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immune reconstitution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331844/assessing-the-risk-of-cmv-reactivation-and-reconstitution-of-antiviral-immune-response-post-bone-marrow-transplantation-by-the-quantiferon-cmv-assay-and-real-time-pcr
#1
Adalbert Krawczyk, Jessica Ackermann, Birgit Goitowski, Rudolf Trenschel, Markus Ditschkowski, Jörg Timm, Hellmut Ottinger, Dietrich W Beelen, Nico Grüner, Melanie Fiedler
BACKGROUND: CMV reactivation is a major cause of severe complications in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. The risk of CMV reactivation depends on the serostatus (+/-) of the donor (D) and recipient (R). The reconstitution of CMV-specific T-cell responses after transplantation is crucial for the control of CMV reactivation. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine the cellular immune status correlating with protection from high-level CMV viremia (>5000 copies/ml) and disease...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327730/eosinophil-derived-ccl-6-impairs-hematopoietic-stem-cell-homeostasis
#2
Chao Zhang, Weiwei Yi, Fei Li, Xufei Du, Hu Wang, Ping Wu, Chao Peng, Man Luo, Wen Hua, Catherine Cl Wong, James J Lee, Wen Li, Zhihua Chen, Songmin Ying, Zhenyu Ju, Huahao Shen
Eosinophils (Eos) have been long considered as end-stage effector cells in the hierarchical hematopoietic system. Numerous lines of evidence have suggested that Eos are multifunctional leukocytes with respect to the initiation, propagation and regulation of various inflammatory or immune reactions, especially in allergic diseases. Recent studies have shown that Eos are also required for maintenance of bone marrow plasma cells and differentiation of B cells. However, it remains unclear whether Eos contributes to regulation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis...
January 12, 2018: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326124/bortezomib-based-immunosuppression-after-reduced-intensity-conditioning-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-randomized-phase-ii-results
#3
John Koreth, Haesook T Kim, Paulina B Lange, Samuel J Poryanda, Carol G Reynolds, Sharmila Chamling Rai, Philippe Armand, Corey S Cutler, Vincent T Ho, Brett Glotzbecker, Rushdia Yusuf, Sarah Nikiforow, Yi-Bin Chen, Bimalangshu Dey, Malgorzata McMasters, Jerome Ritz, Bruce R Blazar, Robert J Soiffer, Joseph H Antin, Edwin P Alyea
A prior phase I/II trial of bortezomib/tacrolimus/methotrexate prophylaxis after HLA-mismatched reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation documented low acute graft versus host disease incidence, with promising overall and progression-free survival. We performed an open-label 3-arm 1:1:1 phase II randomized-controlled-trial comparing grade II-IV acute graft versus host disease between conventional tacrolimus/methotrexate (A) versus bortezomib/tacrolimus/methotrexate (B); and versus bortezomib/sirolimus/tacrolimus (C), in reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic transplantation recipients lacking HLA-matched related donors...
January 11, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325640/selective-egf-receptor-inhibition-in%C3%A2-cd4-%C3%A2-t%C3%A2-cells-induces-anergy-and%C3%A2-limits%C3%A2-atherosclerosis
#4
Lynda Zeboudj, Mikael Maître, Lea Guyonnet, Ludivine Laurans, Jeremie Joffre, Jeremie Lemarie, Simon Bourcier, Wared Nour-Eldine, Coralie Guérin, Jonas Friard, Abdelilah Wakkach, Elizabeth Fabre, Alain Tedgui, Ziad Mallat, Pierre-Louis Tharaux, Hafid Ait-Oufella
BACKGROUND: Several epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors have been successfully developed for the treatment of cancer, limiting tumor growth and metastasis. EGFR is also expressed by leukocytes, but little is known about its role in the modulation of the immune response. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether EGFR expressed on CD4+ T cells is functional and to address the consequences of EGFR inhibition in atherosclerosis, a T cell-mediated vascular chronic inflammatory disease...
