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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930571/role-of-pericytes-in-vascular-immunosurveillance
#1
Konstantin Stark, Kami Pekayvaz, Steffen Massberg
Pericytes build together with endothelial cells the microvascular vessel wall. They have been mainly implicated in angiogenesis and maintenance of the blood brain barrier, but there is accumulating evidence for an immunological function of pericytes. Occupying a strategic position between the blood stream and the interstitial space, pericytes are able to sense environmental cues from both sides in an organ-specific manner and serve as gatekeepers for innate immune cells. In addition, pericytes are able to interact with leukocytes mediated by adhesion molecules as well as chemokines and are involved from the development of leukocytes in the bone marrow to their migration to injured or infected areas in target tissues...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928893/the-epigenetic-regulation-of-cxcl14-plays-a-role-in-the-pathobiology-of-oral-cancers
#2
Ryuji Nakayama, Kazumune Arikawa, Ujjal K Bhawal
Background: Chemokines selectively attract and activate leukocytes and play roles in a variety of homeostatic and disease processes. Explore the biological properties of CXCL14 seems complicated due to unknown functional characteristics of CXCL14 in cancer. Methods: To study the multistep process of oral cancer development, we analyzed oral samples spanning normalcy, dysplasia and cancer from multiple perspectives, revealing a cascade of progressive changes. Results: CXCL14 protein was expressed in the cytoplasm adjacent to tumors...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924192/short-chain-fatty-acids-ameliorate-immune-mediated-uveitis-partially-by-altering-migration-of-lymphocytes-from-the-intestine
#3
Yukiko K Nakamura, Cathleen Janowitz, Christina Metea, Mark Asquith, Lisa Karstens, James T Rosenbaum, Phoebe Lin
Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) are metabolites of intestinal bacteria resulting from fermentation of dietary fiber. SCFA are protective in various animal models of inflammatory disease. We investigated the effects of exogenous administration of SFCAs, particularly propionate, on uveitis using an inducible model of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Oral SCFA administration attenuated uveitis severity in a mouse strain-dependent manner through regulatory T cell induction among lymphocytes in the intestinal lamina propria (LPL) and cervical lymph nodes (CLN)...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923298/development-of-a-method-for-the-preparation-of-zirconium-89-radiolabelled-chitosan-nanoparticles-as-an-application-for-leukocyte-trafficking-with-positron-emission-tomography
#4
M Fairclough, B Ellis, H Boutin, A K P Jones, A McMahon, S Alzabin, A Gennari, C Prenant
Positron Emission Tomography is an attractive imaging modality for monitoring the migration of cells to pathological tissue. We evaluated a new method for radiolabelling leukocytes with zirconium-89 ((89)Zr) using chitosan nanoparticles (CN, Z-average size 343 ± 210nm and zeta potential +46 ± 4mV) as the carrier. We propose that cell uptake of (89)Zr-loaded CN occurred in a two-step process; cell membrane interaction with (89)Zr-loaded CN was followed by a slower cell internalisation step.
September 6, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923134/%C3%A3-1-3-galactosyl-o-glycosyl-glycoprotein-%C3%A3-1-6-n-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-3-increases-mcam-stability-which-enhances-s100a8-a9-mediated-cancer-motility
#5
I Wayan Sumardika, Chen Youyi, Eisaku Kondo, Yusuke Inoue, I Made Winarsa Ruma, Hitoshi Murata, Rie Kinoshita, Ken-Ichi Yamamoto, Shuta Tomida, Kazuhiko Shien, Hiroki Satoh, Akira Yamauchi, Junichiro Futami, Endy Widya Putranto, Toshihiko Hibino, Shinichi Toyooka, Masahiro Nishibori, Masakiyo Sakaguchi
We previously identified novel S100A8/A9 receptors, Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN), MelanomaCell Adhesion Molecule (MCAM), Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule (ALCAM) and Neuroplastin (NPTN) ß, that are critically involved in S100A8/A9-mediated cancer metastasis and inflammation when expressed at high levels. However, little is known about the presence of any cancerspecific mechanism(s) that modifies these receptors, further inducing upregulation at protein levels without any transcriptional regulation...
