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Acute heart failure in children

Marlon E F Wilsterman, Pauline de Jager, Robert Blokpoel, Inez Frerichs, Sandra K Dijkstra, Marcel J I J Albers, Johannes G M Burgerhof, Dick G Markhorst, Martin C J Kneyber
BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular blockade (NMB) has been shown to improve outcome in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in adults, challenging maintaining spontaneous breathing when there is severe lung injury. We tested in a prospective physiological study the hypothesis that continuous administration of NMB agents in mechanically ventilated children with severe acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) improves the oxygenation index without a redistribution of tidal volume V T toward non-dependent lung zones...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Lin Shi
According to the seventh report of Joint National Committee (JNC 7), hypertensive emergency (HE), a kind of hypertensive crisis, is defined as a sudden and abrupt elevation in blood pressure so as to cause acute target organ dysfunctions, including central nervous system, cardiovascular system or kidneys. Patients with HE require immediate reduction in markedly elevated blood pressure. Currently, there are no international guidelines for children HE, so the JNC definition is commonly used. Hypertensive emergency in children is rare but a life-threatening emergency...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Liesl Zühlke, Ganesan Karthikeyan, Mark E Engel, Sumathy Rangarajan, Pam Mackie, Blanche Cupido, Katya Mauff, Shofiqul Islam, Rezeen Daniels, Veronica Francis, Stephen Ogendo, Bernard Gitura, Charles Mondo, Emmy Okello, Peter Lwabi, Mohammed M Al-Kebsi, Christopher Hugo-Hamman, Sahar S Sheta, Abraham Haileamlak, Wandimu Daniel, Dejuma Yadeta Goshu, Senbeta G Abdissa, Araya G Desta, Bekele A Shasho, Dufera M Begna, Ahmed ElSayed, Ahmed S Ibrahim, John Musuku, Fidelia Bode-Thomas, Christopher C Yilgwan, Ganiyu A Amusa, Olukemi Ige, Basil Okeahialam, Christopher Sutton, Rajeev Misra, Azza Abul Fadl, Neil Kennedy, Albertino Damasceno, Mahmoud U Sani, Okechukwu S Ogah, Taiwo Olunuga, Huda ElHassan, Ana Olga Mocumbi, Abiodun M Adeoye, Pindile S Mntla, Dike B Ojji, Joseph Mucumbitsi, Koon Teo, Salim Yusuf, Bongani M Mayosi
BACKGROUND: -There are few contemporary data on the mortality and morbidity associated with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) or information on their predictors. We report the two year follow-up of individuals with RHD from 14 low and middle income countries in Africa and Asia. METHODS: -Between January 2010 and November 2012, we enrolled 3343 patients from 25 centers in 14 countries and followed them for two years to assess mortality, congestive heart failure (CHF), stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), recurrent acute rheumatic fever (ARF), and infective endocarditis (IE)...
October 4, 2016: Circulation
Wanli Li, Xinjiang An, Mingyu Fu, Chunli Li
Pneumonia refers to lung inflammation caused by different pathogens or other factors, and is a common pediatric disease occurring in infants and young children. It is closely related to the anatomical and physiological characteristics of infants and young children and is more frequent during winter and spring, or sudden changes in temperature. Pneumonia is a serious disease that poses a threat to children's health and its morbidity and mortality rank first, accounting for 24.5-65.2% of pediatric inpatients...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Susanna L den Boer, Dimitris Rizopoulos, Gideon J du Marchie Sarvaas, Ad P C M Backx, Arend D J Ten Harkel, Gabriëlle G van Iperen, Lukas A J Rammeloo, Ronald B Tanke, Eric Boersma, Willem A Helbing, Michiel Dalinghaus
N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is an important predictor of outcome in adults with heart failure. In children with heart failure secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy (DC) markers that reliably predict disease progression and outcome during follow-up are scarce. We investigated whether serial NT-proBNP measurements were predictive for outcome in children with DC. All available NT-proBNP measurements in children with DC were analyzed. Linear mixed-effect models and Cox regression were used to analyze the predictive value of NT-proBNP on the end point of cardiac death (death, heart transplantation, or mechanical circulatory support)...
