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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926996/small-molecule-modulator-of-sigma-2-receptor-is-neuroprotective-and-reduces-cognitive-deficits-and-neuro-inflammation-in-experimental-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Bitna Yi, James J Sahn, Pooneh Memar Ardestani, Andrew K Evans, Luisa Scott, Jessica Z Chan, Sangeetha Iyer, Ashley Crisp, Gabriella Zuniga, Jonathan Pierce-Shimomura, Stephen F Martin, Mehrdad Shamloo
Accumulating evidence suggests that modulating the sigma 2 receptor (Sig2R) can provide beneficial effects for neurodegenerative diseases. Herein, we report the identification of a novel class of Sig2R binding ligands and their cellular and in vivo activity in experimental models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We report that SAS-0132 and DKR-1051, selective ligands of Sig2R, modulate intracellular Ca(2+) levels in human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. The Sig2R antagonists SAS-0132 and JVW-1009 are neuroprotective in a C...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926989/targeting-gm-csf-in-epithelial-and-vascular-remodeling-in-experimental-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#2
Eóin N McNamee, Kathryn A Biette, Juliet Hammer, Rachel Harris, Heather Miyazawa, James J Lee, Glenn T Furuta, Joanne C Masterson
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic antigen-mediated clinicopathologic disease of the esophagus characterized by an eosinophil-predominant inflammatory infiltrate. A clinical hallmark is extensive tissue remodeling including basal zone hyperplasia, fibrosis and angiogenesis. However, the cellular mechanisms responsible for these processes are not fully defined. We hypothesized that targeting GM-CSF (an agonist cytokine linked with eosinophil survival and activation) would be protective in a pre-clinical model of EoE...
December 7, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926952/growth-hormone-treatment-increases-plasma-irisin-concentration-in-patients-with-turner-syndrome
#3
B Wikiera, K Zawadzka, Ł Łaczmański, N Słoka, M Bolanowski, A Basiak, A Noczyńska, J Daroszewski
Irisin (Ir) deficiency may be a contributing factor in metabolic disease. This study aimed to investigate the effect of supraphysiological doses of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on Ir plasma concentration in relation to metabolic disorders, including obesity and other components of metabolic syndrome. We studied 36 girls with Turner syndrome (mean age 8.2 years) treated with rhGH (0.05 mg/kg/day). Anthropometric data and fasting blood levels [e. g., Ir, insulin, glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), IGF-1, IGFBP-3, cholesterol, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and β-cell function (HOMA-β)] were analyzed prior to and following rhGH therapy [mean (SD) follow-up of 1...
December 7, 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926939/a-bystander-mechanism-explains-the-specific-phenotype-of-a-broadly-expressed-misfolded-protein
#4
Lauren Klabonski, Ji Zha, Lakshana Senthilkumar, Tali Gidalevitz
Misfolded proteins in transgenic models of conformational diseases interfere with proteostasis machinery and compromise the function of many structurally and functionally unrelated metastable proteins. This collateral damage to cellular proteins has been termed 'bystander' mechanism. How a single misfolded protein overwhelms the proteostasis, and how broadly-expressed mutant proteins cause cell type-selective phenotypes in disease are open questions. We tested the gain-of-function mechanism of a R37C folding mutation in an endogenous IGF-like C...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926938/uncovering-the-pathogenic-landscape-of-helminth-opisthorchis-viverrini-infections-a-cross-sectional-study-on-contributions-of-physical-and-social-environment-and-healthcare-interventions
#5
Xueyuan Ong, Yi-Chen Wang, Paiboon Sithithaworn, Jutamas Namsanor, David Taylor, Luxana Laithavewat
BACKGROUND: Helminth infections have proven recalcitrant to control by chemotherapy in many parts of Southeast Asia and indeed farther afield. This study isolates and examines the influence of different aspects of the physical and social environment, and uneven intervention effort contributing to the pathogenic landscape of human Opisthorchis viverrini infections. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey, involving 632 participants, was conducted in four villages in northeast Thailand to examine the impact on prevalence and parasite burden of the reservoir dam environment, socio-economic, demographic, and behavioral factors, and health center intervention efforts...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926937/intensive-circulation-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-in-peri-urban-sentinel-pigs-near-phnom-penh-cambodia
#6
Julien Cappelle, Veasna Duong, Long Pring, Lida Kong, Maud Yakovleff, Didot Budi Prasetyo, Borin Peng, Rithy Choeung, Raphaël Duboz, Sivuth Ong, San Sorn, Philippe Dussart, Arnaud Tarantola, Philippe Buchy, Véronique Chevalier
