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Quantitative fetal MRI

Anna Maria Pinto, Valentina Imperatore, Laura Bianciardi, Margherita Baldassarri, Paolo Galluzzi, Simone Furini, Giovanni Centini, Alessandra Renieri, Francesca Mari
Orofacial clefts are the most common congenital craniofacial anomalies and can occur as an isolated defect or be associated with other anomalies such as posterior fossa anomalies as a part of several genetic syndromes. We report two consecutive voluntary pregnancy interruptions in a nonconsanguineous couple following the fetal ultrasound finding of cleft lip and palate and posterior fossa anomalies confirmed by means of post-termination examination on the second fetus. The quantitative fluorescent PCR, the karyotype, and the comparative genomic hybridization-array analysis after amniocentesis were normal...
October 4, 2016: Clinical Dysmorphology
Sharmishtaa Seshamani, Anna I Blazejewska, Susan Mckown, Jason Caucutt, Manjiri Dighe, Christopher Gatenby, Colin Studholme
Recently, there has been considerable interest, especially for in utero imaging, in the detection of functional connectivity in subjects whose motion cannot be controlled while in the MRI scanner. These cases require two advances over current studies: (1) multiecho acquisitions and (2) post processing and reconstruction that can deal with significant between slice motion during multislice protocols to allow for the ability to detect temporal correlations introduced by spatial scattering of slices into account...
November 2016: Human Brain Mapping
J Pontabry, F Rousseau, C Studholme, M Koob, J-L Dietemann
The development of post-processing reconstruction techniques has opened new possibilities for the study of in-utero fetal brain MRI data. Recent cortical surface analysis have led to the computation of quantitative maps characterizing brain folding of the developing brain. In this paper, we describe a novel feature selection-based approach that is used to extract the most discriminative and sparse set of features of a given dataset. The proposed method is used to sparsely characterize cortical folding patterns of an in-utero fetal MR dataset, labeled with heterogeneous gestational age ranging from 26 weeks to 34 weeks...
July 25, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
Sonia Dahdouh, Catherine Limperopoulos
At the core of many neuro-imaging studies, atlas-based brain parcellations are used for example to study normal brain evolution across the lifespan. These atlases rely on the assumption that the same anatomical features are present on all subjects to be studied and that these features are stable enough to allow meaningful comparisons between different brain surfaces and structures These methods, however, often fail when applied to fetal MRI data, due to the lack of consistent anatomical features present across gestation...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Christopher W Roy, Mike Seed, Christopher K Macgowan
PURPOSE: To develop and validate a method for accelerated time-resolved imaging of the fetal heart using a combination of compressed sensing (CS) and metric optimized gating (MOG). THEORY AND METHODS: Joint optimization of CS and MOG reconstructions was used to suppress competing artifact from random undersampling and ungated cardiac motion. Retrospectively and prospectively undersampled adult and fetal data were used to validate the proposed reconstruction algorithm qualitatively based on visual assessment, and quantitatively based on reconstruction error, blur, and MOG timing error...
June 2, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Jaladhar Neelavalli, Uday Krishnamurthy, Pavan K Jella, Swati S Mody, Brijesh K Yadav, Kelly Hendershot, Edgar Hernandez-Andrade, Lami Yeo, Maria D Cabrera, Ewart M Haacke, Sonia S Hassan, Roberto Romero
: Magnetic resonance angiography has not been used much previously for visualizing fetal vessels in utero for reasons that include a contraindication for the use of exogenous contrast agents, maternal respiratory motion and fetal motion. In this work, we report the feasibility of using an appropriately modified clinical time-of-flight magnetic resonance imaging sequence for non-contrast angiography of human fetal and placental vessels at 3.0 T. Using this 2D angiography technique, it is possible to visualize fetal vascular networks in late pregnancy...
