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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817115/administration-of-follicle-stimulating-hormone-induces-autophagy-via-upregulation-of-hif-1%C3%AE-in-mouse-granulosa-cells
#1
Jilong Zhou, Wang Yao, Chengyu Li, Wangjun Wu, Qifa Li, Honglin Liu
Recent studies reported the important role of autophagy in follicular development. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the effect of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on mouse granulosa cells (MGCs). Results indicated that autophagy was induced by FSH, which is known to be the dominant hormone regulating follicular development and granulosa cell (GC) proliferation. The activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a master regulator of autophagy, was inhibited during the process of MGC autophagy...
August 17, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816240/rodent-mismatch-negativity-mmn-theta-neuro-oscillatory-response-as-a-translational-neurophysiological-biomarker-for-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-based-new-treatment-development-in-schizophrenia
#2
Migyung Lee, Andrea Balla, Henry Sershen, Pejman Sehatpour, Peter Lakatos, Daniel C Javitt
Deficits in the generation of auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) generation are among the most widely replicated neurophysiological abnormalities in schizophrenia and linked to underlying dysfunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated neurotransmission. Here, we evaluate physiological properties of rodent MMN, along with sensitivity to NMDAR agonist and antagonist treatment, relative to known patterns of dysfunction in schizophrenia. Epidural neurophysiological responses to frequency- and duration-deviants, along with responses to standard stimuli, were obtained at baseline and following 2 and 4 weeks treatment from rats treated with saline, phencyclidine (PCP, 15 mg/kg/d by osmotic minipump), or PCP+glycine (16% by weight diet) interventions...
August 17, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814858/spotlight-on-glycopyrronium-formoterol-fumarate-inhalation-aerosol-in-the-management-of-copd-design-development-and-place-in-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Santosh Dhungana, Gerard J Criner
Long-acting bronchodilators are the mainstay of the treatment of COPD. With the advent of several combination inhalers with long-acting antimuscarinic agents (LAMAs) and long-acting beta agonists (LABAs), the choice of therapy in the treatment of COPD has been ever expanding. With the focus of COPD management shifting from FEV1-based treatment escalation to symptoms and risk-based treatment, we are seeing a paradigm shift in COPD treatment with early introduction of LAMA-LABA combination as a single inhaler...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813418/mechanism-of-intracellular-allosteric-%C3%AE-2ar-antagonist-revealed-by-x-ray-crystal-structure
#4
Xiangyu Liu, Seungkirl Ahn, Alem W Kahsai, Kai-Cheng Meng, Naomi R Latorraca, Biswaranjan Pani, A J Venkatakrishnan, Ali Masoudi, William I Weis, Ron O Dror, Xin Chen, Robert J Lefkowitz, Brian K Kobilka
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) pose challenges for drug discovery efforts because of the high degree of structural homology in the orthosteric pocket, particularly for GPCRs within a single subfamily, such as the nine adrenergic receptors. Allosteric ligands may bind to less-conserved regions of these receptors and therefore are more likely to be selective. Unlike orthosteric ligands, which tonically activate or inhibit signalling, allosteric ligands modulate physiologic responses to hormones and neurotransmitters, and may therefore have fewer adverse effects...
August 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807594/thyroid-hormone-receptor-beta-agonist-gc-1-inhibits-met-%C3%AE-catenin-driven-hepatocellular-cancer
#5
Elisabetta Puliga, Qian Min, Junyan Tao, Rong Zhang, Tirthadipa Pradhan-Sundd, Minakshi Poddar, Sucha Singh, Amedeo Columbano, Jinming Yu, Satdarshan P Monga
The thyromimetic agent GC-1 induces hepatocyte proliferation via Wnt/β-catenin signaling and may promoting regeneration in both acute and chronic liver insufficiencies. However, β-catenin activation particularly due to mutations in CTNNB1 is seen in a subset of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). Thus, it will be critical to address any effect of GC-1 on HCC growth and development, before its use can be advocated to stimulate regeneration in chronic liver diseases. In the current study, we first examine the effect of GC-1 on β-catenin-TCF4 activity in HCC cell lines harboring wild-type or mutated-CTNNB1...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806047/electrolytes-potassium-disorders
#6
Taiwona L Elliott
Hypokalemia (ie, potassium levels less than 3.5 mEq/L) occurs in fewer than 1% of healthy individuals, but is present in up to 20% of hospitalized patients, 40% of patients taking diuretics, and 17% of patients with cardiovascular conditions. Hypokalemia often is asymptomatic; symptoms are more common in older adults. Common symptoms are cardiac arrhythmias and muscle weakness or pain. Management consists of intravenous potassium replacement during cardiac monitoring for patients with marked symptoms, echocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities, or severe hypokalemia (ie, level less than 3...