Despite the increased use of vaccination in several Asian countries, Japanese Encephalitis (JE) remains the most important cause of viral encephalitis in Asia in humans with an estimated 68,000 cases annually. Considered a rural disease occurring mainly in paddy-field dominated landscapes where pigs are amplifying hosts, JE may nevertheless circulate in a wider range of environment given the diversity of its potential hosts and vectors. The main objective of this study was to assess the intensity of JE transmission to pigs in a peri-urban environment in the outskirt of Phnom Penh, Cambodia...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926933/comparative-analysis-of-dengue-and-zika-outbreaks-reveals-differences-by-setting-and-virus
#7
Sebastian Funk, Adam J Kucharski, Anton Camacho, Rosalind M Eggo, Laith Yakob, Lawrence M Murray, W John Edmunds
The pacific islands of Micronesia have experienced several outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases over the past decade. In outbreaks on small islands, the susceptible population is usually well defined, and there is no co-circulation of pathogens. Because of this, analysing such outbreaks can be useful for understanding the transmission dynamics of the pathogens involved, and particularly so for yet understudied pathogens such as Zika virus. Here, we compared three outbreaks of dengue and Zika virus in two different island settings in Micronesia, the Yap Main Islands and Fais, using a mathematical model of transmission dynamics and making full use of commonalities in disease and setting between the outbreaks...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926932/epsin-family-member-3-and-ribosome-related-genes-are-associated-with-late-metastasis-in-estrogen-receptor-positive-breast-cancer-and-long-term-survival-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-using-a-genome-wide-identification-and-validation-strategy
#8
Birte Hellwig, Katrin Madjar, Karolina Edlund, Rosemarie Marchan, Cristina Cadenas, Anne-Sophie Heimes, Katrin Almstedt, Antje Lebrecht, Isabel Sicking, Marco J Battista, Patrick Micke, Marcus Schmidt, Jan G Hengstler, Jörg Rahnenführer
BACKGROUND: In breast cancer, gene signatures that predict the risk of metastasis after surgical tumor resection are mainly indicative of early events. The purpose of this study was to identify genes linked to metastatic recurrence more than three years after surgery. METHODS: Affymetrix HG U133A and Plus 2.0 array datasets with information on metastasis-free, disease-free or overall survival were accessed via public repositories. Time restricted Cox regression models were used to identify genes associated with metastasis during or after the first three years post-surgery (early- and late-type genes)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926854/structural-characterization-and-statistical-mechanical-model-of-epidermal-patterns
#9
Duyu Chen, Wen Yih Aw, Danelle Devenport, Salvatore Torquato
In proliferating epithelia of mammalian skin, cells of irregular polygon-like shapes pack into complex, nearly flat two-dimensional structures that are pliable to deformations. In this work, we employ various sensitive correlation functions to quantitatively characterize structural features of evolving packings of epithelial cells across length scales in mouse skin. We find that the pair statistics in direct space (correlation function) and Fourier space (structure factor) of the cell centroids in the early stages of embryonic development show structural directional dependence (statistical anisotropy), which is a reflection of the fact that cells are stretched, which promotes uniaxial growth along the epithelial plane...
December 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926845/membrane-bound-alpha-synuclein-clusters-induce-impaired-lipid-diffusion-and-increased-lipid-packing
#10
Aditya Iyer, Nathalie Schilderink, Mireille M A E Claessens, Vinod Subramaniam
The aggregation of membrane-bound α-synuclein (αS) into oligomers and/or amyloid fibrils has been suggested to cause membrane damage in in vitro model phospholipid membrane systems and in vivo. In this study, we investigate how αS interactions that precede the formation of well-defined aggregates influence physical membrane properties. Using three truncated variants of αS with different aggregation propensities and comparable phospholipid membrane binding affinities we show, using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence anisotropy measurements, that formation of αS clusters on supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) impairs lateral lipid diffusion and increases lipid packing beneath the αS clusters...
December 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926759/mortality-and-prehospital-blood-pressure-in-patients-with-major-traumatic-brain-injury-implications-for-the-hypotension-threshold
#11
Daniel W Spaite, Chengcheng Hu, Bentley J Bobrow, Vatsal Chikani, Duane Sherrill, Bruce Barnhart, Joshua B Gaither, Kurt R Denninghoff, Chad Viscusi, Terry Mullins, P David Adelson
Importance: Current prehospital traumatic brain injury guidelines use a systolic blood pressure threshold of less than 90 mm Hg for treating hypotension for individuals 10 years and older based on studies showing higher mortality when blood pressure drops below this level. However, the guidelines also acknowledge the weakness of the supporting evidence. Objective: To evaluate whether any statistically supportable threshold between systolic pressure and mortality emerges from the data a priori, without assuming that a cut point exists...