January 16, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321933/acute-progression-of-aspergillosis-in-a-patient-with-lung-cancer-receiving-nivolumab
#5
Naohiro Uchida, Kohei Fujita, Koichi Nakatani, Tadashi Mio
A 65-year-old man with chronic progressive pulmonary aspergillosis (CPPA) was admitted for the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma while receiving an immune checkpoint inhibitor, nivolumab. The tumour responded well to the therapy, but the cavity of CPPA became large in contrast to the tumour after 20 courses of therapy. He was diagnosed as having exacerbation of CPPA and successfully and concurrently treated with an antifungal agent and nivolumab. Since there was absence of obvious immunosuppression and the presence of a drastic effect on tumour remission during nivolumab therapy, this phenomenon suggested that the trigger of CPPA progression was dependent not on immunosuppression but on a hyperreaction to microorganisms, which was similar to the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome caused by nivolumab...
February 2018: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319511/study-of-patterns-and-markers-of-human-immune-deficiency-virus-1-hiv-1-progression-and-unemployment-rate-among-patients-from-alexandria-egypt
#6
Faika M Ghoneim, May M Raouf, Noha S Elshaer, Sarah M Abdelhamid, Reem A Noor Eldeen
Middle East and North Africa (MENA) new HIV cases show the highest increase among all regions in the world. Even though Egypt has a low prevalence among the general population (< 0.02%), a national HIV epidemic occurs in certain population risk groups. The current study was conducted to asses clinical and immunological disease progression; following up viral load (VL) and detecting delta-32 CCR5 genotype polymorphism in selected cases, determining unemployment rate and identify predictors of employment for HIV-cases...
December 4, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319289/an-adalimumab-induced-late-onset-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-treated-with-adalimumab
#7
Marco Confalonieri, Nicola DI Meo, Giovanni Damiani, Chiara Torregiani, Roberto Trevisan, Metka Kodric, Giusto Trevisan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318612/transplanted-human-thymus-slices-induce-and-support-t-cell-development-in-mice-after-cryopreservation
#8
Susan Ross, Melissa Cheung, Ching-In Lau, Neil Sebire, Michael Burch, Peter Kilbride, Barry Fuller, G John Morris, E Graham Davies, Tessa Crompton
Here we show that slices of human thymus tissue that have been frozen and thawed can induce and support T-cell development when transplanted into nude mice. Babies born without a thymus require urgent treatment to reconstitute T-cell immunity. Thymus tissue is removed from infants during cardiac surgery, to allow access to the heart. This discarded thymus tissue can be transplanted into athymic infants to reconstitute T-cell immunity. Slices of thymus tissue are transplanted into the thigh, after a two-three week culture period to deplete thymocytes...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316546/tuberculosis-associated-chylothorax-case-report-and-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#9
Srinivas Rajagopala, Roopa Kancherla, Ramanathan Palaniappan Ramanathan
Tuberculosis (TB) is a rare cause of chylothorax. We describe a case and the results of a systematic review of all reported cases of TB-chylothorax. We identified 37 cases of TB-chylothorax. The symptoms at presentation were constitutional (85.7%; 30/35), dyspnea (60.6%; 20/33), and cough (54.5%; 18/33). Chylothorax developed subsequent to the diagnosis of TB in 27.8% (10/36) of the patients, after a median of 6.75 weeks (IQR 4-9). Chylothorax developed during an immune reconstitution syndrome (IRS) in 16.7% (10/36) of the patients, including immunocompetent ones...
January 9, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311549/lamin-a-c-augments-th1-differentiation-and-response-against-vaccinia-virus-and-leishmania-major
#10
Raquel Toribio-Fernández, Virginia Zorita, Vera Rocha-Perugini, Salvador Iborra, Gloria Martínez Del Hoyo, Raphael Chevre, Beatriz Dorado, David Sancho, Francisco Sanchez-Madrid, Vicente Andrés, Jose-Maria Gonzalez-Granado
Differentiation of naive CD4+ T-cells into functionally distinct T helper (Th) subsets is critical to immunity against pathogen infection. Little is known about the role of signals emanating from the nuclear envelope for T-cell differentiation. The nuclear envelope protein lamin A/C is induced in naive CD4+ T-cells upon antigen recognition and acts as a link between the nucleus and the plasma membrane during T-cell activation. Here we demonstrate that the absence of lamin A/C in naive T-cell reduces Th1 differentiation without affecting Th2 differentiation in vitro and in vivo...