August 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801320/in-stable-copd-long-acting-muscarinic-antagonist-plus-long-acting-beta-agonists-resulted-in-less-exacerbations-pneumonia-and-larger-improvement-in-fev-1-than-long-acting-beta-agonists-plus-inhaled-corticosteroids
#7
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800789/indicators-of-poorly-controlled-asthma-and-health-related-quality-of-life-among-school-age-children-in-the-united-states
#8
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Poorly controlled asthma has far-reaching effects on school-age children and their parents, but little is knownabout the national impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). OBJECTIVE: To examine HRQoL associated with asthma and indicators of poorly controlled asthma in the United States. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis of HRQoL among school-age children (age range, 6-17 years) with asthma in the nationally representative 2007-2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS)...
August 11, 2017: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793336/a-systematic-review-of-adverse-drug-events-associated-with-administration-of-common-asthma-medications-in-children
#9
James S Leung, David W Johnson, Arissa J Sperou, Jennifer Crotts, Erik Saude, Lisa Hartling, Antonia Stang
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature and determine frequencies of adverse drug events (ADE) associated with pediatric asthma medications. METHODS: Following PRISMA guidelines, we systematically searched six bibliographic databases between January 1991 and January 2017. Study eligibility, data extraction and quality assessment were independently completed and verified by two reviewers. We included randomized control trials (RCT), case-control, cohort, or quasi-experimental studies where the primary objective was identifying ADE in children 1 month- 18 years old exposed to commercial asthma medications...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790019/neuronal-firing-activity-in-the-basal-ganglia-after-striatal-transplantation-of-dopamine-neurons-in-hemiparkinsonian-rats
#10
Regina Rumpel, Mesbah Alam, Lisa M Schwarz, Andreas Ratzka, Xingxing Jin, Joachim K Krauss, Claudia Grothe, Kerstin Schwabe
The loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and the resulting dopamine (DA) depletion in the striatum (STR) lead to altered neuronal activity and enhanced beta activity in various regions of the basal ganglia (BG) motor loop in patients with Parkinson's disease and in rodents in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat model. Intrastriatal DA graft implantation has been shown to re-innervate the host brain and restore DA input. Here, DA cell grafts were implanted into the STR of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats and the effect on neuronal activity under urethane anesthesia (1...
August 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789972/estrogen-receptor-alpha-and-beta-regulate-actin-polymerization-and-spatial-memory-through-an-src-1-mtorc2-dependent-pathway-in-the-hippocampus-of-female-mice
#11
Yangang Zhao, Li He, Yuanyuan Zhang, Jikai Zhao, Zhi Liu, Fangzhou Xing, Mengying Liu, Ziqi Feng, Wei Li, Jiqiang Zhang
Aging-related decline of estrogens, especially 17β-estradiol (E2), has been shown to play an important role in the impairment of learning and memory in dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we first demonstrated decreases in E2 signaling (aromatase, classic estrogen receptor ERα and ERβ and their coactivator SRC-1), mTORC2 signaling (Rictor and phospho-AKTser473) and actin polymerization (phospho-Cofilin, Profilin-1 and the F-actin/G-actin ratio) in the hippocampus of old female mice compared with those levels detected in the adult hippocampus...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771627/treatment-of-preschool-children-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-with-wheeze-with-azithromycin-a-placebo-controlled-randomized-trial
#12
Piush J Mandhane, Patricia Paredes Zambrano de Silbernagel, Yin Nwe Aung, Janie Williamson, Bonita E Lee, Sheldon Spier, Mary Noseworthy, William R Craig, David W Johnson
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are frequently used to treat wheezing children. Macrolides may be effective in treating bronchiolitis and asthma. METHOD: We completed a prospective, double-blinded, randomized placebo-control trial of azithromycin among pre-school children (12 to 60 months of age) presenting to the emergency department with wheeze. Patients were randomized to receive either five days of azithromycin or placebo. Primary outcome was time to resolution of respiratory symptoms after treatment initiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763438/dynamic-transcriptome-changes-during-adipose-tissue-energy-expenditure-reveal-critical-roles-for-long-noncoding-rna-regulators
#13
Zhiqiang Bai, Xiao-Ran Chai, Myeong Jin Yoon, Hye-Jin Kim, Kinyui Alice Lo, Zhi-Chun Zhang, Dan Xu, Diana Teh Chee Siang, Arcinas Camille Esther Walet, Shao-Hai Xu, Sook-Yoong Chia, Peng Chen, Hongyuan Yang, Sujoy Ghosh, Lei Sun
Enhancing brown fat activity and promoting white fat browning are attractive therapeutic strategies for treating obesity and associated metabolic disorders. To provide a comprehensive picture of the gene regulatory network in these processes, we conducted a series of transcriptome studies by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and quantified the mRNA and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) changes during white fat browning (chronic cold exposure, beta-adrenergic agonist treatment, and intense exercise) and brown fat activation or inactivation (acute cold exposure or thermoneutrality, respectively)...
