial dysfunction caused mainly by plasma factors and debris in endothelial cells. It is widely accepted that endothelin-1 (ET-1) is involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia, and so it is of interest to ascertain whether the ET-1 gene (EDN1) can be targeted with tools such as miRNAs. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between the expression of miRNAs that putatively target EDN1 (and so affect ET-1 levels) in HUVECs incubated with plasma from preeclamptic women...
March 27, 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670360/integrated-bioinformatic-analysis-unveils-significant-genes-and-pathways-in-the-pathogenesis-of-supratentorial-primitive-neuroectodermal-tumor
#4
Guang-Yu Wang, Ling Li, Bo Liu, Xiao Han, Chun-Hua Wang, Ji-Wen Wang
Purpose: This study aimed to explore significant genes and pathways involved in the pathogenesis of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (sPNET). Materials and methods: Gene expression profile of GSE14295 was downloaded from publicly available Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened out in primary sPNET samples compared with normal fetal and adult brain reference samples (sPNET vs fetal brain and sPNET vs adult brain)...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670080/starvation-during-pregnancy-impairs-fetal-oogenesis-and-folliculogenesis-in-offspring-in-the-mouse
#5
Jun-Jie Wang, Xiao-Wei Yu, Rui-Ying Wu, Xiao-Feng Sun, Shun-Feng Cheng, Wei Ge, Jing-Cai Liu, Ya-Peng Li, Jing Liu, Shu-Hua Zou, Massimo De Felici, Wei Shen
Although it is becoming increasingly evident that maternal starvation during pregnancy can have permanent effects on a range of physiological processes in the offspring, scant information is available about the consequence of such condition for oogenesis and hence for lifetime reproductive success of progeny in mammals. In the present study, we address this topic by starving pregnant mice at the time of ovarian differentiation (12.5 days post coitum (dpc)) for three consecutive days and analyzed the consequence first on the survival of the fetal oocytes and their capability to progress throughout the stages of meiotic prophase I (MPI) and then on the postnatal folliculogenesis of the offspring...
April 18, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667177/adverse-placental-effects-of-valproic-acid-studies-in-perfused-human-placentas
#6
Miriam Rubinchik-Stern, Miriam Shmuel, Jacob Bar, Michal Kovo, Sara Eyal
OBJECTIVE: In utero exposure to valproic acid (VPA) has been associated with worse pregnancy outcomes compared to all other antiepileptic drugs. We have previously shown that VPA alters the expression of placental transporters for hormones and nutrients in vitro and in pregnant mice. Here, our aim was to characterize the effects of short exposure to VPA on the expression of carriers for compounds essential for fetal development in human placentas ex vivo, under controlled conditions...
April 17, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666964/expression-of-microrna-genes-mir221-mir222-and-mir181b1-increases-during-induction-of-inflammation-in-the-endothelial-barrier-model
#7
E N Knyazev, D V Mal'tseva, A A Zakharyants, G S Zakharova, O V Zhidkova, A A Poloznikov
We studied expression profile of microRNA and their target genes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) during proinflammatory activation with TNFα. TNFα-induced activation of HUVEC was accompanied by a decrease in the expression of CDKN1B, HIST1H3D, and OIP5 genes that are the common target genes for mature microRNA encoded by MIR221, MIR222, and MIR181B1 genes, whose expression increases in activated cells. Proteins encoded by HIST1H3D and OIP5 genes are associated with chromatin compaction and cell cycle...