August 30, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Alessia Urbinati, Pierpaolo Pellicori, Federico Guerra, Alessandro Capucci, Andrew L Clark
We describe the case of a takotsubo syndrome in a 12-year-old male patient following an acute intracranial haemorrhage, which had a favourable outcome. We also performed a systematic review of published case reports in patients younger than 18 years. Although takotsubo syndrome is common in postmenopausal women, in the paediatric population it equally affects both sexes. Compared with adults, paediatric patients more commonly present with heart failure symptoms or loss of consciousness. A higher proportion of paediatric patients have ST segment depression on ECG...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Lin Shi
According to the seventh report of Joint National Committee (JNC 7), hypertensive emergency (HE), a kind of hypertensive crisis, is defined as a sudden and abrupt elevation in blood pressure so as to cause acute target organ dysfunctions, including central nervous system, cardiovascular system or kidneys. Patients with HE require immediate reduction in markedly elevated blood pressure. Currently, there are no international guidelines for children HE, so the JNC definition is commonly used. Hypertensive emergency in children is rare but a life-threatening emergency...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jack F Price, Paul F Kantor, Robert E Shaddy, Joseph W Rossano, Jason F Goldberg, Joseph Hagan, Timothy J Humlicek, Antonio G Cabrera, Aamir Jeewa, Susan W Denfield, William J Dreyer, Ayse Akcan-Arikan
Hyponatremia is a common finding in adults hospitalized with heart failure (HF) and is associated with longer hospital stays and increased mortality. The significance of hyponatremia in children with HF is not known. We sought to determine the incidence of hyponatremia and association with clinical outcome in children hospitalized with HF. Admission and inpatient serum sodium concentrations were analyzed in 141 consecutive children hospitalized with acute decompensated HF. Inclusion criteria include patients (age, birth to 21 years) with biventricular hearts who were hospitalized for HF from January 2007 to December 2012...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Timothy M Hoffman
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review are to discuss the paradigms used to stage heart failure in children, the classification and physiologic profile of cardiomyopathies, and the acute and chronic pharmacologic management of heart failure. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE, PubMed. CONCLUSION: The etiology of chronic heart failure in pediatrics is vast. The paradigm of extrapolating adult clinical trials and technological advancements to treat heart failure in children has become a nonsustainable model...
August 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Kajal Khanna, Deborah R Liu
Acute rheumatic fever is an inflammatory reaction involving the joints, heart, and nervous system that occurs after a group A streptococcal infection. It typically presents as a febrile illness with clinical manifestations that could include arthritis, carditis, skin lesions, or abnormal movements. Of these, the cardiac manifestations of acute rheumatic fever are most concerning, as children may present in acute heart failure and may go on to develop valvular insufficiency or stenosis. Because this is a rare presentation to emergency departments in developed countries, it is crucial for clinicians to keep a broad differential when presented with clinical presentations suspicious for acute rheumatic fever...
August 2016: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
U Costabel, T E Wessendorf, F Bonella
Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown aetiology. Typical histology shows epithelioid cell granulomas, and typical immunopathology enhanced Th1 type immune responses in the involved organs. The disease occurs worldwide, but more frequently in northern countries than in the south. In Germany, the incidence is estimated to be 10 per 100,000, and the prevalence 44-48 per 100,000. Sarcoidosis usually affects adults under 50 years of age, but can also be seen in children, adolescents and in the elderly. Women are more frequently affected than men...
