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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783017/the-hydro-ethanolic-extract-of-acacia-seyal-mimosaceae-stem-barks-induced-death-in-an-er-negative-breast-cancer-cell-line-by-the-intrinsic-pathway-of-apoptosis-and-inhibited-cell-migration
#1
Stephane Zingue, Thomas Michel, Julia Cisilotto, Alain Brice Tueche, Derek Tantoh Ndinteh, Leônidas João Mello, Dieudonné Njamen, Tânia Beatriz Creczynski-Pasa
BACKGROUND: Despite the significant developments occurring in the treatment of cancer, it still remains the second deadly disease, responsible for 8.2 million deaths every year. Various natural substances have been studied for active molecules of tumor suppression in the past and the tropical flora, by its diversity, continues to provide new antitumor drugs. Acacia seyal is a plant used in Cameroonian traditional system to treat cancer. It exhibited cytotoxic effects towards human breast adenocarcinoma cells...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782967/deficient-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-il-2-activated-nk-cells-correlates-with-impaired-pgc1-%C3%AE-upregulation-in-elderly-humans
#2
Dante Miranda, Claudia Jara, Sophia Mejias, Viviana Ahumada, Marcelo Cortez-San Martin, Jorge Ibañez, Sandra Hirsch, Margarita Montoya
Immunosenescence has been described as age-associated changes in the immune function which are thought to be responsible for the increased morbidity with age. Human Natural Killer (NK) cells are a specialized heterogeneous subpopulation of lymphocytes involved in immune defense against tumor and microbial diseases. Interestingly, aging-related NK cell dysfunction is associated with features of aging such as tumor incidence, reduced vaccination efficacy, and short survival due to infection. It is known that NK cell effector functions are critically dependent on cytokines and metabolic activity...
May 18, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782903/two-new-flavonoid-triterpene-saponin-meroterpenoids-from-clinopodium-chinense-and-their-protective-effects-against-anoxia-reoxygenation-induced-apoptosis-in-h9c2-cells
#3
Yin-Di Zhu, Rong-Chang Chen, Hong Wang, Hai Jiang, Xue-Li Huang, Mei-Ling Zhang, Ling-Yu Li, Zhen Hu, Xu-Dong Xu, Chao-Jie Wang, Xiao-Xia Ye, Jun-Shan Yang
Two new flavonoid-triterpene saponin meroterpenoids, clinoposides G (1) and H (2) were isolated from the aerial parts of Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Kuntze. Their structures were elucidated through spectroscopic and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) analyses. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for their protective effects against anoxia/reoxygenation(A/R)-induced injury in H9c2 cells. A/R treatment severely injured the H9c2 cells, which was accompanied by apoptosis. Both 1 and 2 pretreatment significantly inhibited cell injury and apoptosis, improved mitochondrial membrane potential, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes, and reduced the levels of the inflammatory cytokines...
May 18, 2018: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782848/impaired-tfeb-mediated-lysosome-biogenesis-and-autophagy-promote-chronic-ethanol-induced-liver-injury-and-steatosis-in-mice
#4
Xiaojuan Chao, Shaogui Wang, Katrina Zhao, Yuan Li, Jessica A Williams, Tiangang Li, Hemantkumar Chavan, Partha Krishnamurthy, Xi C He, Linheng Li, Andrea Ballabio, Hong-Min Ni, Wen-Xing Ding
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Defects in lysosome function and autophagy contribute to pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. We investigated the mechanisms by which alcohol consumption affects these processes, evaluating the functions transcription factor EB (TFEB), which regulates lysosomal biogenesis. METHODS: We performed studies with GFP-LC3 mice, mice with liver-specific deletion of transcription factor EB (TFEB), mice with disruption of the transcription factor E3 gene (TFE3-knockout mice), mice with disruption of the Tefb and Tfe3 genes (TFEB, TFE3 double-knockout mice), and Tfebflox/flox albumin cre-negative mice (controls)...