April 17, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665328/effects-of-exposure-to-acetaminophen-and-ibuprofen-on-fetal-germ-cell-development-in-both-sexes-in-rodent-and-human-using-multiple-experimental-systems
#8
Pablo Hurtado-Gonzalez, Richard A Anderson, Joni Macdonald, Sander van den Driesche, Karen Kilcoyne, Anne Jørgensen, Chris McKinnell, Sheila Macpherson, Richard M Sharpe, Rod T Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Analgesic exposure during pregnancy may affect aspects of fetal gonadal development that are targeted by endocrine disruptors. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether therapeutically relevant doses of acetaminophen and ibuprofen affect germ cell (GC) development in human fetal testes/ovaries using in vitro and xenograft approaches. METHODS: Gonocyte (TFAP2C+ ) number was reduced relative to controls in first-trimester human fetal testes exposed in vitro to acetaminophen (-28%) or ibuprofen (-22%) and also in ovaries exposed to acetaminophen (-43%) or ibuprofen (-49%)...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661800/chorionic-somatomammotropin-impacts-early-fetal-growth-and-placental-gene-expression
#9
Kimberly M Jeckel, Alexander C Boyarko, Gerrit Bouma, Quinton Winger, Russ V Anthony
Several developmental windows, including placentation, must be negotiated to establish and maintain pregnancy. Impaired placental function can lead to pre-eclampsia and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), resulting in increased infant mortality and morbidity. It has been hypothesized that chorionic somatomammotropin (CSH), plays a significant role in fetal development, potentially by modifying maternal and fetal metabolism. Recently, using lentiviral-mediated in vivo RNA interference in sheep, we demonstrated significant reductions in near-term (135 days of gestation; dGA) fetal and placental size, and altered fetal liver gene expression, resulting from CSH deficiency...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660438/prenatal-nicotine-exposure-intergenerationally-programs-imperfect-articular-cartilage-via-histone-deacetylation-through-maternal-lineage
#10
Zhe Xie, Zhe Zhao, Xu Yang, Linguo Pei, Hanwen Luo, Qubo Ni, Bin Li, Yongjian Qi, Kai Tie, Jacques Magdalou, Liaobin Chen, Hui Wang
Accumulating evidence has shown that the impact of prenatal environmental factors on the organs of the offspring could last until the adulthood. Here, we aimed to investigate these effects and the potential mechanism of prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) on the female adult cartilage of the first generation (PNE-F1) and the second generation (PNE-F2). Pregnant Wistar rats were injected with 2.0 mg/kg.d nicotine from gestational day (GD) 9 to 20. Then their F1 generation at GD20 and postnatal week (PW) 12, and F2 generation at PW12 were harvested...
April 13, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659791/human-placental-growth-hormone-variant-in-pathological-pregnancies
#11
Shutan Liao, Mark H Vickers, Joanna L Stanley, Philip N Baker, Jo K Perry
Growth hormone (GH), an endocrine hormone primarily secreted from the anterior pituitary, stimulates growth, cell reproduction and regeneration and is a major regulator of postnatal growth. Humans have two GH genes which encode two versions of GH proteins: a pituitary version (GH-N/GH1), and a placental GH variant (GH-V/GH2) which is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast and extravillous trophoblast cells of the placenta. During pregnancy, placental GH replaces pituitary GH in the maternal circulation at mid-late gestation as the major circulating form of GH...
April 6, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656594/immune-imbalance-of-global-gene-expression-and-cytokine-chemokine-and-selectin-levels-in-the-brains-of-offspring-with-social-deficits-via-maternal-immune-activation
#12
Pei-Tan Hsueh, Hsi-Hsun Lin, Hsuan-Han Wang, Chiu-Lin Liu, Wei-Fen Ni, Jong-Kang Liu, Hsin-Hou Chang, Der-Shan Sun, Yao-Shen Chen, Ya-Lei Chen
The murine maternal immune activation (MIA) offspring model enables longitudinal studies to explore aberrant social behaviors similar to those observed in humans. High levels of cytokines, chemokines and cell adhesion molecules (CAM) have been found in the plasma and/or brains of psychiatric patients. We hypothesized that up-regulation of the systemic or brain immune response has an augmenting effect by potentially increasing the interplay between the neuronal and immune systems during the growth of the MIA offspring...
April 15, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655920/suppressing-ku70-ku80-expression-elevates-homology-directed-repair-efficiency-in-primary-fibroblasts
#13
Guoling Li, Dewu Liu, Xianwei Zhang, Rong Quan, Cuili Zhong, Jianxin Mo, Yaoqiang Huang, Haoqiang Wang, Xiaofang Ruan, Zheng Xu, Enqin Zheng, Ting Gu, Linjun Hong, Zicong Li, Zhenfang Wu, Huaqiang Yang
The main DNA repair pathways, nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homology-directed repair (HDR), are complementary to each other; hence, interruptions of the NHEJ pathway can favor HDR. Improving HDR efficiency in animal primary fibroblasts can facilitate the generation of gene knock-in animals with agricultural and biomedical values by somatic cell nuclear transfer. In this study, we used siRNA to suppress the expression of Ku70 and Ku80, which are the key factors in NHEJ pathway, to investigate the effect of Ku silencing on the HDR efficiency in pig fetal fibroblasts...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650243/testicular-macrophages-guardians-of-fertility
#14
Noushin Mossadegh-Keller, Michael H Sieweke
Macrophages are innate immune cells present in essentially every organ of the body with dedicated tissue specific functions. We will present in this review the unique properties and functions of macrophage populations residing in the testis, an immune-privileged organ. Testicular macrophages (tMΦ) could be seen as guardians of fertility due to their immunosuppressive functions protecting spermatogenesis from auto immune-attack. They exhibit testis specific functions with essential roles in normal testis homeostasis and fetal testicular development...