September 18, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923105/genetic-engineering-of-human-nk-cells-to-express-cxcr2-improves-migration-to-renal-cell-carcinoma
#6
Veronika Kremer, Maarten Ligtenberg, Rosa Zendehdel, Christina Seitz, Annet Duivenvoorden, Erik Wennerberg, Eugenia Colón, Ann-Helén Scherman-Plogell, Andreas Lundqvist
BACKGROUND: Adoptive natural killer (NK) cell transfer is being increasingly used as cancer treatment. However, clinical responses have so far been limited to patients with hematological malignancies. A potential limiting factor in patients with solid tumors is defective homing of the infused NK cells to the tumor site. Chemokines regulate the migration of leukocytes expressing corresponding chemokine receptors. Various solid tumors, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC), readily secrete ligands for the chemokine receptor CXCR2...
September 19, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920945/neutrophils-a-cornerstone-of-liver-ischemia-and-reperfusion-injury
#7
Thiago Henrique Caldeira de Oliveira, Pedro Elias Marques, Paul Proost, Mauro Martins M Teixeira
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is the main cause of morbidity and mortality due to graft rejection after liver transplantation. During IRI, an intense inflammatory process occurs in the liver. This hepatic inflammation is initiated by the ischemic period but occurs mainly during the reperfusion phase, and is characterized by a large neutrophil recruitment to the liver. Production of cytokines, chemokines, and danger signals results in activation of resident hepatocytes, leukocytes, and Kupffer cells. The role of neutrophils as the main amplifiers of liver injury in IRI has been recognized in many publications...
September 18, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916665/integrin-%C3%AE-4-overexpression-on-rat-mesenchymal-stem-cells-enhances-transmigration-and-reduces-cerebral-embolism-after-intracarotid-injection
#8
Li-Li Cui, Franziska Nitzsche, Evgeny Pryazhnikov, Marina Tibeykina, Laura Tolppanen, Jussi Rytkönen, Tuulia Huhtala, Jing-Wei Mu, Leonard Khiroug, Johannes Boltze, Jukka Jolkkonen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Very late antigen-4 (integrin α4β1)/vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 mediates leukocyte trafficking and transendothelial migration after stroke. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) typically express integrin β1 but insufficient ITGA4 (integrin α4), which limits their homing after intravascular transplantation. We tested whether ITGA4 overexpression on MSCs increases cerebral homing after intracarotid transplantation and reduces MSC-borne cerebral embolism. METHODS: Rat MSCs were lentivirally transduced to overexpress ITGA4...
September 15, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915217/estradiol-modulates-local-gut-injury-induced-by-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-in-male-rats
#9
Fernanda Yamamoto Ricardo-da-Silva, Evelyn Thaís Fantozzi, Sara Rodrigues-Garbin, Ricardo Martins Oliveira-Filho, Bernardo Boris Vargaftig, Ana Cristina Breithaupt-Faloppa, Wothan Tavares de Lima
Intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) triggers a systemic inflammatory response characterized by leukocyte mobilization from the bone marrow, release of cytokines to the circulation, and increased microvascular permeability, leading to high mortality. Females have shown attenuated inflammatory response to trauma when compared with males, indicating a role for female sex hormones in this process. Here, we have evaluated the effect of estradiol on the local gut injury induced by I/R in male rats. I/R was induced by the clamping of the superior mesenteric artery for 45 min, followed by 2 h of reperfusion...