January 8, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306503/a-mouse-model-with-age-dependent-immune-response-and-immune-tolerance-for-hbv-infection
#11
Xuerui Yi, Youcheng Yuan, Na Li, Lu Yi, Cuiling Wang, Ying Qi, Liang Gong, Guangze Liu, Xiangping Kong
BACKGROUND: Viral clearance of human HBV infection largely depends on the age of exposure. Thus, a mouse model with age-dependent immune response and immune-tolerance for HBV infection was established. METHODS: HBVRag1 mice were generated by crossing Rag1-/- mice with HBV-Tg mice. Following adoptive transfer of splenocytes adult (8-9 weeks old) and young (3 weeks old) HBVRag1 mice were named as HBVRag-ReA and HBVRag-ReY mice respectively. The biochemical parameters that were associated with viral load and immune function, as well as the histological evaluation of the liver tissues between the two mouse models were detected...
January 3, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305542/monitoring-of-cmv-specific-cell-mediated-immunity-in-heart-transplant-recipients-clinical-utility-of-the-quantiferon%C3%A2-cmv-assay-for-the-management-of-post-transplant-cmv-infection
#12
Angela Chiereghin, Luciano Potena, Laura Borgese, Dino Gibertoni, Diego Squarzoni, Gabriele Turello, Evangelia Petrisli, Giulia Piccirilli, Liliana Gabrielli, Francesco Grigioni, Tiziana Lazzarotto
Background: The clinical utility of QuantiFERON®-CMV (QFN®-CMV) assay in heart transplant recipients was assessed.Methods: Forty-four CMV-seropositive patients were enrolled: 17 received antiviral prophylaxis and 27 were managed pre-emptively. CMV-DNAemia monitoring was performed by a quantitative real-time PCR assay. QFN®-CMV assay was retrospectively performed on blood samples collected at five post-transplant time-points.Results: A higher proportion of patients with indeterminate QFN®-CMV result after the suspension of prophylaxis developed CMV infection compared to patients who showed a global T-cell responsiveness (P=0...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304776/is-weak-cd4-gain-in-the-course-of-suppressive-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-for-hiv-infection-a-current-clinical-challenge-a-case-report-and-brief-review-of-the-literature
#13
Camilla Tincati, Esther Merlini, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Giulia Marchetti
BACKGROUND: Individuals lacking immune recovery during suppressive cART will still represent a clinical issue in the years to come, given the high proportion of HIV-infected subjects introducing therapy late in the course of disease. Understanding the mechanisms underlying poor CD4+ T-cell gain is crucial for the correct clinical management of individuals in this context. CASE PRESENTATION: An HIV-infected subject with poor CD4+ T-cell gain in the course of suppressive antiretroviral therapy was extensively investigated to identify the mechanisms behind inadequate CD4+ reconstitution...
January 5, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302014/the-commensal-microbiome-is-associated-with-anti-pd-1-efficacy-in-metastatic-melanoma-patients
#14
Vyara Matson, Jessica Fessler, Riyue Bao, Tara Chongsuwat, Yuanyuan Zha, Maria-Luisa Alegre, Jason J Luke, Thomas F Gajewski
Anti-PD-1-based immunotherapy has had a major impact on cancer treatment but has only benefited a subset of patients. Among the variables that could contribute to interpatient heterogeneity is differential composition of the patients' microbiome, which has been shown to affect antitumor immunity and immunotherapy efficacy in preclinical mouse models. We analyzed baseline stool samples from metastatic melanoma patients before immunotherapy treatment, through an integration of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, metagenomic shotgun sequencing, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for selected bacteria...
January 5, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301795/recurrent-cytomegalovirus-colitis-a-rare-case-of-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#15
Joseph Alukal, Mohammed Asif, Rachana Mundada, William B McNamee
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis usually occurs in patients with advanced immunosuppression when the CD4 count is <50 cells/μL. We reported a case of recurrent CMV colitis in a patient with HIV who presented with profuse lower gastrointestinal bleed. This was a case of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) manifesting as CMV colitis and has been reported only once in the literature previously. This patient had a CD4 count of 157 cells/μL and undetectable viral load after being on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for 5 months, which was consistent with IRIS...
