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Acute heart failure in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332614/serelaxin-for-infant-heart-failure-in-congenital-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#1
Patrick O Myers, Alice Bordessoule, Cécile Tissot
Serelaxin has been studied in trials in adults with acute heart failure, but not in children. We report the first compassionate use of serelaxin in an infant. A 6-month-old girl with dilated cardiomyopathy was placed on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation following cardiac arrest unresponsive to medical treatment. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation weaning failed despite maximal ino-dilator therapy. During the 48-hour infusion of serelaxin, we observed marked improvement in brain natriuretic peptide, left ventricular systolic function, and dilatation...
January 15, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313560/surgical-closure-of-patent-ductus-arteriosus-in-extremely-low-birth-weight-infants-less-than-750-grams
#2
Tomasz Stankowski, Sleiman Sebastian Aboulhassan, Dirk Fritzsche, Marcin Misterski, Jakub Marczak, Anna Szymańska, Lukasz Szarpak, Cyprian Augustyn, Romuald Cichoń, Bartłomiej Perek
BACKGROUND: Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) occurs more frequently in premature infants. Depending on the degree of prematurity, these children often have other serious comorbidities that could significantly impact on surgical outcome. AIM: This study aimed to evaluate clinical results of the surgical ligation of PDA in extremely low body weight preterm infants with birth weight below 750 grams and to identify risk factors of mortality. METHODS: A total of 31 preterm infants with birth weight below 750 grams and significant PDA were operated between 2006 and 2016 through posterolateral thoracotomy (n=16) or with the use of video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) method (n = 15)...
January 9, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246465/resource-use-and-morbidities-in-pediatric-cardiac-surgery-patients-with-genetic-conditions
#3
Jamie Furlong-Dillard, David Bailly, Venugopal Amula, Jacob Wilkes, Susan Bratton
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and describe resource use and perioperative morbidities among those patients with genetic conditions undergoing cardiac surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Using the Pediatric Health Information System database, we identified patients ≤18 years old with cardiac surgery classified by Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS) during 2003-2014. A total of 95 253 patients met study criteria and included no genetic conditions (84.6%), trisomy 21 (9...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240626/first-report-of-biventricular-percutaneous-impella-ventricular-assist-device-use-in-pediatric-patients
#4
Javier J Lasa, Daniel A Castellanos, Susan W Denfield, William J Dreyer, Sebastian C Tume, Henri Justino, Athar M Qureshi
There is a growing interest in the use of percutaneously delivered ventricular assist devices (PVAD) in the pediatric patient population. A 16 year old female and 18 year old male both status post heart transplantation presented with evidence of graft rejection and acute severe global systolic and diastolic heart failure necessitating hemodynamic catheterization and inotropic support. Both underwent percutaneous Impella CP LVAD (Abiomed, Danvers, MA) placement with close monitoring of right ventricular function...
December 11, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230826/evolution-of-biventricular-loading-condition-in-pediatric-lvad-patient-a-prospective-and-observational-study
#5
Arianna Di Molfetta, Roberta Iacobelli, Sergio Filippelli, Giorgia Grutter, Gianluigi Perri, Francesca Iodice, Luciano Pasquini, Paolo Guccione, Antonio Amodeo
The aim of this study was to describe the echocardiographic trend of left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) function after implantation of a pulsatile flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) in children. From 2013 to 2016, we prospectively evaluated 13 consecutive pediatric Berlin Heart EXCOR LVAD patients. Clinical and echocardiographic data were collected at baseline, within 24 h after implantation and monthly until LVAD explant. Median age and weight at the implantation was 8 (4-23) months and 5 (4...
December 12, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222320/anticoagulation-with-vads-and-ecmo-walking-the-tightrope
#6
REVIEW
Leslie Raffini
The evolution of devices for mechanical circulatory support (MCS), including ventricular assist devices (VADs) for patients with heart failure and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for patients with acute cardiac or respiratory failure, has improved survival for subsets of critically ill children and adults. The devices are intricate and complex, allowing blood to bypass the heart or lungs (or both). As blood flows through these artificial devices, normal hemostasis is disrupted, coagulation is promoted, and in the absence of anticoagulation, a thrombus may form in the device, resulting in device failure or embolic stroke...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198258/perioperative-infections-in-congenital-heart-disease
#7
Indah K Murni, Graeme MacLaren, Debra Morrow, Parvathi Iyer, Trevor Duke
BACKGROUND: Perioperative infections have significant consequences for children with congenital heart disease (CHD), which can manifest as acute or chronic infection followed by poor growth and progressive cardiac failure. The consequences include delayed or higher-risk surgery, and increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. METHODS: A systematic search for studies evaluating the burden and interventions to reduce perioperative infections in children with CHD was undertaken using PubMed...
