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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443091/natural-killer-group-2d-ligand-depletion-reconstitutes-natural-killer-cell-immunosurveillance-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#1
Sandra Weil, Stefanie Memmer, Axel Lechner, Volker Huppert, Ariane Giannattasio, Tamara Becker, Andreas Müller-Runte, Karen Lampe, Dirk Beutner, Alexander Quaas, Ralf Schubert, Eva Herrmann, Alexander Steinle, Ulrike Koehl, Lutz Walter, Michael S von Bergwelt-Baildon, Joachim Koch
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a highly heterogeneous and aggressive tumor originating from the epithelial lining of the upper aero-digestive tract accounting for 300,000 annual deaths worldwide due to failure of current therapies. The natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) receptors on natural killer (NK) cells and several T cell subsets play an important role for immunosurveillance of HNSCC and are thus targeted by tumor immune evasion strategies in particular by shedding of various NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438408/spray-dried-human-and-chimpanzee-adenoviral-vectored-vaccines-are-thermally-stable-and-immunogenic-in-vivo
#2
Sam Afkhami, Daniel A LeClair, Siamak Haddadi, Rocky Lai, Steven P Toniolo, Hildegund C Ertl, Emily D Cranston, Michael R Thompson, Zhou Xing
Cold chain-free vaccine technologies are needed to ensure effective vaccine delivery and coverage, particularly in resource-poor countries. However, the immunogenicity and thermostability of spray dried live viral vector-based vaccines such as recombinant adenoviral-vectored vaccines remain to be investigated. To address this issue, we have spray dried human adenoviral (AdHu5)- and chimpanzee adenoviral (AdCh68)-vectored tuberculosis vaccines in a mannitol and dextran matrix. Spray dried powders containing these two vaccines display the morphologic and chemical properties desired for long-term thermostability and vaccination...
April 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438129/severe-type-1-upgrading-leprosy-reaction-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient-a-paradoxical-manifestation-associated-with-deficiency-of-antigen-specific-regulatory-t-cells
#3
Ana Paula Vieira, Maria Angela Bianconcini Trindade, Flávio Jota de Paula, Neusa Yurico Sakai-Valente, Alberto José da Silva Duarte, Francine Brambate Carvalhinho Lemos, Gil Benard
BACKGROUND: Due to its chronic subclinical course and large spectrum of manifestations, leprosy often represents a diagnostic challenge. Even with proper anti-mycobacteria treatment, leprosy follow up remains challenging: almost half of leprosy patients may develop reaction episodes. Leprosy is an infrequent complication of solid organ transplant recipients. This case report illustrates the challenges in diagnosing and managing leprosy and its reactional states in a transplant recipient...
April 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432872/human-effector-memory-t-helper-cells-engage-with-mouse-macrophages-and-cause-graft-versus-host-like-pathology-in-skin-of-humanized-mice-used-in-a-nonclinical-immunization-study
#4
Bala S Sundarasetty, Valery Volk, Sebastian J Theobald, Susanne Rittinghausen, Dirk Schaudien, Vanessa Neuhaus, Constanca Figueiredo, Andreas Schneider, Laura Gerasch, Adele Mucci, Thomas Moritz, Constantin von Kaisenberg, Loukia M Spineli, Katherina Sewald, Armin Braun, Henning Weigt, Arnold Ganser, Renata Stripecke
Humanized mice engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells and developing functional human T-cell adaptive responses are in critical demand to test human-specific therapeutics. We previously showed that humanized mice immunized with long-lived induced-dendritic cells loaded with the pp65 viral antigen (iDCpp65) exhibited a faster development and maturation of T cells. Herein, we evaluated these effects in a long-term (36 weeks) nonclinical model using two stem cell donors to assess efficacy and safety. Relative to baseline, iDCpp65 immunization boosted the output of effector memory CD4(+) T cells in peripheral blood and lymph nodes...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424453/comorbid-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-muscle-specific-kinase-musk-myasthenia-gravis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
Michael Sherpa, Ravi K Metai, Viki Kumar, Tinu Hirachan, Kawser U Ahmed, Sharon J Atkinson
BACKGROUND HIV infections with concomitant immunologically-mediated disorders have been frequently described but there has been little research on the association between HIV and myasthenia gravis. MuSK myasthenia gravis coexisting with HIV is an even a rarer entity and can occur as a part of immune restoration disease. We report the case of a patient with asymptomatic HIV infection who presented with new-onset MuSK myasthenia gravis. CASE REPORT A 44-year-old African-American woman with HIV since 2004 and on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) presented to the ED with complains of double vision and difficulty swallowing for 2 weeks...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419007/persistence-of-hepatitis-b-immunity-following-3-dose-infant-primary-series-in-hiv-infected-thai-adolescents-and-immunologic-response-to-revaccination
#6
Keswadee Lapphra, Paveena Oungkananukit, Supawan Saihongthong, Wanatpreeya Phongsamart, Orasi Wittawatmongkol, Supattra Rungmaitree, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit
BACKGROUND: HIV infection may alter immunologic response and the establishment of immune memory to infant hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination. This study aimed to determine the need to revaccinate perinatally HIV-infected Thai adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional serologic tests for HBV, including hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs-Ag), anti-hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), and anti-hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) were performed in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents...
