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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156455/-the-overrated-impact-of-inhaled-substances-laba-lama-ics-on-exacerbation-rates-in-copd
#1
D Köhler, D Dellweg
Numerous studies have shown that exacerbation rates in COPD can be significantly reduced by long acting beta-2-agonists (LABA), long acting anticholinergic agents (LAMA) and inhaled steroids (ICS). Elaborate and extensive investigations however failed to prove that the reduction in exacerbation rates leads to life prolongation. As opposed to this, numerous studies have shown a reduction in life expectancy with increasing number and severity of exacerbations.This review aimed at comparing these studies and to elaborate the relevance and reduction of exacerbations rates by LABA, LAMA and ICS application through effect size calculation by means of Cohens' d...
November 20, 2017: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154132/dexmedetomidine-promotes-biomimetic-non-rapid-eye-movement-stage-3-sleep-in-humans-a-pilot-study
#2
Oluwaseun Akeju, Lauren E Hobbs, Lei Gao, Sara M Burns, Kara J Pavone, George S Plummer, Elisa C Walsh, Tim T Houle, Seong-Eun Kim, Matt T Bianchi, Jeffrey M Ellenbogen, Emery N Brown
OBJECTIVES: Sleep, which comprises of rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM stages 1-3 (N1-N3), is a natural occurring state of decreased arousal that is crucial for normal cardiovascular, immune and cognitive function. The principal sedative drugs produce electroencephalogram beta oscillations, which have been associated with neurocognitive dysfunction. Pharmacological induction of altered arousal states that neurophysiologically approximate natural sleep, termed biomimetic sleep, may eliminate drug-induced neurocognitive dysfunction...
October 20, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153411/how-do-we-critically-use-long-acting-muscarinic-receptor-antagonists-and-beta-adrenergic-receptor-agonists-monotherapy-or-these-combination-therapies-depending-on-the-situation-in-japanese-patients-with-copd
#3
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151684/glaucoma-medication-preferences-among-glaucoma-specialists-in-mexico
#4
Gabriel Lazcano-Gomez, Daniela Alvarez-Ascencio, Cindy Haro-Zuno, Mauricio Turati-Acosta, Magdalena Garcia-Huerta, Jesus Jimenez-Arroyo, Rafael Castañeda-Diez, Armando Castillejos-Chevez, Roberto Gonzalez-Salinas, Francisca Dominguez-Dueñas, Jesus Jimenez-Roman
Aim: To determine the glaucoma specialists' preferences for the different brands of topical glaucoma medications available in Mexico. Materials and methods: A web-based survey was sent to 150 board-certified glaucoma specialists in Mexico, with 14 questions related to brand preferences for all glaucoma medications available in Mexico. Participants were asked to select each glaucoma medication class by brand and to state the factors leading to their choice. Results: Data from 111 (74%) glaucoma specialists were collected...
September 2017: Journal of Current Glaucoma Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146881/beta-adrenergic-signaling-impairs-anti-tumor-cd8-t-cell-responses-to-b-cell-lymphoma-immunotherapy
#5
Michael D Nissen, Erica K Sloan, Stephen R Mattarollo
Beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) signaling regulates many physiological processes, including immune system responses. There is growing evidence also for betaAR-induced modulation of cancer growth and metastasis. In the Eu-myc mouse model of B-cell lymphoma, we investigated the effects of chronically elevated betaAR signaling on lymphoma progression and anti-tumor immunity, as well as the impact on cancer immunotherapy. Chronic treatment with the non-selective beta-agonist isoprenaline promoted lymphoma development in a manner dependent on signaling within the hematopoietic compartment...
November 16, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144028/efficacy-and-safety-of-different-regimens-for-primary-open-angle-glaucoma-or-ocular-hypertension-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#6
Fei Li, Wenbin Huang, Xiulan Zhang
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy and safety of different regimens, including monotherapy and double therapy, for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) or ocular hypertension. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE and clinicaltrials.gov for studies that fit our inclusion criteria in this network meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials that report data on efficacy and safety of medications for POAG or ocular hypertension are included. Data on intra-ocular pressure (IOP) lowering effect and incidence of adverse events including hyperaemia and ocular discomfort were extracted and used in mixed-comparison analysis...