October 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910354/differential-impact-of-the-dual-ccr2-ccr5-inhibitor-cenicriviroc-on-migration-of-monocyte-and-lymphocyte-subsets-in-acute-liver-injury
#10
Tobias Puengel, Oliver Krenkel, Marlene Kohlhepp, Eric Lefebvre, Tom Luedde, Christian Trautwein, Frank Tacke
A hallmark of acute hepatic injury is the recruitment of neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) or T cells, towards areas of inflammation. The recruitment of leukocytes from their reservoirs bone marrow or spleen into the liver is directed by chemokines such as CCL2 (for monocytes) and CCL5 (for lymphocytes). We herein elucidated the impact of chemokine receptor inhibition by the dual CCR2 and CCR5 inhibitor cenicriviroc (CVC) on the composition of myeloid and lymphoid immune cell populations in acute liver injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904337/toxoplasma-modulates-signature-pathways-of-human-epilepsy-neurodegeneration-cancer
#11
Huân M Ngô, Ying Zhou, Hernan Lorenzi, Kai Wang, Taek-Kyun Kim, Yong Zhou, Kamal El Bissati, Ernest Mui, Laura Fraczek, Seesandra V Rajagopala, Craig W Roberts, Fiona L Henriquez, Alexandre Montpetit, Jenefer M Blackwell, Sarra E Jamieson, Kelsey Wheeler, Ian J Begeman, Carlos Naranjo-Galvis, Ney Alliey-Rodriguez, Roderick G Davis, Liliana Soroceanu, Charles Cobbs, Dennis A Steindler, Kenneth Boyer, A Gwendolyn Noble, Charles N Swisher, Peter T Heydemann, Peter Rabiah, Shawn Withers, Patricia Soteropoulos, Leroy Hood, Rima McLeod
One third of humans are infected lifelong with the brain-dwelling, protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Approximately fifteen million of these have congenital toxoplasmosis. Although neurobehavioral disease is associated with seropositivity, causality is unproven. To better understand what this parasite does to human brains, we performed a comprehensive systems analysis of the infected brain: We identified susceptibility genes for congenital toxoplasmosis in our cohort of infected humans and found these genes are expressed in human brain...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904019/cathepsin-b-mediated-cd18-shedding-regulates-leukocyte-recruitment-from-angiogenic-vessels
#12
Shintaro Nakao, Souska Zandi, Dawei Sun, Ali Hafezi-Moghadam
Cathepsin B (CtsB) contributes to atherosclerosis and cancer progression by processing the extracellular matrix and promoting angiogenesis. Although CtsB was reported to promote and reduce angiogenesis, there is no mechanistic explanation that reconciles this apparent discrepancy. CtsB cleaves CD18 from the surface of immune cells, but its contribution to angiogenesis has not been studied. We developed an in vivo technique for visualization of immune cell transmigration from corneal vessels toward implanted cytokines...
September 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890699/sphingosine-1-phosphate-signaling-as-a-target-in-hepatic-fibrosis-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Bárbara González-Fernández, Diana I Sánchez, Javier González-Gallego, María J Tuñón
Liver fibrosis is an excess production of extracellular matrix proteins as a result of chronic liver disease which leads to cell death and organ dysfunction. The key cells involved in fibrogenesis are resident hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) which are termed myofibroblasts after activation, acquiring contractile, proliferative, migratory and secretory capability. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid with well-established effects on angiogenesis, carcinogenesis and immunity. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that this metabolite is involved in the profibrotic inflammatory process through the regulation of pleiotropic cell responses, such as vascular permeability, leukocyte infiltration, cell survival, migration, proliferation and HSCs differentiation to myofibroblasts...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880279/live-cell-confocal-microscopy-and-quantitative-4d-image-analysis-of-anchor-cell-invasion-through-the-basement-membrane-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#14
Laura C Kelley, Zheng Wang, Elliott J Hagedorn, Lin Wang, Wanqing Shen, Shijun Lei, Sam A Johnson, David R Sherwood
Cell invasion through basement membrane (BM) barriers is crucial in development, leukocyte trafficking and the spread of cancer. The mechanisms that direct invasion, despite their importance in normal and disease states, are poorly understood, largely because of the inability to visualize dynamic cell-BM interactions in vivo. This protocol describes multichannel time-lapse confocal imaging of anchor-cell invasion in live Caenorhabditis elegans. Methods presented include outline-slide preparation and worm growth synchronization (15 min), mounting (20 min), image acquisition (20-180 min), image processing (20 min) and quantitative analysis (variable timing)...