May 18, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782829/global-phylogeography-and-genetic-diversity-of-the-zoonotic-tapeworm-echinococcus-granulosus-sensu-stricto-genotype-g11
#5
Liina Kinkar, Teivi Laurimäe, Gerardo Acosta-Jamett, Vanessa Andresiuk, Ibrahim Balkaya, Adriano Casulli, Robin B Gasser, Joke van der Giessen, Luis Miguel González, Karen L Haag, Houria Zait, Malik Irshadullah, Abdul Jabbar, David J Jenkins, Eshrat Beigom Kia, Maria Teresa Manfredi, Hossein Mirhendi, Selim M'rad, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Myriam Oudni-M'rad, Nora Beatriz Pierangeli, Francisco Ponce-Gordo, Steffen Rehbein, Mitra Sharbatkhori, Sami Simsek, Silvia Viviana Soriano, Hein Sprong, Viliam Šnábel, Gérald Umhang, Antonio Varcasia, Urmas Saarma
Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is the major cause of human cystic echinococcosis worldwide and is listed among the most severe parasitic diseases of humans. To date, numerous studies have investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of E. granulosus s.s. in various geographic regions. However, there has been no global study. Recently, using mitochondrial DNA, it was shown that E. granulosus s.s. G1 and G3 are distinct genotypes, but a larger dataset is required to confirm the distinction of these genotypes...
May 18, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782493/dissecting-the-phyloepidemiology-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-i-tci-in-brazil-by-the-use-of-high-resolution-genetic-markers
#6
Fabiola Roman, Samanta das Chagas Xavier, Louisa A Messenger, Márcio G Pavan, Michael A Miles, Ana María Jansen, Matthew Yeo
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease, is monophyletic but genetically heterogeneous. It is currently represented by six genetic lineages (Discrete Typing Units, DTUs) designated TcI-TcVI. TcI is the most geographically widespread and genetically heterogeneous lineage, this as is evidenced by a wide range of genetic markers applied to isolates spanning a vast geographic range in Latin America. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In total, 78 TcI isolated from hosts and vectors distributed in 5 different biomes of Brazil, were analyzed using 6 nuclear housekeeping genes, 25 microsatellite loci and one mitochondrial marker...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782339/transcription-factors-foxo-in-the-regulation-of-homeostatic-hematopoiesis
#7
Vijay Menon, Saghi Ghaffari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Work in the past decade has revealed key functions of the evolutionary conserved transcription factors Forkhead box O (FOXO) in the maintenance of homeostatic hematopoiesis. Here the diverse array of FOXO functions in normal and diseased hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is reviewed and the main findings in the past decade are highlighted. Future work should reveal FOXO-regulated networks whose alterations contribute to hematological disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have identified unanticipated FOXO functions in hematopoiesis including in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), erythroid cells, and immune cells...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782205/nad-repletion-produces-no-therapeutic-effect-in-mice-with-respiratory-chain-complex-iii-deficiency-and-chronic-energy-deprivation
#8
Janne Purhonen, Jayasimman Rajendran, Saara Tegelberg, Olli-Pekka Smolander, Eija Pirinen, Jukka Kallijärvi, Vineta Fellman
Biosynthetic precursors of NAD+ can replenish a decreased cellular NAD+ pool and, supposedly via sirtuin (SIRT) deacetylases, improve mitochondrial function. We found decreased hepatic NAD+ concentration and downregulated biosynthesis in Bcs1lp.S78G knock-in mice with respiratory chain complex III deficiency and mitochondrial hepatopathy. Aiming at ameliorating disease progression via NAD+ repletion and improved mitochondrial function, we fed these mice nicotinamide riboside (NR), a NAD+ precursor. A targeted metabolomics verified successful administration and suggested enhanced NAD+ biosynthesis in the treated mice, although hepatic NAD+ concentration was unchanged at the end point...
May 21, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781146/modulation-of-serine-threonine-phosphatases-by-melatonin-therapeutic-approaches-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Raquel L Arribas, Alejandro Romero, Javier Egea, Cristóbal de Los Ríos
Melatonin is an endogenous hormone produced by the pineal gland as well as many other tissues and organs. The natural decline in melatonin levels with aging strongly contributes to the development of neurodegenerative disorders. Neurodegenerative diseases share common mechanisms of toxicity such as proteinopathy, mitochondrial dysfunction, metal dyshomeostasis, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and an imbalance in the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation ratio. Several reports have proved the usefulness of melatonin in counteracting the events that lead to a neurodegenerative scenario...