May 17, 2016: European Radiology
P Montaldo, S Addison, V Oliveira, P J Lally, A M Taylor, N J Sebire, S Thayyil, O J Arthurs
BACKGROUND: Post mortem imaging is playing an increasingly important role in perinatal autopsy, and correct interpretation of imaging changes is paramount. This is particularly important following intra-uterine fetal death, where there may be fetal maceration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether any changes seen on a whole body fetal post mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR) correspond to maceration at conventional autopsy. METHODS: We performed pre-autopsy PMMR in 75 fetuses using a 1...
2016: BMC Medical Imaging
Lana Vasung, Claude Lepage, Milan Radoš, Mihovil Pletikos, Jennifer S Goldman, Jonas Richiardi, Marina Raguž, Elda Fischi-Gómez, Sherif Karama, Petra S Huppi, Alan C Evans, Ivica Kostovic
The cerebral wall of the human fetal brain is composed of transient cellular compartments, which show characteristic spatiotemporal relationships with intensity of major neurogenic events (cell proliferation, migration, axonal growth, dendritic differentiation, synaptogenesis, cell death, and myelination). The aim of the present study was to obtain new quantitative data describing volume, surface area, and thickness of transient compartments in the human fetal cerebrum. Forty-four postmortem fetal brains aged 13-40 postconceptional weeks (PCW) were included in this study...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Matthias C Schabel, Victoria H J Roberts, Jamie O Lo, Sarah Platt, Kathleen A Grant, Antonio E Frias, Christopher D Kroenke
PURPOSE: To characterize spatial patterns of T2* in the placenta of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), to correlate these patterns with placental perfusion determined using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), and to evaluate the potential for using the blood oxygen level-dependent effect to quantify placental perfusion without the use of exogenous contrast reagent. METHODS: MRI was performed on three pregnant rhesus macaques at gestational day 110. Multiecho spoiled gradient echo measurements were used to compute maps of T2*...
November 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Haidong Zhang, Zhonghe Zhang, Xuntao Yin, Jinfeng Zhan, Zhenmei Zhao, Yuchun Tang, Chao Liu, Shuwei Liu, Shizhen Zhong
In the previous studies, the criterion for deciding the occurrence time of the fetal central sulcus (CS) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is based on the observation by the eyes. There have been no existing quantitative standards or numerical criteria in this field. In this study, we reconstructed the three-dimension (3D) images of the fetal brain based on the 7.0T MR images of 45 Chinese fetal specimens from the 11 to 22 weeks of gestational age (GA). Then we obtained data by measuring the maximum depth and length of the CS so as to analyze the early developmental pattern of it...
February 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Heron Werner, Jorge Lopes, Gabriele Tonni, Edward Araujo Júnior
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess the maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) in six blind pregnant women by means three-dimensional (3D) physical models from 3D ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan data. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational cross-sectional study with six blind pregnant women who performed 3D ultrasound and MRI exams to build 3D physical models for their fetuses. The MFA was assessed quantitatively by means a questionnaire of three questions, each one with a score ranging from 0 to 3...
2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
G Clarke, J Li, A Kuo, P Nathanielsz
PURPOSE: Developmental programming occurs in utero, when epigenetic adaptations Result in offspring phenotypes that lead to health consequences persisting throughout life. Programming of cardiac health, due to prenatal malnutrition, has been reported in rodents but not in primate species. Our aim was to determine IUGR is associated with impaired cardiac function in later life in a baboon model. METHODS: Intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR, mothers were subjected to a 30% calories reduction) baboons were scanned with cine cardiac MRI measuring ejection fraction, left ventricular (LV) volumes, LV peak filling rate (LVPFR) and the LV 3D sphericity index (3DSI)...
June 2015: Medical Physics
Sébastien Tourbier, Xavier Bresson, Patric Hagmann, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Reto Meuli, Meritxell Bach Cuadra
Although fetal anatomy can be adequately viewed in new multi-slice MR images, many critical limitations remain for quantitative data analysis. To this end, several research groups have recently developed advanced image processing methods, often denoted by super-resolution (SR) techniques, to reconstruct from a set of clinical low-resolution (LR) images, a high-resolution (HR) motion-free volume. It is usually modeled as an inverse problem where the regularization term plays a central role in the reconstruction quality...