November 16, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143445/glycyrrhiza-uralensis-and-semilicoisoflavone-b-reduce-a%C3%AE-secretion-by-increasing-ppar%C3%AE-expression-and-inhibiting-stat3-phosphorylation-to-inhibit-bace1-expression
#7
Ming-Yao Gu, Yoon Sun Chun, Dong Zhao, Ryu Shi Yong, Hyun Ok Yang
SCOPE: Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract (GUE) has been reported to improve amyloid beta (Aβ) induced cognitive deficits in mice. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect and the components involved have not been previously explored. Extracellular Aβ plaques are one of the major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, decreasing Aβ levels is one strategy for preventing the etiology of AD. This study aimed to test the effect of GUE and semilicoisoflavone B (SB) on Aβ secretion and investigate the mechanism underlying this effect...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142404/chalepin-a-compound-from-ruta-angustifolia-l-pers-exhibits-cell-cycle-arrest-at-s-phase-suppresses-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-signal-transducer-and-activation-of-transcription-3-stat3-phosphorylation-and-extrinsic-apoptotic-pathway-in-non-small-cell
#8
Jaime Stella Moses Richardson, Norhaniza Aminudin, Sri Nurestri Abd Malek
Background: Plants have been a major source of inspiration in developing novel drug compounds in the treatment of various diseases that afflict human beings worldwide. Ruta angustifolia L. Pers known locally as Garuda has been conventionally used for various medicinal purposes such as in the treatment of cancer. Objective: A dihydrofuranocoumarin named chalepin, which was isolated from the chloroform extract of the plant, was tested on its ability to inhibit molecular pathways of human lung carcinoma (A549) cells...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139561/the-novel-potent-and-highly-selective-5-ht4-receptor-agonist-yh12852-significantly-improves-both-upper-and-lower-gastrointestinal-motility
#9
Eun Jeong Jeong, Soo Yong Chung, Han Na Hong, Se-Woong Oh, Jae Young Sim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: 5-HT4 receptor agonists have been shown to be effective to treat various gastrointestinal tract disorders. However, a lack of selectivity against off-targets has been a limiting factor. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The binding affinity and selectivity of YH12852 for human 5-HT4(a) receptor in CHO-K1 cells were evaluated using radioligand binding assays, and agonistic activity was assessed using a beta-lactamase reporter system. Contractile activity and propulsive motility were measured in isolated guinea pig distal colon...
November 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137417/inhibition-of-retinoic-acid-receptor-%C3%AE-signaling-confers-glycolytic-dependence-and-sensitization-to-dichloroacetate-in-melanoma-cells
#10
Cecilie Abildgaard, Christina Dahl, Ahmad Abdul-Al, Annette Christensen, Per Guldberg
Dysregulation of metabolism during melanoma progression is tightly associated with the acquisition of genetic and epigenetic alterations in regulators of metabolic pathways. Retinoic acid receptor beta (RARβ) is epigenetically silenced in a large proportion of melanomas, but a link between RARβ and metabolic rewiring of melanoma has not been established. Here, we show that in primary human melanocytes, all-trans retinoic acid (a RARβ agonist) induced growth inhibition accompanied by a decrease in both glycolytic and oxidative metabolism, whereas selective inhibition of RARβ led to an increase in the basal glycolytic rate and increased sensitivity to inhibition of glycolysis...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127073/estrogen-receptor-beta-maintains-expression-of-klf15-to-prevent-cardiac-myocyte-hypertrophy-in-female-rodents
#11
Neil Hoa, Lisheng Ge, Kenneth S Korach, Ellis R Levin
Maintaining a healthy, anti-hypertrophic state in the heart prevents progression to cardiac failure. In humans, angiotensin II (AngII) indirectly and directly stimulates hypertrophy and progression, while estrogens acting through estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) inhibit these AngII actions. The KLF15 transcription factor has been purported to provide anti-hypertrophic action. In cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, we found AngII inhibited KLF1 expression and nuclear localization, substantially prevented by estradiol (E2) or β-LGND2 (β-LGND2), an ERβ agonist...
November 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127039/biodegradable-sting-agonist-nanoparticles-for-enhanced-cancer-immunotherapy
#12
David R Wilson, Rupashree Sen, Joel C Sunshine, Drew M Pardoll, Jordan J Green, Young J Kim
Therapeutic cancer vaccines require adjuvants leading to robust type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokine responses in the tumor microenvironment to induce an anti-tumor response. Cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), a potent Stimulator of Interferon Receptor (STING) agonist, are currently in phase I trials. However, their efficacy may be limited to micromolar concentrations due to the cytosolic residence of STING in the ER membrane. Here we utilized biodegradable, poly(beta-amino ester) (PBAE) nanoparticles to deliver CDNs to the cytosol leading to robust immune response at >100-fold lower extracellular CDN concentrations in vitro...