May 20, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780824/clinical-histological-and-immunohistochemical-findings-in-inclusion-body-myositis
#10
Leonardo Valente de Camargo, Mary Souza de Carvalho, Samuel Katsuyuki Shinjo, Acary Souza Bulle de Oliveira, Edmar Zanoteli
Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is considered the most common acquired myopathy aged over 50 years. The disease is characterized by a particular process of muscle degeneration characterized by abnormal deposit of protein aggregates in association with inflammation. The aim of this study was to present clinical and muscle histopathological findings, including immunostaining for LC3B, p62, α -synuclein, and TDP-43, in 18 patients with sIBM. The disease predominated in males (61%) and European descendants, with onset of clinical manifestations around 59 years old...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780380/mitochondrial-damage-associated-molecular-patterns-from-inflammatory-signaling-to-human-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Serge Grazioli, Jérôme Pugin
Over the recent years, much has been unraveled about the pro-inflammatory properties of various mitochondrial molecules once they are leaving the mitochondrial compartment. On entering the cytoplasm or the extracellular space, mitochondrial DAMPs (also known as mitochondrial alarmins) can become pro-inflammatory and initiate innate and adaptive immune responses by activating cell surface and intracellular receptors. Current evidence indicates that uncontrolled and excessive release of mitochondrial DAMPs is associated with severity, has prognosis value in human diseases, and contributes to the dysregulated process observed in numerous inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, as well as in ischemic heart disease and cancer...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780003/a-disease-associated-aifm1-variant-induces-severe-myopathy-in-knockin-mice
#12
Lena Wischhof, Anna Gioran, Dagmar Sonntag-Bensch, Antonia Piazzesi, Miriam Stork, Pierluigi Nicotera, Daniele Bano
OBJECTIVE: Mutations in the AIFM1 gene have been identified in recessive X-linked mitochondrial diseases. Functional and molecular consequences of these pathogenic AIFM1 mutations have been poorly studied in vivo. METHODS/RESULTS: Here we provide evidence that the disease-associated apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) deletion arginine 201 (R200 in rodents) causes pathology in knockin mice. Within a few months, posttranslational loss of the mutant AIF protein induces severe myopathy associated with a lower number of cytochrome c oxidase-positive muscle fibers...
May 8, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779728/association-between-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-glu504lys-polymorphism-and-alcoholic-liver-disease
#13
Binxia Chang, Shuli Hao, Longyu Zhang, Miaomiao Gao, Ying Sun, Ang Huang, Guangju Teng, Baosen Li, David W Crabb, Praveen Kusumanchi, Li Wang, Suthat Liangpunsakul, Zhengsheng Zou
BACKGROUND: Only a subset of patients with excessive alcohol use develop alcoholic liver disease (ALD), though the exact mechanism is not completely understood. Once ingested, alcohol is metabolized by 2 key oxidative enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). There are 2 major ALDH isoforms, cytosolic and mitochondrial, encoded by the aldehyde ALDH1 and ALDH2 genes, respectively. The ALDH2 gene was hypothesized to alter genetic susceptibility to alcohol dependence and alcohol-induced liver diseases...
March 20, 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779213/differential-toxicity-of-tdp-43-isoforms-depends-on-their-sub-mitochondrial-localization-in-neuronal-cells
#14
Illari Salvatori, Alberto Ferri, Silvia Scaricamazza, Ilaria Giovannelli, Alessia Serrano, Simona Rossi, Nadia D'Ambrosi, Mauro Cozzolino, Andrea Di Giulio, Sandra Moreno, Cristiana Valle, Maria Teresa Carrì
TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is an RNA binding protein and a major component of protein aggregates found in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and several other neurodegenerative diseases. TDP-43 exists as a full length protein and as two shorter forms of 25 and 35 kDa. Full length mutant TDP-43s found in ALS patients re-localize from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and in part to mitochondria, where they exert a toxic role associated with neurodegeneration. However, induction of mitochondrial damage by TDP-43 fragments is yet to be clarified...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778900/hereditary-sensory-neuropathy-type-1-associated-deoxysphingolipids-cause-neurotoxicity-acute-calcium-handling-abnormalities-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-vitro
#15
Emma R Wilson, Umaiyal Kugathasan, Andrey Y Abramov, Alex J Clark, David L H Bennett, Mary M Reilly, Linda Greensmith, Bernadett Kalmar
Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 (HSN-1) is a peripheral neuropathy most frequently caused by mutations in the SPTLC1 or SPTLC2 genes, which code for two subunits of the enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). SPT catalyzes the first step of de novo sphingolipid synthesis. Mutations in SPT result in a change in enzyme substrate specificity, which causes the production of atypical deoxysphinganine and deoxymethylsphinganine, rather than the normal enzyme product, sphinganine. Levels of these abnormal compounds are elevated in blood of HSN-1 patients and this is thought to cause the peripheral motor and sensory nerve damage that is characteristic of the disease, by a largely unresolved mechanism...
