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Disinhibit eAr

Christopher J Fassnidge, Elliot D Freeman
Some people hear what they see: car indicator lights, flashing neon shop signs, and people's movements as they walk may all trigger an auditory sensation, which we call the visual-evoked auditory response (vEAR or 'visual ear'). We have conducted the first large-scale online survey (N > 4000) of this little-known phenomenon. We analysed the prevalence of vEAR, what induces it, and what other traits are associated with it. We assessed prevalence by asking whether respondents had previously experienced vEAR...
March 9, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Mariano Marrodan, Jorge Correale, Lucas Alessandro, Mariela Amaya, Maria Eugenia Fracaro, Alejandro Alfredo Köhler, Marcela Fiol
INTRODUCTION: Susac Syndrome is an autoimmune endotheliopathy affecting capillaries and precapillary arterioles of the brain, inner ear and retina. The classic symptom triad includes visual disturbances, hypoacusia, and encephalopathy, but is rarely fully manifest at onset. The syndrome typically follows an active fluctuating monophasic course. Typical imaging findings on brain magnetic resonance show central fiber microischemias/microinfarctions of the corpus callosum known as "snow balls", as well as lineal infarcts and upper callosal fiber involvement...
July 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Federica Bressi, Manuele Casale, Rocco Papalia, Antonio Moffa, Alberto Di Martino, Sandra Miccinilli, Fabrizio Salvinelli, Vincenzo Denaro, Silvia Sterzi
Subjective tinnitus and cervical spine disorders (CSD) are among the most common complaints encountered by physicians. Although the relationship between tinnitus and CSD has attracted great interest during the past several years, the pathogenesis of tinnitus induced by CSD remains unclear. Conceivably, CSD could trigger a somatosensory pathway-induced disinhibition of dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) activity in the auditory pathway; furthermore, CSD can cause inner ear blood impairment induced by vertebral arteries hemodynamic alterations and trigeminal irritation...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
M R D Maslin, S K Lloyd, S Rutherford, S Freeman, A King, D R Moore, K J Munro
Individuals with sudden unilateral deafness offer a unique opportunity to study plasticity of the binaural auditory system in adult humans. Stimulation of the intact ear results in increased activity in the auditory cortex. However, there are no reports of changes at sub-cortical levels in humans. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate changes in sub-cortical activity immediately before and after the onset of surgically induced unilateral deafness in adult humans. Click-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to stimulation of the healthy ear were recorded from ten adults during the course of translabyrinthine surgery for the removal of a unilateral acoustic neuroma...
October 2015: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
James L Goodson, David Kabelik, Sara E Schrock
The homologous neuropeptides vasotocin (VT) and vasopressin (VP) influence agonistic behaviours across many taxa, but peptide-behaviour relationships are complex and purportedly species-specific. Putative species-specific effects in songbirds are confounded with context, however, such that territorial species have been tested only in resident-intruder paradigms and gregarious species have been tested only in a mate competition paradigm. Using the territorial violet-eared waxbill (Estrildidae: Uraeginthus granatina), we now show that a V(1a) receptor antagonist reduces male aggression during mate competition (as in gregarious finches), but does not affect resident-intruder aggression in dominant males...
August 23, 2009: Biology Letters
Chris J Jackson
A series of eight studies focuses on how the avoidance system represented by neuroticism can lead to disinhibited approach tendencies. Based on research which argues that hemispheric preferences predispose the left hemisphere to fast action goal formation, and contralateral pathways between ear and brain, it is proposed that (a) people with a right ear preference will engage in fast action goal formation and (b) disinhibited approach results from neurotic people who reduce anxiety by means of fast action goal formation...
July 2008: Laterality
M D Ross, J E Dayhoff, D H Mugler
Mammalian macular endorgans are linear bioaccelerometers located in the vestibular membranous labyrinth of the inner ear. In this paper, the organization of the endorgan is interpreted on physical and engineering principles. This is a necessary prerequisite to mathematical and symbolic modeling of information processing by the macular neural network. Mathematical notations that describe the functioning system were used to produce a novel, symbolic model. The model is six-tiered and is constructed to mimic the neural system...