August 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763243/randomized-double-blind-trial-evaluating-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-fluticasone-propionate-and-fluticasone-propionate-salmeterol-delivered-via-multidose-dry-powder-inhalers-in-patients-with-persistent-asthma-aged-12%C3%A2-years-and-older
#14
Gordon Raphael, Gloria Yiu, Anat Sakov, Siyu Liu, Cynthia Caracta
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of fluticasone propionate (Fp) and Fp/salmeterol (FS) administered via a novel multidose dry powder inhaler (MDPI) that is easy to use correctly in asthma patients. METHODS: This phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group study evaluated asthmatic patients (≥12 years of age) previously treated with either low- or mid-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) or ICS/long-acting beta-agonists. After a 14- to 21-day run-in, patients were randomized to Fp MDPI 50 mcg, Fp MDPI 100 mcg, FS MDPI 50/12...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759272/determination-of-asthma-control-using-administrative-data-regarding-short-acting-beta-agonist-inhaler-purchase
#15
Dekel Shlomi, Irit Katz, Michael J Segel, Bernice Oberman, Nir Peled
BACKGROUND: Symptom control is a primary goal in asthma. We hypothesized that administrative data regarding rescue inhaler purchases may correlate with asthma symptom control. METHODS: We identified all patients who purchased short-acting beta-agonist (SABA) inhalers during the course of one year in the database of a Health Maintenance Organization (HMO). Primary physicians identified asthma patients and classified their asthma symptom control into three groups according to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754601/magnesium-sulfate-infusion-for-acute-asthma-in-the-emergency-department
#16
REVIEW
Jose Enrique Irazuzta, Nicolas Chiriboga
OBJECTIVES: To describe the role of intravenous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) as therapy for acute severe asthma in the pediatric emergency department (ED). SOURCE: Publications were searched in the PubMed and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: magnesium AND asthma AND children AND clinical trial. A total of 53 publications were retrieved using this criteria. References of relevant articles were also screened. The authors included the summary of relevant publications where intravenous magnesium sulfate was studied in children (age <18 years) with acute asthma...
July 26, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754350/beneficial-metabolic-effects-of-dietary-epigallocatechin-gallate-alone-and-in-combination-with-exendin-4-in-high-fat-diabetic-mice
#17
Nupur M Pathak, Paul J B Millar, Varun Pathak, Peter R Flatt, Victor A Gault
OBJECTIVE: Significant attempts are being made to generate multifunctional, hybrid or peptide combinations as novel therapeutic strategies for type 2 diabetes, however this presents key challenges including design and pharmaceutical development. In this study, we evaluated metabolic properties of oral nutritional supplement epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in combination with GLP-1 agonist exendin-4 in a mouse model of dietary-induced diabetes and obesity. METHODS: EGCG, exendin-4 or combination of both were administered twice-daily over 28 days to high fat (HF) mice on background of low-dose streptozotocin...
July 25, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746336/discovery-of-novel-brain-permeable-and-g-protein-biased-beta-1-adrenergic-receptor-partial-agonists-for-the-treatment-of-neurocognitive-disorders
#18
Bitna Yi, Alam Jahangir, Andrew K Evans, Denise Briggs, Kristine Ravina, Jacqueline Ernest, Amir B Farimani, Wenchao Sun, Jayakumar Rajadas, Michael Green, Evan N Feinberg, Vijay S Pande, Mehrdad Shamloo
The beta-1 adrenergic receptor (ADRB1) is a promising therapeutic target intrinsically involved in the cognitive deficits and pathological features associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Evidence indicates that ADRB1 plays an important role in regulating neuroinflammatory processes, and activation of ADRB1 may produce neuroprotective effects in neuroinflammatory diseases. Novel small molecule modulators of ADRB1, engineered to be highly brain permeable and functionally selective for the G protein with partial agonistic activity, could have tremendous value both as pharmacological tools and potential lead molecules for further preclinical development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745845/sedative-hypnotic-drug-withdrawal-syndrome-recognition-and-treatment-digest
#19
Cynthia Santos, Ruben E Olmedo, Jeremy Kim
Sedative-hypnotic drugs include gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic agents such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid [GHB], gamma-Butyrolactone [GBL], baclofen, and ethanol. Chronic use of these substances can cause tolerance, and abrupt cessation or a reduction in the quantity of the drug can precipitate a life-threatening withdrawal syndrome. Benzodiazepines, phenobarbital, propofol, and other GABA agonists or analogues can effectively control symptoms of withdrawal from GABAergic agents...
March 22, 2017: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744817/knockdown-of-prmt1-suppresses-il-1%C3%AE-induced-cartilage-degradation-and-inflammatory-responses-in-human-chondrocytes-through-gli1-mediated-hedgehog-signaling-pathway
#20
Lei Xia, Hong-Xing Zhang, Mei-Li Xing, Yu-Ben Xu, Peng Li, Liang-Ku Huang, Jie Bai, Zhao Tian, Zan-Dong Zhao
Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by articular cartilage degradation and joint inflammation. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate the role of the specific function of PRMT1 in chondrocytes and its association with the pathophysiology of OA. We observed that the expression of PRMT1 was apparently upregulated in OA cartilage, as well as in chondrocytes stimulated with IL-1β. Additionally, knockdown of PRMT1 suppressed interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β)-induced extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolic imbalance by regulating the expression of MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, COL2A1, and ACAN...
July 25, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
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