December 7, 2016: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926678/cost-minimization-analysis-of-open-and-endoscopic-carpal-tunnel-release
#12
Steven Zhang, Molly Vora, Alex H S Harris, Laurence Baker, Catherine Curtin, Robin N Kamal
BACKGROUND: Carpal tunnel release is the most common upper-limb surgical procedure performed annually in the U.S. There are 2 surgical methods of carpal tunnel release: open or endoscopic. Currently, there is no clear clinical or economic evidence supporting the use of one procedure over the other. We completed a cost-minimization analysis of open and endoscopic carpal tunnel release, testing the null hypothesis that there is no difference between the procedures in terms of cost. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review using a private-payer and Medicare Advantage database composed of 16 million patient records from 2007 to 2014...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926675/improvement-in-total-joint-replacement-quality-metrics-year-one-versus-year-three-of-the-bundled-payments-for-care-improvement-initiative
#13
John M Dundon, Joseph Bosco, James Slover, Stephen Yu, Yousuf Sayeed, Richard Iorio
BACKGROUND: In January 2013, a large, tertiary, urban academic medical center began participation in the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement (BPCI) initiative for total joint arthroplasty, a program implemented by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) in 2011. Medicare Severity-Diagnosis Related Groups (MS-DRGs) 469 and 470 were included. We participated in BPCI Model 2, by which an episode of care includes the inpatient and all post-acute care costs through 90 days following discharge...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926662/alcohol-consumption-and-risk-of-gallstone-disease-a-meta-analysis
#14
Jiantao Wang, Xiaolin Duan, Bingrong Li, Xiubo Jiang
Epidemiology studies have been carried out to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and the risk of gallstone disease, but the results remain controversial. We carried out a meta-analysis to quantitatively summarize the evidences from observational studies on alcohol consumption and the risk of gallstone disease. Eligible studies published in English were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases. The random-effect model was used to calculate the pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
December 6, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926642/ovarian-conservation-and-overall-survival-in-young-women-with-early-stage-cervical-cancer
#15
Koji Matsuo, Hiroko Machida, Donna Shoupe, Alexander Melamed, Laila I Muderspach, Lynda D Roman, Jason D Wright
OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of ovarian conservation at hysterectomy and to examine the association of ovarian conservation and survival of young women with early-stage cervical cancer. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program to identify hysterectomy-based surgically treated patients with stage I cervical cancer diagnosed between 1983 and 2012 (N=16,511). Multivariable models were used to identify independent factors associated with ovarian conservation...
December 2, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926640/preeclampsia-and-long-term-risk-of-maternal-retinal-disorders
#16
Nathalie Auger, William D Fraser, Gilles Paradis, Jessica Healy-Profitós, Ada Hsieh, Marc-André Rhéaume
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether preeclampsia is associated with risk of maternal retinal disease in the decades after pregnancy. METHODS: We carried out a longitudinal cohort study of 1,108,541 women who delivered neonates in any hospital in Quebec, Canada, between 1989 and 2013. We tracked women for later hospitalizations until March 31, 2014. Preeclampsia was measured at delivery categorized by severity (mild or severe) and onset (before or at 34 weeks or more of gestation)...
December 2, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926632/a-pooled-analysis-of-robotic-versus-laparoscopic-surgery-for-colon-cancer
#17
Bo-Shi Duan, Guo-Hua Zhao, Helen Yang, Yue Wang
OBJECTIVE: An increasing number of studies have been reported since the "Da Vinci" Robotic System was used in gastrointestinal disease. Thus, we conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the safety and efficacy of robotic colectomy (RC) compared with laparoscopic colectomy (LC) in the treatment of colon cancer. METHOD: A systematic search of Medline, Embase databases, and the Cochrane Library was performed to identify studies that compared RC and LC and were published up to February 2015...
December 2016: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926565/oncologic-outcomes-following-laparoscopic-versus-open-resection-of-pt4-colon-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Adina E Feinberg, Tyler R Chesney, Sergio A Acuna, Tarik Sammour, Fayez A Quereshy
BACKGROUND: Locally advanced colon cancer is considered a relative contraindication for laparoscopic resection, and clinical trials addressing the oncologic safety are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to synthesize the oncologic outcomes associated with laparoscopic versus conventional open surgery for locally advanced colon cancers. DATA SOURCES: We systematically searched Medline, Embase, Central, and ClinicalTrials.gov. STUDY SELECTION: Two reviewers independently screened the literature for controlled trials or observational studies comparing curative-intent laparoscopic and open surgery for colon cancer...
January 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926548/liver-transplantation-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-current-update-on-treatment-and-allocation
#19
Leigh Anne Dageforde, Kathryn J Fowler, William C Chapman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the current imaging modalities and criteria used to diagnose, and the role of liver transplantation as well as nonsurgical hepatic-directed therapies to treat hepatocellular carcinoma in the setting of chronic liver disease. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been continual evolution of guidelines, policies, and algorithms for the imaging diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, particularly the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926546/the-effect-of-chronic-kidney-disease-on-t-cell-alloimmunity
#20
Pamela D Winterberg, Mandy L Ford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Altered differentiation and activation of T-cell subsets occur in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the impact on graft rejection and protective immunity during transplantation are not fully understood. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with CKD have decreased frequency of naïve T cells, accumulation of activated, terminally differentiated memory cells, and skewed regulatory versus T helper 17 ratio. Naïve and memory T-cell subsets do not appear to improve following kidney transplantation...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
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