1990: Mathematical and Computer Modelling
R A Levine
PURPOSE: Of all nonauditory sensory systems, only the somatosensory system seems to be related to tinnitus (eg, temporomandibular joint syndrome and whiplash). The purpose of this study is to describe the distinguishing characteristics of tinnitus associated with somatic events and to use these characteristics to develop a neurological model of somatic tinnitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Case series. RESULTS: Some patients with tinnitus, but no other hearing complaints, share several clinical features including (1) an associated somatic disorder of the head or upper neck, (2) localization of the tinnitus to the ear ipsilateral to the somatic disorder, (3) no vestibular complaints, and (4) no abnormalities on neurological examination...
November 1999: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Y L Hsieh, S S Chen, T J Chen
The olivocochlear bundle (OCB) stems from the superior olivary complex in the brainstem and projects to the ipsilateral and contralateral cochlea. Several studies have suggested that the OCB has a suppressive effect on the inner ear by inhibiting the responses of the primary afferent fibers. To evaluate the action of OCB by more available measurement, radiofrequency lesion was applied to 30 Wistar rats which were divided into four groups, a sham group and another three groups with different OCB lesion sites...
November 1998: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
T Kitahara, N Takeda, T Saika, T Kubo, H Kiyama
After unilateral labyrinthectomy in rats, Fos-like immunoreactive neurons appeared in the ipsilateral medial vestibular nucleus, contralateral prepositus hypoglossal nucleus and contralateral inferior olive beta subnucleus. and thereafter gradually disappeared in accordance with the development of vestibular compensation. This finding indicated that the activation of these nuclei is the initial event of vestibular compensation. In the present study, retrograde tracing experiments revealed that these Fos-like immunoreactive neurons project a proportion of their axons to the vestibulocerebellum (uvula-nodulus, flocculus)...
January 1997: Neuroscience
L Wiegrebe, M Kössl, S Schmidt
Auditory enhancement describes an improvement in the detection of a tonal signal in a broad-band masker with a spectral gap at the signal frequency if the signal is delayed in its onset relative to the masker. This auditory enhancement may be based on an increase of the effective signal level instead of a decline in the effective masker level. In order to evaluate whether this signal enhancement also exists at the threshold of hearing, we measured the absolute threshold for pure-tone pulses of different frequencies with and without preceding band-rejected noise...
October 1996: Hearing Research
J Wang, R J Salvi, N Powers
1. The discharge patterns of 40 neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) of the chinchilla were evaluated before and after acute cochlea trauma from intense tone exposure. Single-unit recordings were obtained from neurons in the ICC contralateral to the sound-stimulated ear. Cochlear trauma was induced with a short-duration (15-25 min), high-intensity pure tone (95-115 dB SPL) at a frequency above the neuron's characteristic frequency (CF). The aim of the traumatizing exposure was to damage the peripheral sensory receptors associated with frequencies above the neuron's CF...
January 1996: Journal of Neurophysiology
T Kitahara, N Takeda, T Saika, T Kubo, H Kiyama
Unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL) causes ocular and postural asymmetries, which disappear over time in the processes of equilibrium recovery known as vestibular compensation. It has been reported that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are involved in vestibular compensation. In the present study, in order to elucidate the NMDA receptor-mediated neural circuit responsible for the development of vestibular compensation, we used Fos expression as a marker of neural activation and examined the effects of MK801, a specific antagonist of NMDA receptors, on UL-induced Fos expression in the rat brainstem...
November 27, 1995: Brain Research
K H Lee
Atypical facial pain is a loose term used to encompass a wide range of facial pain syndromes including those of dental and ear, nose and throat (ENT) aetiology. Often, it is associated with psychiatric conditions like depression and psychosomatic illnesses. This facial pain typically does not follow anatomical boundaries or its explainable by present day neurophysiological understanding. The pain is often constant with no remission and is aggravated by stress. Treatment is difficult and often directed to the psychiatric cause...