April 3, 2018: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642799/placental-defects-an-epigenetic-perspective
#15
Sharvari S Deshpande, Nafisa H Balasinor
Placenta, the first organ to be formed during gestation, plays a crucial role in intrauterine regulation of fetal growth and is involved in several functions during fetal development such as exchange of nutrients, wastes, and gases; protection against maternal immune rejection; and various metabolic and endocrine functions. Several studies have shown the regulation of epigenetic factors and the phenomenon of genomic imprinting in placentation and embryogenesis. Any gain or loss of imprint marks in the placenta has been shown to associate with severe placental defects which in turn affect both the mother and the growing fetus and can have long-term effects during adulthood...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630094/mir-4421-regulates-the-progression-of-preeclampsia-by-regulating-cyp11b2
#16
X Gao, H Li, J-X Wei
OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia is a serious disease that affects maternal and fetal health in pregnancy. Mechanism of miRNA in preeclampsia has gradually been explored. This study mainly investigated the mechanism of miR-4421 in preeclampsia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The expression of miR-4421 in 42 preeclampsia tissues and 42 normal pregnancy placentas tissues was detected by qRT-PCR. The relationship between the miR-4421 level and clinicopathological features of preeclampsia was analyzed...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628444/ph-domain-leucine-rich-repeat-protein-phosphatase-2-phlpp2-regulates-g-protein-coupled-receptor-kinase-5-grk5-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-vitro
#17
Szu-Tsen Yeh, Cristina M Zambrano, Walter J Koch, Nicole H Purcell
PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP) is a serine/threonine phosphatase that has been shown to regulate cell growth and survival through dephosphorylation of several members of the AGC family of kinases. G-protein coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) is an AGC kinase that regulates phenylephrine (PE) induced cardiac hypertrophy through its non-canonical function of directly targeting proteins to the nucleus to regulate transcription. Here we investigated the possibility that the PHLPP2 isoform can regulate GRK5 induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs)...
April 8, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627606/gestational-exposure-to-ziram-disrupts-rat-fetal-leydig-cell-development
#18
Jianpeng Liu, Yiyan Wang, Yinghui Fang, Chaobo Ni, Leikai Ma, Wenwen Zheng, Suhao Bao, Xiaoheng Li, Qingquan Lian, Ren-Shan Ge
Ziram is an endocrine disruptor and may cause birth abnormality of the male reproductive system. However, the effects of ziram on fetal Leydig cell (FLC) development are still unknown. The objective of the present study was to determine the endocrine-disrupting effect of ziram on rat FLC development after gestational exposure. Pregnant Sprague Dawley dams were randomly divided into 5 groups and were gavaged with 0 (corn oil, the control), 1, 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg ziram from gestational day 12 (GD12) to GD21. FLC development was evaluated by measuring serum testosterone, FLC number and distribution, and the expression levels of Leydig and Sertoli cell genes...
March 21, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626982/genetic-and-microscopic-assessment-of-the-human-chemotherapy-exposed-placenta-reveals-possible-pathways-contributive-to-fetal-growth-restriction
#19
M Verheecke, A Cortès Calabuig, J Finalet Ferreiro, V Brys, R Van Bree, G Verbist, T Everaert, L Leemans, M M Gziri, I Boere, M J Halaska, J Vanhoudt, F Amant, K Van Calsteren
INTRODUCTION: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) carries an increased risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity. A major cause of FGR is placental insufficiency. After in utero chemotherapy-exposure, an increased incidence of FGR has been reported. In a prospective cohort study we aimed to explore which pathways may contribute to chemotherapy-associated FGR. METHODS: Placental biopsies were collected from 25 cancer patients treated with chemotherapy during pregnancy, and from 66 control patients...
April 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626981/placental-lipoprotein-lipase-activity-is-positively-associated-with-newborn-adiposity
#20
Margaret J R Heerwagen, Diane L Gumina, Teri L Hernandez, Rachael E Van Pelt, Anita W Kramer, Rachel C Janssen, Dalan R Jensen, Theresa L Powell, Jacob E Friedman, Virginia D Winn, Linda A Barbour
INTRODUCTION: Recent data suggest that in addition to glucose, fetal growth is related to maternal triglycerides (TG). To reach the fetus, TG must be hydrolyzed to free fatty acids (FFA) and transported across the placenta, but regulation is uncertain. Placental lipoprotein lipase (pLPL) hydrolyzes TG, both dietary chylomicron TG (CM-TG) and very-low density lipoprotein TG (VLDL-TG), to FFA. This may promote fetal fat accretion by increasing the available FFA pool for placental uptake...
April 2018: Placenta
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