April 17, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418988/hiv-specific-cd8-t-cells-producing-ccl-4-are-associated-with-worse-immune-reconstitution-during-chronic-infection
#7
Rita Casetti, Carmela Pinnetti, Alessandra Sacchi, Gabriele De Simone, Veronica Bordoni, Eleonora Cimini, Nicola Tumino, Francesca Besi, Domenico Viola, Federica Turchi, Valentina Mazzotta, Andrea Antinori, Federico Martini, Adriana Ammassari, Chiara Agrati
BACKGROUND: Immunological non response represents the Achilles heel in the combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) effectiveness, and increases risk of clinical events and death. CD8 T cells play a crucial role in controlling HIV replication and polyfunctional HIV-specific CD8 T cells have been associated with non-progressive HIV infection. However, the possible role of polyfunctional CD8 T cells in predicting post-treatment immune reconstitution has not yet been explored. The aim of this study was to identify functional markers predictive of immunological response to cART in chronic HIV-infected patients...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417421/a-review-of-infectious-complications-after-haploidentical-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantations
#8
REVIEW
Erden Atilla, Pinar Ataca Atilla, Sinem Civriz Bozdağ, Taner Demirer
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from haploidentical donor is a feasible option for patients with hematological diseases who lack a suitable HLA-matched donor, but viral and fungal infections are still the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in haploidentical transplantation setting because of delayed immune reconstitution, increased risk of graft vs host disease (GvHD) or systemic steroid use. Therefore, this review will focus on the infectious complications after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)...
April 17, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415650/a-highly-conserved-redox-active-mx-2-cwx-6-r-motif-regulates-zap70-stability-and-activity
#9
Christoph Thurm, Mateusz P Poltorak, Elisa Reimer, Melanie M Brinkmann, Lars Leichert, Burkhart Schraven, Luca Simeoni
ζ-associated protein of 70 kDa (Zap70) is crucial for T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Loss of Zap70 in both humans and mice results in severe immunodeficiency. On the other hand, the expression of Zap70 in B-cell malignancies correlates with the severity of the disease. Because of its role in immune-related disorders, Zap70 has become a therapeutic target for the treatment of human diseases. It is well-established that the activity/expression of Zap70 is regulated by post-translational modifications of crucial amino acids including the phosphorylation of tyrosines and the ubiquitination of lysines...
March 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402953/mechanisms-of-pd-1-pd-l1-expression-and-prognostic-relevance-in-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-a-summary-of-immunohistochemical-studies
#10
REVIEW
Pauline Gravelle, Barbara Burroni, Sarah Péricart, Cédric Rossi, Christine Bezombes, Marie Tosolini, Diane Damotte, Pierre Brousset, Jean-Jacques Fournié, Camille Laurent
Immune checkpoint blockade therapeutics, notably antibodies targeting the programmed death 1 (PD-1) receptor and its PD-L1 and PD-L2 ligands, are currently revolutionizing the treatment of cancer. For a sizeable fraction of patients with melanoma, lung, kidney and several other solid cancers, monoclonal antibodies that neutralize the interactions of the PD-1/PD-L1 complex allow the reconstitution of long-lasting antitumor immunity. In hematological malignancies this novel therapeutic strategy is far less documented, although promising clinical responses have been seen in refractory and relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma patients...