March 1993: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
C Cirelli, P D'Ascanio, E Horn, O Pompeiano, G Stampacchia
1. The possibility that the norepinephrine (NE)-containing locus coeruleus (LC) neurons produce changes in posture as well as in gain of the vestibulospinal (VS) reflexes by acting on the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum (DPT) and the related medullary inhibitory reticulospinal (RS) system through alpha 1-adrenoceptors has been investigated in decerebrate cats. 2. Injection of the alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin PRZ (0.25 microliter at 0.1-1 microgram/microliter solvent) into the DPT, namely in the dorsal pontine reticular formation (pRF), as well as in the peribrachial nucleus of one side, decreased the postural activity in the ipsilateral limbs while increasing that of the contralateral limbs...
September 1993: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
W Niemeyer, I Starlinger
The same 18 normally hearing students and 18 matched normal-sighted students, as in part I of this study, were compared in regard to pure-tone integration, speech discrimination ability and late cortical-evoked potentials. The blind subjects showed increased disinhibition ('cleaning') with broad-band noise and a decreased inhibition with the same stimulus at the contralateral ear, better speech discrimination, especially with regard to sentence tests without and with competing environment-simulating noise, and, by electric response audiometry (ERA), a shortened N1 latency...
1981: Audiology: Official Organ of the International Society of Audiology
N S Khan, U Schwabl, D E Trincker
Mechano-electric transduction and neuronal transmission were studied in sensory systems ascending from and descending to single receptor cells of the labyrinth organs in submammalian vertebrates. The animals were young crocodiles (Caiman crocodilus), geckos (Gekko gecko, Tarentola mauritanica), and turtles (Pseudemys scripta elegans, Chinemys reevesii). Intracellular receptor potentials from the apical region of the hair cell (or from the ciliary surface) were recorded in the ampullar, macular, and papillar sensory cells...
1982: Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
O Pompeiano, P Wand, U C Srivastava
The contraction of limb extensor muscles during side-down roll tilt of the animal depends upon an increased discharge of excitatory vestibulospinal (VS) neurons (alpha-response) and a reduced discharge of inhibitory reticulospinal (RS) neurons of the medulla (beta-response), both acting on ipsilateral limb extensor motoneurons. In the decerebrate cat, a modulation of the multiunit EMG activity was clearly present in forelimb extensors, but was extremely weak or absent in hindlimb extensors. Experiments performed in decerebrate cats with the deefferented GS muscle fixed at a constant length have shown that Renshaw (R)-cells, monosynaptically coupled with gastrocnemius-soleus (GS) motoneurons, were either unresponsive or displayed only very weak, small amplitude alpha-responses to sinusoidal stimulation of labyrinth receptors elicited during slow head rotation after bilateral neck deafferentation...
May 1985: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
C L Schmidt
Peripheral paroxysmal, benign positional vertigo is one of the most common peripheral vestibular disorders. According to the "cupulolithiasis hypothesis", it is assumed that inorganic material is attached to the cupula of the posterior vertical canal which renders this organ sensitive to gravitational forces rather than angular accelerations. Quantitative and well-controlled positioning manoeuvres, however, show that the characteristics of this kind of vertigo and the corresponding nystagmus cannot be explained by gravitation-dependent cupular reactions...
March 1985: Laryngologie, Rhinologie, Otologie
N Simha, J Paquereau, Y Cazals, J M Aran
Brainstem auditory-evoked potentials (BAEP) were recorded between vertex and tragus in 22 guinea pigs, after destruction of the contralateral ear in order to produce monaural stimulation. Stimuli employed were 100 dB SPL clicks and tone bursts. Normative recordings showed five positive peaks, P1-P5 and four negative peaks, N1-N4. Electrolytic lesions were then made to the superior olivary complex (SOC) ipsilateral to the stimulation (6 animals), contralateral to the stimulation (8 animals), and trapezoid body (TB) (8 animals)...
1988: Audiology: Official Organ of the International Society of Audiology
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