December 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198224/case-report-and-review-of-the-literature-the-utilisation-of-a-ventricular-assist-device-as-bridge-to-recovery-for-anthracycline-induced-ventricular-dysfunction
#8
Diane Krasnopero, Alfred Asante-Korang, Jeffrey Jacobs, Stacie Stapleton, Jennifer Carapellucci, Mathew Dotson, Gary Stapleton
Ventricular assist devices are used in children with heart failure as a bridge to myocardial recovery or cardiac transplantation. Anthracyclines cause cardiac toxicity and may result in acute or long-term cardiac failure. We describe the use of a ventricular assist device as a bridge to recovery in a child with severe acute anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy, and we review the associated literature. A 6-year-old girl was treated for acute myeloblastic leukaemia with daunorubicin and mitoxantrone. After 2 weeks her final dose of chemotherapy, her Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction decreased to 21%...
December 4, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165381/factors-associated-with-the-need-for-and-the-impact-of-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-children-with-congenital-heart-disease-during-admissions-for-cardiac-surgery
#9
Salvatore Aiello, Rohit S Loomba
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine factors associated with the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) during admission for cardiac surgery (CS). A secondary aim was to determine how ECMO impacted length, cost, and mortality of the admission. METHODS: Data from the Kids' Inpatient Database (KIDS) were utilized. Admissions with CHD under 18 years of age with cardiac surgery were included. Need for ECMO in these admissions was then identified...
November 22, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135805/failure-of-invasive-airway-placement-on-the-first-attempt-is-associated-with-progression-to-cardiac-arrest-in-pediatric-acute-respiratory-compromise
#10
Hannah R Stinson, Vijay Srinivasan, Alexis A Topjian, Robert M Sutton, Vinay M Nadkarni, Robert A Berg, Tia T Raymond
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the proportion of acute respiratory compromise events in hospitalized pediatric patients progressing to cardiopulmonary arrest, and the clinical factors associated with progression of acute respiratory compromise to cardiopulmonary arrest. We hypothesized that failure of invasive airway placement on the first attempt (defined as multiple attempts at tracheal intubation, and/or laryngeal mask airway placement, and/or the creation of a new tracheostomy or cricothyrotomy) is independently associated with progression of acute respiratory compromise to cardiopulmonary arrest...
November 10, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098619/the-positive-effects-of-exercise-in-chemotherapy-related-cardiomyopathy
#11
Cavarretta Elena, Mastroiacovo Giorgio, Lupieri Annik, Frati Giacomo, Peruzzi Mariangela
Anthracyclines such as doxorubicin, daunorubicin, epirubicin, mitoxantrone and idarubicin, are powerful chemotherapeutic drugs used both in children and adult populations. Their properties made them particularly suitable for a large variety of neoplasms including breast adenocarcinoma, small cell lung cancer and acute leukemia. Early and late anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity is a well-known phenomenon, and the incidence of heart failure in patients receiving doxorubicin is 2.2%, with a mortality rate over 60% at 2 years...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067722/ventricular-dyssynchrony-as-a-marker-of-latent-carditis-in-children-with-acute-rheumatic-fever-a-tissue-doppler-imaging
#12
Ragab A Mahfouz, Waleed S Alawady, Abdelhakeem Salem
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the hypothesis that the presence of left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony in children with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) children may be a predictor of latent rheumatic carditis. METHODS: Eighty-nine children with ARF and 45 healthy control children were included the study. LV dyssynchrony was investigated by color-coded tissue Doppler imaging. RESULTS: LV dyssynchrony parameters including Ts-SD-12, Ts-12, Ts-SD-6, and Ts-6 were found to be prolonged in children with ARF than in controls (P < ...
October 25, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971158/scorpion-related-cardiomyopathy-and-acute-pulmonary-edema-in-a-child-who-is-stung-by-leiurus-abdullahbayrami
#13
Mehmet Dokur, Mustafa Dogan, Ersen Aydin Yagmur
Venom of Leiurus abdullahbayrami (Scorpiones: Buthidae) is an extremely toxic one and it stimulates voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels. In case of a stung by this scorpion; excessive catecholamine release occur and it impairs left ventricle contractility and consequently a heart failure occurs (scorpion sting-related cardiomyopathy). In addition to this cardiac-induced acute pulmonary, edema may occur in severe cases too. An 11-year-old male child who was stung by a scorpion (species: Leiurus abdullahbayrami) consulted to the Emergency Room...
September 2017: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944301/intravenous-rehydration-of-malnourished-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-and-severe-dehydration-a-systematic-review
#14
Kirsty A Houston, Jack G Gibb, Kathryn Maitland
Background: Rehydration strategies in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and severe dehydration are extremely cautious. The World Health Organization (WHO) SAM guidelines advise strongly against intravenous fluids unless the child is shocked or severely dehydrated and unable to tolerate oral fluids. Otherwise, guidelines recommend oral or nasogastric rehydration using low sodium oral rehydration solutions. There is limited evidence to support these recommendations. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies on 15 (th) June 2017 comparing different strategies of rehydration therapy in children with acute gastroenteritis and severe dehydration, specifically relating to intravenous rehydration, using standard search terms...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940440/continuous-infusion-vs-intermittent-bolus-injection-of-furosemide-in-acute-decompensated-heart-failure-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#15
REVIEW
K T Ng, J L L Yap
Loop diuretics remain a fundamental pharmacological therapy to remove excess fluid and improve symptom control in acute decompensated heart failure. Several recent randomised controlled trials have examined the clinical benefit of continuous vs. bolus furosemide in acute decompensated heart failure, but have reported conflicting findings. The aim of this review was to compare the effects of continuous and bolus furosemide with regard to mortality, length of hospital stay and its efficacy profile in acute decompensated heart failure...