March 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399724/the-epidemiology-of-iris-in-southern-india-an-observational-cohort-study
#11
Nisha Thambuchetty, Kayur Mehta, Karthika Arumugam, Umadevi G Shekarappa, Jyothi Idiculla, Anita Shet
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an uncommon but dynamic phenomenon seen among patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). We aimed to describe incidence, risk factors, clinical spectrum, and outcomes among ART-naive patients experiencing IRIS in southern India. Among 599 eligible patients monitored prospectively between 2012 and 2014, there were 59.3% males, with mean age 36.6 ± 7.8 years. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome incidence rate was 51.3 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval: 44...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393916/production-and-glyco-engineering-of-immunomodulatory-helminth-glycoproteins-in-plants
#12
Ruud H P Wilbers, Lotte B Westerhof, Kim van Noort, Katja Obieglo, Nicole N Driessen, Bart Everts, Sonja I Gringhuis, Gabriele Schramm, Aska Goverse, Geert Smant, Jaap Bakker, Hermelijn H Smits, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Arjen Schots, Cornelis H Hokke
Helminth parasites control host-immune responses by secreting immunomodulatory glycoproteins. Clinical trials and mouse model studies have demonstrated the potential of helminth-derived glycoproteins for the treatment of immune-related diseases, like allergies and autoimmune diseases. Studies are however hampered by the limited availability of native parasite-derived proteins. Moreover, recombinant protein production systems have thus far been unable to reconstitute helminth-like glycosylation essential for the functionality of some helminth glycoproteins...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393665/the-first-report-of-bartonella-quintana-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-complicated-by-jarisch-herxheimer-reaction
#13
Michelle DallaPiazza, Matthew Jiro Akiyama
Bacillary angiomatosis (BA) is a rare complication of human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection in the post-antiretroviral therapy (ART) era, and few cases of BA-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) have been described. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who presented with mass lesions involving the skin, subcutaneous tissues, muscle, and bone. The diagnosis of Bartonella quintana BA was confirmed by serum polymerase chain reaction. The patient's treatment course was complicated by both IRIS and Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392330/viral-reactivations-and-associated-outcomes-in-context-of-immune-reconstitution-after-pediatric-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#14
Rick Admiraal, Coco de Koning, Caroline A Lindemans, Marc B Bierings, Annemarie M J Wensing, A Birgitta Versluys, Tom F W Wolfs, Stefan Nierkens, Jaap Jan Boelens
BACKGROUND: Viral reactivations (VR) following hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) contribute to significant morbidity and mortality. Timely immune reconstitution (IR) is suggested to prevent VR. OBJECTIVES: We studied the relation between IR (as a continuous over-time-predictor) and VR (as time-varying-predictor), and the relation between VR and other clinical outcomes. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, all patients receiving a first HCT between January-2004 and September-2014 were included...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389165/cytomegalovirus-retinitis-followed-by-immune-recovery-uveitis-in-an-elderly-patient-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-undergoing-administration-of-methotrexate-and-tofacitinib-combination-therapy
#15
Kunio Yanagisawa, Yoshiyuki Ogawa, Mayumi Hosogai, Daisuke Todokoro, Takeki Mitsui, Akihiko Yokohama, Shoji Kishi, Hiroshi Handa
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is an opportunistic ocular infection most commonly observed in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We present a rare case of CMV retinitis that developed in a non-HIV patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Over the preceding 5 months, a family doctor had been treating the 78-year-old male patient with a combination therapy of methotrexate (MTX) and tofacitinib (TOF). CMV retinitis occurred when the patient's CD4+ T cells were low (196 cells/μl), and preceded the onset of Pneumocystis pneumonia...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388647/impact-of-probiotic-saccharomyces-boulardii-on-the-gut-microbiome-composition-in-hiv-treated-patients-a-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#16