November 7, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118839/acute-angle-closure-glaucoma-a-potential-blind-spot-in-critical-care
#13
Anna Petsas, George Chapman, Richard Stewart
We report a case of a 69-year-old gentleman who developed an acutely painful eye with loss of visual acuity whilst on the critical care unit. He was admitted three days previously with an infective exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. In addition, he received intravenous antibiotics, steroids, nebulised bronchodilators and intravenous aminophylline, together with noradrenaline for blood pressure support. On development of visual symptoms, an emergency ophthalmology review diagnosed acute angle closure glaucoma...
August 2017: J Intensive Care Soc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115880/treatment-response-heterogeneity-in-asthma-the-role-of-genetic-variation
#14
Susanne J H Vijverberg, Niloufar Farzan, Elise M A Slob, Anne H Neerincx, Anke H Maitland-van der Zee
Asthmatic patients show a large heterogeneity in response to asthma medication. Rapidly evolving genotyping technologies have led to the identification of various genetic variants associated with treatment outcomes. Areas covered: This review focuses on the current knowledge of genetic variants influencing treatment response to the most commonly used asthma medicines: short- and long-acting beta-2 agonists (SABA/LABA), inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and leukotriene modifiers. This review shows that various genetic variants have been identified, but none are currently used to guide asthma treatment...
November 8, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113424/update-on-the-therapeutic-significance-of-estrogen-receptor-beta-in-malignant-gliomas
#15
REVIEW
Yu-Long Lan, Shuang Zou, Xun Wang, Jia-Cheng Lou, Jin-Shan Xing, Min Yu, Bo Zhang
Malignant glioma is the most fatal of the astrocytic lineage tumors despite therapeutic advances. Men have a higher glioma incidence than women, indicating that estrogen level differences between men and women may influence glioma pathogenesis. However, the mechanism underlying the anticancer effects of estrogen has not been fully clarified and is complicated by the presence of several distinct estrogen receptor types and the identification of a growing number of estrogen receptor splice variants. Specifically, it is generally accepted that estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) functions as a tumor promoter, while estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) functions as a tumor suppressor, and the role and therapeutic significance of ERβ signaling in gliomas remains elusive...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110790/long-term-management-of-patients-with-end-stage-lung-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Domenica Federica Briganti, Frank D'Ovidio
Long-term management of end-stage lung disease differs from interstitial lung disease to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to cystic fibrosis to pulmonary vascular disease. The management includes pharmacological therapy that is disease specific such as antibiotic therapy for cystic fibrosis, antifibrotic drugs in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; long-acting beta-agonists, long-acting muscarinic antagonist, and inhaled corticosteroids in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and vasodilators in pulmonary arterial hypertension...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108533/a-review-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-once-daily-tiotropium-respimat-2-5-micrograms-in-adults-and-adolescents-with-asthma
#17
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Despite current guidelines, many patients with asthma remain symptomatic, particularly those intolerant of,unresponsive to, or uncontrolled by long-acting beta 2-agonists (LABAs). Tiotropium bromide, delivered through the Respimatsoft-mist inhaler in 2 puffs of 1.25 micrograms each, is approved for the long-term, maintenance treatment of asthma in patients aged greater than or equal to 6 years. OBJECTIVE: An overview of the use of once-daily tiotropium Respimat 2...
November 6, 2017: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103996/inhibition-of-abcc4-potentiates-combination-beta-agonist-and-glucocorticoid-responses-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#18
Ryan D Huff, Christopher F Rider, Dong Yan, Robert Newton, Mark A Giembycz, Chris Carlsten, Jeremy A Hirota
ABCC4 inhibition potentiates cAMP signaling and the effect of glucocorticoids at the genomic and functional level, with implications for future asthma management.
November 2, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102337/application-for-authorization-for-therapeutic-use-of-beta-adrenergic-agonists-and-inhaled-corticosteroids-in-athletes-with-asthma
#19
Franchek Drobnic, Jesús Blanco-Alfaro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101219/mir-204-controls-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-expression-and-agonist-function
#20
SeongHo Jo, Junqin Chen, Guanlan Xu, Truman B Grayson, Lance A Thielen, Anath Shalev
Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R) agonists are widely used to treat diabetes. However, their function is dependent on adequate GLP1R expression, which is downregulated in diabetes. GLP1R is highly expressed on pancreatic beta cells and activation by endogenous incretin or GLP1R agonists increases cAMP generation, which stimulates glucose-induced beta cell insulin secretion and helps maintain glucose homeostasis. We now have discovered that the highly beta cell-enriched microRNA, miR-204, directly targets the 3'UTR of GLP1R and thereby downregulates its expression in the beta-cell-derived rat INS-1 cell line and primary mouse and human islets...
November 3, 2017: Diabetes
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