September 22, 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925053/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-can-save-lives-in-children-with-heart-or-lung-failure-after-liver-transplantation
#16
Sandrine Jean, Christophe Chardot, Mehdi Oualha, Carmen Capito, Olivier Bustarret, Philippe Pouard, Sylvain Renolleau, Florence Lacaille, Laurent Dupic
The risk of cardiac or lung failure after liver transplantation (LT) is significant. In rare cases, the usual intensive care techniques fail to maintain organ oxygenation with a risk of multiorgan dysfunction. Although extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a difficult and risky procedure, it can be proposed as life-saving. Four children with either acute pulmonary (three) or cardiac (one) failure after LT, and the criteria that decided the use of ECMO (level of ventilation and results, dosage of inotropic drugs, cardiac ultrasound, blood lactate) were retrospectively reported...
September 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888855/cytomegalovirus-associated-severe-pneumonia-multi-organ-failure-and-ganciclovir-associated-arrhythmia-in-immunocompetent-child
#17
Ayman A Al-Eyadhy, Gamal Hasan, Rolan Bassrawi, Muneera Al-Jelaify, Mohamad-Hani Temsah, Ali Alhaboob, Fahad Al-Sohime, Majed Alabdulhafid
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) can rarely cause severe manifestations in immunocompetent individuals. Hereby, we report a twelve-year-old boy who presented with tachycardia, tachypnea, fever and leukocytosis, which progressed to hypoxemic respiratory failure and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Subsequently, he developed multi-organ failure despite the ongoing full supportive care and empiric broad spectrum antibiotics. Cytomegalovirus infection was diagnosed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in blood and histopathological examination of lung biopsy...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886433/sudden-death-in-a-child-caused-by-a-giant-cavernous-hemangioma-of-the-anterior-mediastinum
#18
Yui Igari, Shirushi Takahashi, Akihito Usui, Yusuke Kawasumi, Masato Funayama
A 4-year-old girl who had been treated for asthma since the age of 2 years had a severe coughing fit and died suddenly. The patient had a history of occasional severe coughing fits, and these fits had been worsening in severity during the week before her death. Prior to death, she was taken to a clinician, and thymic hypertrophy was suspected based on chest X-ray findings. The clinician recommended that she visit a general hospital at a later date; however, she died that night. Postmortem radiology and autopsy revealed a large mass in the anterior mediastinum compressing the heart and airway, and no other findings attributable to sudden death were observed...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858859/independent-risk-factors-and-2-year-outcomes-of-acute-kidney-injury-after-surgery-for-congenital-heart-disease
#19
Daishi Hirano, Akira Ito, Akifumi Yamada, Daisuke Kakegawa, Saori Miwa, Chisato Umeda, Kosuke Chiba, Yoichi Takemasa, Ai Tokunaga, Hiroyuki Ida
BACKGROUND: Data are limited regarding risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) following cardiac surgery in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). This observational study was performed to examine temporal trends in AKI incidence according to the Pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease (pRIFLE) criteria, identify independent risk factors for AKI after cardiac surgery, and examine associations between AKI and long-term mortality. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 418 patients (259 males, 159 females; median age, 5 months) who underwent cardiac surgery for CHD between April 2007 and August 2013...
2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768908/nonmyocyte-erk1-2-signaling-contributes-to-load-induced-cardiomyopathy-in-marfan-mice
#20
Rosanne Rouf, Elena Gallo MacFarlane, Eiki Takimoto, Rahul Chaudhary, Varun Nagpal, Peter P Rainer, Julia G Bindman, Elizabeth E Gerber, Djahida Bedja, Christopher Schiefer, Karen L Miller, Guangshuo Zhu, Loretha Myers, Nuria Amat-Alarcon, Dong I Lee, Norimichi Koitabashi, Daniel P Judge, David A Kass, Harry C Dietz
Among children with the most severe presentation of Marfan syndrome (MFS), an inherited disorder of connective tissue caused by a deficiency of extracellular fibrillin-1, heart failure is the leading cause of death. Here, we show that, while MFS mice (Fbn1C1039G/+ mice) typically have normal cardiac function, pressure overload (PO) induces an acute and severe dilated cardiomyopathy in association with fibrosis and myocyte enlargement. Failing MFS hearts show high expression of TGF-β ligands, with increased TGF-β signaling in both nonmyocytes and myocytes; pathologic ERK activation is restricted to the nonmyocyte compartment...
August 3, 2017: JCI Insight
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