Judit Villar-García, Robert Güerri-Fernández, Andrés Moya, Alicia González, Juan J Hernández, Elisabet Lerma, Ana Guelar, Luisa Sorli, Juan P Horcajada, Alejandro Artacho, Giuseppe D Auria, Hernando Knobel
Dysbalance in gut microbiota has been linked to increased microbial translocation, leading to chronic inflammation in HIV-patients, even under effective HAART. Moreover, microbial translocation is associated with insufficient reconstitution of CD4+T cells, and contributes to the pathogenesis of immunologic non-response. In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we recently showed that, compared to placebo, 12 weeks treatment with probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii significantly reduced plasma levels of bacterial translocation (Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein or LBP) and systemic inflammation (IL-6) in 44 HIV virologically suppressed patients, half of whom (n = 22) had immunologic non-response to antiretroviral therapy (<270 CD4+Tcells/μL despite long-term suppressed viral load)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377772/treatment-of-pediatric-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-lessons-from-primary-immunodeficiency
#17
REVIEW
Aisling M Flinn, Andrew R Gennery
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is used to treat increasing numbers of malignant and non-malignant disorders. Despite significant advances in improved human leukocyte antigens-typing techniques, less toxic conditioning regimens and better supportive care, resulting in improved clinical outcomes, acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) continues to be a major obstacle and, although it principally involves the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and liver, the thymus is also a primary target. An important aim following HSCT is to achieve complete and durable immunoreconstitution with a diverse T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire to recognize a broad range of pathogens providing adequate long-term adaptive T-lymphocyte immunity, essential to reduce the risk of infection, disease relapse, and secondary malignancies...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377411/the-lysine-deacetylase-sirtuin-1-modulates-the-localization-and-function-of-the-notch1-receptor-in-regulatory-t-cells
#18
Nimi Marcel, Lakshmi R Perumalsamy, Sanjay K Shukla, Apurva Sarin
The ability to tune cellular functions in response to nutrient availability has important consequences for immune homeostasis. The activity of the receptor Notch in regulatory T (Treg) cells, which suppress the functions of effector T cells, is indispensable for Treg cell survival under conditions of diminished nutrient supply. Anti-apoptotic signaling induced by the Notch1 intracellular domain (NIC) originates from the cytoplasm and is spatially decoupled from the nuclear, largely transcriptional functions of NIC...
April 4, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375874/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-associated-with-toxoplasmic-encephalitis-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-multicenter-cohort-study
#19
Ward P H van Bilsen, Charlotte H S B van den Berg, Bart J A Rijnders, Kees Brinkman, Jan W Mulder, Luc B S Gelinck, Andy I M Hoepelman, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Diederik van de Beek, Jan M Prins
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) associated with toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) in patients starting cART. DESIGN: A historical multicenter cohort study. METHODS: We included all HIV-infected patients diagnosed with TE in six Dutch hospitals between 1996 and 2016. Diagnosis of TE-IRIS was made using predefined IRIS criteria. We distinguished paradoxical TE-IRIS (worsening of underlying treated infection) from unmasking TE-IRIS (unmasking of subclinical infection after start of cART)...
April 3, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374110/htlv-1-infection-and-neuropathogenesis-in-the-context-of-rag1-%C3%AE-c-rag1-hu-and-blt-mice
#20
Rashida Ginwala, Breanna Caruso, Zafar K Khan, Ajinkya Pattekar, Glen M Chew, Michael J Corley, Ronak Loonawat, Steven Jacobson, Sreesha Sreedhar, Lishomwa C Ndhlovu, Pooja Jain
To date, the lack of a suitable small animal model has hindered our understanding of Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1 chronic infection and associated neuropathogenesis defined as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The host immune response plays a critical role in the outcome of HTLV-1 infection, which could be better tested in the context of humanized (hu) mice. Thus, we employ here the Balb/c-Rag1(-/-)γc(-/-) or Rag1 as well as Bone marrow-Liver-Thymic (BLT) mouse models for engraftment of human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
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