September 2015: NeuroImage
J Wu, S P Awate, D J Licht, C Clouchoux, A J du Plessis, B B Avants, A Vossough, J C Gee, C Limperopoulos
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Traditional methods of dating a pregnancy based on history or sonographic assessment have a large variation in the third trimester. We aimed to assess the ability of various quantitative measures of brain cortical folding on MR imaging in determining fetal gestational age in the third trimester. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 8 different quantitative cortical folding measures to predict gestational age in 33 healthy fetuses by using T2-weighted fetal MR imaging...
July 2015: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Xiani Yan, Jennifer A Kruger, Poul M F Nielsen, Martyn P Nash
Fetal head geometry plays an important role in the mechanics of childbirth during the second stage labour. Large heads have been shown to be associated with difficult and prolonged childbirth. However, the relationship between the fetal head geometry and childbirth mechanics has not been quantitatively analysed. To address this, our study used finite element (FE) modelling techniques and biomechanical simulations to analyse the contribution of fetal head shape and size on the mechanics of childbirth. X-ray computed tomography (CT) images from 26 newborn infants (less than 9 days old) without skull abnormalities were used to construct individual-specific FE models of the fetal skull...
June 25, 2015: Journal of Biomechanics
Colin Studholme
Magnetic resonance imaging of the human fetal brain has been a clinical tool for many years and provides valuable additional information to compliment more common ultrasound studies. Advances in both MRI acquisition and post processing over the last 10 years have enabled full 3D imaging and the accurate combination of data acquired in different head positions to create improved geometric integrity, tissue contrast, and resolution. This research is now motivating the development of new quantitative MRI-based techniques for clinical imaging that can more accurately characterize brain development and detect abnormalities...
March 2015: Seminars in Perinatology
James C Keith, Andrew J Buckler, James A Hamilton
OBJECTIVES: Preeclampsia occurs in 3-5% of pregnancies, remaining the major source of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Imbalances of cytokines, growth factors and soluble receptors in these pathologic pregnancies predispose the vasculature to accelerated atherosclerotic disease, and preeclamptic women and their offspring have a higher life-long risk of cardiovascular disease. Women with cardiovascular disease suffer from under-diagnosis and are more likely to die when acute coronary syndrome or stroke symptoms occur...
January 2015: Pregnancy Hypertension
Nickie Niforatos Andescavage, Adre du Plessis, Catherine Limperopoulos
The placenta is a vital organ necessary for the healthy neurodevelopment of the fetus. Despite the known associations between placental dysfunction and neurologic impairment, there is a paucity of tools available to reliably assess in vivo placental health and function. Existing clinical tools for placental assessment remain insensitive in predicting and evaluating placental well-being. Advanced MRI techniques hold significant promise for the dynamic, non-invasive, real-time assessment of placental health and identification of early placental-based disorders...
March 2015: Seminars in Perinatology
Rosita Shishegar, Joanne M Britto, Leigh A Johnston
The cerebral cortex is folded into gyri and sulci in the brains of higher mammals. Quantitative study of the process by which the cortex folds during brain development is critical to a complete understanding of normal brain development and neuro-developmental disorders. In this work, we propose a new method by which to localise nonlinearities in the cortical folding process, and thereby identify regions of differential growth across the cortex. Our method is based on spherical harmonic (SPHARM) representation of the cortical surface...
2014: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Jieun Kim, In-Young Choi, Yafeng Dong, Wen-Tung Wang, William M Brooks, Carl P Weiner, Phil Lee
PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of chronic hypoxia on neonatal brains, and follow developmental alterations and adaptations noninvasively in a guinea pig model. Chronic hypoxemia is the prime cause of fetal brain injury and long-term sequelae such as neurodevelopmental compromise, seizures, and cerebral palsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty guinea pigs underwent either normoxic and hypoxemic conditions during the critical stage of brain development (0.7 gestation) and studied prenatally (n = 16) or perinatally (n = 14)...
September 2015: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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