May 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778718/nimbolide-epigenetically-regulates-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-breast-cancer
#16
Venkatesh Pooladanda, Soumya Bandi, Sandhya Rani Mondi, Krishna Mohan Gottumukkala, Chandraiah Godugu
Autophagy is a critical regulator of cellular homeostasis and its dysregulation often results in various disease manifestations, including cancer. Nimbolide, an active chemical constituent of neem (Azadirachta indica) exhibits potent anticancer effects. Although, nimbolide mediated apoptosis activation in breast cancer cells is well known. Nevertheless, its role in autophagy induction mechanism and epigenetic alteration is not explored previously. Our current study intended to bridge the gaps in the existing research by exploring the potential of nimbolide in inducing autophagy, which could counter regulate the transformations in breast cancer...
May 17, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778688/molecular-basis-of-diseases-caused-by-the-mtdna-mutation-m-8969g-a-in-the-subunit-a-of-atp-synthase
#17
Natalia Skoczeń, Alain Dautant, Krystyna Binko, François Godard, Marine Bouhier, Xin Su, Jean-Paul Lasserre, Marie-France Giraud, Déborah Tribouillard-Tanvier, Huimei Chen, Jean-Paul di Rago, Roza Kucharczyk
The ATP synthase which provides aerobic eukaryotes with ATP, organizes into a membrane-extrinsic catalytic domain, where ATP is generated, and a membrane-embedded FO domain that shuttles protons across the membrane. We previously identified a mutation in the mitochondrial MT-ATP6 gene (m.8969G>A) in a 14-year-old Chinese female who developed an isolated nephropathy followed by brain and muscle problems. This mutation replaces a highly conserved serine residue into asparagine at amino acid position 148 of the membrane-embedded subunit a of ATP synthase...
May 17, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778542/urinary-mitochondrial-dna-level-in-non-diabetic-chronic-kidney-diseases
#18
Pascal Zhongping Wei, Bonnie Ching-Ha Kwan, Kai Ming Chow, Phyllis Mei-Shan Cheng, Cathy Choi-Wan Luk, Ka-Bik Lai, Philip Kam- To Li, Cheuk Chun Szeto
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We study the relation between urinary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) levels and renal dysfunction in non-diabetic CKD. METHODS: We recruited 32 CKD patients (20 had hypertensive nephrosclerosis, 12 had IgA nephropathy). Urinary supernatant mtDNA level was measured and compared to baseline clinical and pathological parameters. The patients were followed 57...
May 17, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778008/plasma-metabolic-changes-in-chinese-hiv-infected-patients-receiving-lopinavir-ritonavir-based-treatment-implications-for-hiv-precision-therapy
#19
Xiaolin Li, Tong Wu, Yongjun Jiang, Zining Zhang, Xiaoxu Han, Wenqing Geng, Haibo Ding, Jing Kang, Qi Wang, Hong Shang
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study is to profile the metabolic changes in the plasma of HIV patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) relative to their treatment-naïve phase, aimed to identify precision therapy for HIV for improving prognosis and predicting dyslipidemia caused by LPV/r. METHODS: 38 longitudinal plasma samples were collected from 19 HIV-infected patients both before and after antiretroviral therapy, and 18 samples from healthy individuals were used as controls...
May 16, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777913/the-tp53-induced-glycolysis-and-apoptosis-regulator-mediates-cooperation-between-htlv-1-p30-ii-and-the-retroviral-oncoproteins-tax-and-hbz-and-is-highly-expressed-in-an-in-vivo-xenograft-model-of-htlv-1-induced-lymphoma
#20
Tetiana Hutchison, Aditi Malu, Laçin Yapindi, Rachel Bergeson, Kendra Peck, Megan Romeo, Carolyn Harrod, Jordan Pope, Louisa Smitherman, Wesleigh Gwinn, Lee Ratner, Courtney Yates, Robert Harrod
The human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is an oncoretrovirus that infects and transforms CD4+ T-cells and causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) -an aggressive lymphoproliferative disease that is highly refractive to most anticancer therapies. The HTLV-1 proviral genome encodes several regulatory products within a conserved 3' nucleotide sequence, known as pX; however, it remains unclear how these factors might cooperate or dynamically interact in virus-infected cells. Here we demonstrate that the HTLV-1 latency-maintenance factor p30II induces the TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) and counters the oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, and cytotoxicity caused by the viral oncoproteins Tax and HBZ...
May 16, 2018: Virology
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