July 25, 2016: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Annamaria Colao, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Prisco Piscitelli
The Hippocratic tradition emphasized environmental causes of diseases and the need for harmony between the individual and the natural environment as the right philosophy to maintain a good health status. Public awareness and scientific attention concerning environmental pollution is usually focused on the consequent increased risk of developing cancer. Air pollution has been recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) to cause cardiovascular and respiratroy diseases, as well as lung cancer, after acute/chronic exposure to fine particulates (PM2...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
P-E Séguéla, N Tafer, J-B Thambo, P Mauriat
Levosimendan is a calcium-sensitizing drug with positive inotropic properties. As an inodilator, this molecule also has a vasodilation effect. While its efficacy has been demonstrated in the adult in the context of cardiac surgery, its pediatric use is still not widespread. Many studies have shown its safety of use in children, including in the newborn. Across the world, a growing number of teams use levosimendan to treat both acute and chronic heart failure. Through a review of the literature, we describe its pharmacodynamic effects, its current applications, and its perspectives of use in children...
August 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Christelle Joffre, Fabrice Lesage, Olivier Bustarret, Philippe Hubert, Mehdi Oualha
AIM: To investigate clinical course and mortality-associated factors in children with Down syndrome (DS) managed in a medical paediatric intensive care unit. METHODS: A single-centre, retrospective study conducted between 2001 and 2010 in DS children aged 1 month to 16 years. RESULTS: Sixty-six patients with a median age of 24 months (1-192) and a male/female ratio of 1.5 were analysed. Patients presented with history of congenital heart disease (n = 52, 78...
June 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Moe Tamaura, Fuminori Iwasaki, Tomoko Yokosuka, Kunio Fukuda, Satoshi Hamonoue, Hiroaki Goto
Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk of developing acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) ALL is rare in DS children. We report a case of Ph+ALL with DS complicated by chronic heart failure. Complete molecular remission was obtained after imatinib-combined chemotherapy, although infectious episodes during the neutropenic period worsened the heart condition. After two courses of intensification chemotherapy, the patient underwent reduced intensity stem cell transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling donor followed by post-transplant imatinib...
August 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Abdul Malik Sheikh, Masood Sadiq, Asif Ur Rehman
BACKGROUND: Clinical profile of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic recurrence seems to have changed in countries where rheumatic fever is still endemic. The objectives of this study were to compare clinical profile and outcome of patients suffering initial and recurrent episodes of acute rheumatic fever in children. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in two tertiary care hospitals from January to June 2011. The diagnosis was based on the modified Jones criteria...
January 2016: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Siva P Namachivayam, Yves d'Udekem, Johnny Millar, Michael M Cheung, Warwick Butt
BACKGROUND: Children who require prolonged intensive care after cardiac surgery are at risk of high mortality. The long-term survival and functional outcome of these children have not been studied in detail. METHODS: Children who stayed in intensive care for >28 days after cardiac surgery from 1997 to 2012 were studied in a single institution. A total of 116 patients were identified; 107 (92%) were <1 year of age and 63 (54%) had univentricular physiology...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Justin P Zachariah, Twalib Aliku, Amy Scheel, Babar S Hasan, Peter Lwabi, Craig Sable, Andrea Z Beaton
BACKGROUND: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a global cause of early heart failure. Early RHD is characterized by valvar regurgitation, leading to ventricular distention and possible elaboration of amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). We investigated the ability of NT-proBNP to distinguish cases of latent RHD detected by echocardiographic screening from the controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ugandan children (N = 44, 36% males, mean age: 12 ± 2 years) with latent RHD (cases) and siblings (controls) by echocardiography were enrolled...
May 2016: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
Joana Faleiro Oliveira, Susana Rebelo Pacheco, Marta Moniz, Pedro Nunes, Clara Abadesso, Mónica Rebelo, Helena Loureiro, Helena Almeida
Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is an acquired transient type of systolic dysfunction which mimics myocardial infarction clinically and electrocardiographically. TTS is also known as stress cardiomyopathy, broken heart syndrome, apical ballooning, reversible acute heart failure, neurogenic stunned myocardium or acute catecholamine cardiomyopathy. This case report describes an uncommon presentation of myocardial stunning after an anesthetic procedure. A 14-year-old girl with a history of pineal cyst and hemiplegic migraine was admitted for control brain magnetic resonance imaging...
June 2016: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
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