January 4, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298831/role-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-family-member-relb-in-regulation-of-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-in-vivo
#16
Junhui Li, Shuqiu Chen, Wenhao Chen, Qifa Ye, Yaling Dou, Yue Xiao, Lei Zhang, Laurie J Minze, Xian C Li, Xiang Xiao
The NF-κB family member RelB is an important transcription factor that is capable of regulating diverse immune and inflammatory responses. However, its role in the regulation of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vivo is poorly defined. In this study, we demonstrated that germline deletion of Relb resulted in systemic autoimmunity, which is associated with significant accumulation of Foxp3+ Tregs in lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs. Foxp3+ Tregs from RelB-deficient mice were functional and capable of suppressing T effector cells in vitro and in vivo, but Foxp3- T effector cells from RelB-deficient mice showed features of hyperactivation and spontaneously produced high levels of IL-2...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296930/gene-transfer-into-hematopoietic-stem-cells-reduces-hlh-manifestations-in-a-murine-model-of-munc13-4-deficiency
#17
Tayebeh Soheili, Amandine Durand, Fernando E Sepulveda, Julie Rivière, Chantal Lagresle-Peyrou, Hanem Sadek, Geneviève de Saint Basile, Samia Martin, Fulvio Mavilio, Marina Cavazzana, Isabelle André-Schmutz
Patients with mutations in the UNC13D gene (coding for Munc13-4 protein) suffer from familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 3 (FHL3), a life-threatening immune and hyperinflammatory disorder. The only curative treatment is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation, although the posttreatment survival rate is not satisfactory. Here, we demonstrate the curative potential of UNC13D gene correction of HSCs in a murine model of FHL3. We generated a self-inactivating lentiviral vector, used it to complement HSCs from Unc13d-deficient (Jinx) mice, and transplanted the cells back into the irradiated Jinx recipients...
December 26, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296868/cord-blood-transplantation-recapitulates-fetal-ontogeny-with-a-distinct-molecular-signature-that-supports-cd4-t-cell-reconstitution
#18
Prashant Hiwarkar, Mike Hubank, Waseem Qasim, Robert Chiesa, Kimberly C Gilmour, Aurore Saudemont, Persis J Amrolia, Paul Veys
Omission of in vivo T-cell depletion promotes rapid, thymic-independent CD4+-biased T-cell recovery after cord blood transplant. This enhanced T-cell reconstitution differs from that seen after stem cell transplant from other stem cell sources, but the mechanism is not known. Here, we demonstrate that the transcription profile of naive CD4+ T cells from cord blood and that of lymphocytes reconstituting after cord blood transplantation is similar to the transcription profile of fetal CD4+ T cells. This profile is distinct to that of naive CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood and that of lymphocytes reconstituting after T-replete bone marrow transplantation...
November 14, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296847/hsc-extrinsic-sex-related-and-intrinsic-autoimmune-disease-related-human-b-cell-variation-is-recapitulated-in-humanized-mice
#19
Chiara Borsotti, Nichole M Danzl, Grace Nauman, Markus A Hölzl, Clare French, Estefania Chavez, Mohsen Khosravi-Maharlooei, Salome Glauzy, Fabien R Delmotte, Eric Meffre, David G Savage, Sean R Campbell, Robin Goland, Ellen Greenberg, Jing Bi, Prakash Satwani, Suxiao Yang, Joan Bathon, Robert Winchester, Megan Sykes
B cells play a major role in antigen presentation and antibody production in the development of autoimmune diseases, and some of these diseases disproportionally occur in females. Moreover, immune responses tend to be stronger in female vs male humans and mice. Because it is challenging to distinguish intrinsic from extrinsic influences on human immune responses, we used a personalized immune (PI) humanized mouse model, in which immune systems were generated de novo from adult human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in immunodeficient mice...
October 24, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296800/the-number-of-cd56dim-nk-cells-in-the-graft-has-a-major-impact-on-risk-of-disease-relapse-following-allo-hsct
#20
Luke Maggs, Francesca Kinsella, Y L Tracey Chan, Suzy Eldershaw, Duncan Murray, Jane Nunnick, Joanne Bird, Charles Craddock, Jianmin Zuo, Ram Malladi, Paul Moss
The graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect of allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is mediated by the donor immune system and acts to decrease the rate of disease relapse. Although studies of posttransplant immune reconstitution have identified correlates of clinical outcome, the number and profile of mature immune cells infused with the stem cell graft is also likely to be an important determinant and has been relatively poorly studied. We characterized immune cells within the stem cell graft of 107 patients who underwent T-cell-depleted allo-HSCT and related this to clinical outcome...
August 22, 2017: Blood Advances
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