October 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877252/the-role-of-adam17-in-the-t-cell-response-against-bacterial-pathogens
#15
Moritz Andreas Link, Karsten Lücke, Joanna Schmid, Valéa Schumacher, Thomas Eden, Stefan Rose-John, Hans-Willi Mittrücker
ADAM17 is a member of the A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase family of proteases. It is ubiquitously expressed and causes the shedding of a broad spectrum of surface proteins such as adhesion molecules, cytokines and cytokine receptors. By controlled shedding of these proteins from leukocytes, ADAM17 is able to regulate immune responses. Several ADAM17 targets on T cells have been implicated in T-cell migration, differentiation and effector functions. However, the role of ADAM17 in T-cell responses is still unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873441/a-fully-humanized-igg-like-bispecific-antibody-for-effective-dual-targeting-of-cxcr3-and-ccr6
#16
Remy Robert, Laurent Juglair, Ee X Lim, Caroline Ang, Carl J H Wang, Gregor Ebert, Olan Dolezal, Charles R Mackay
Chemokines and their receptors are pivotal for the trafficking of leukocytes during immune responses, and host defense. However, immune cell migration also contributes to a wide variety of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. Compelling evidence suggests that both CXCR3 and CCR6 chemokine receptors play crucial roles in the migration of pathological Th1 and Th17 cells during the course of certain inflammatory diseases. The use of two or more receptors by pathogenic cells may explain why targeting of individual receptors has proven disappointing in the clinic...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870864/counter-regulation-of-ecrg4-gene-expression-by-hypermethylation-dependent-inhibition-and-the-sp1-transcription-factor-dependent-stimulation-of-the-c2orf40-promoter
#17
Xitong Dang, Xiaorong Zeng, Raul Coimbra, Brian P Eliceiri, Andrew Baird
The human cytokine precursor ECRG4 has been associated with multiple physiological, developmental and pathophysiological processes involving cell proliferation, cell migration, innate immunity, inflammation, cancer progression and metastases. Although down-regulation of ECRG4 gene expression has been largely attributed to hypermethylation of CpG islands in the 5'untranslated region of the ECRG4 promoter, the mechanisms that underlie the dynamics of its regulation have never been systematically described. Here we show that the ECRG4 gene is widely expressed in human tissues and report that its core promoter lies between the -780 to +420 base pairs relative to the ATG start codon of the ECRG4 open reading frame...
September 1, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870856/transcriptome-analysis-of-hybrid-tilapia-oreochromis-spp-with-streptococcus-agalactiae-infection-identifies-toll-like-receptor-pathway-mediated-induction-of-nadph-oxidase-complex-and-piscidins-as-primary-immune-related-responses
#18
Chuian-Fu Ken, Chieh-Ning Chen, Chen-Hung Ting, Chieh-Yu Pan, Jyh-Yih Chen
Streptococcus agalactiae infection is one of the most significant bacterial diseases in tilapia aquaculture. Identification of immune-related genes associated with Streptococcus agalactiae infection may provide a basis for breeding selection or therapeutics to augment disease resistance. Therefore, we utilized transcriptome profiling to study the host response in tilapia following Streptococcus agalactiae infection. Based on GO and KEGG enrichment analyses, we found that differentially expressed genes are widely involved in immune-related pathways, including the induction of antimicrobial peptides...
September 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870470/poliovirus-receptor-more-than-a-simple-viral-receptor
#19
REVIEW
Jonathan R Bowers, James M Readler, Priyanka Sharma, Katherine J D A Excoffon
The human poliovirus receptor (PVR) is a cell surface protein with a multitude of functions in human biology. PVR was initially identified as the receptor for the human poliovirus and recent discoveries have given a greater insight into both its morphology and its function. Alternative splicing of the PVR gene results in a total of 4 alternatively spliced isoforms. Two of these isoforms lack a complete transmembrane domain and are considered soluble and block viral infection; the remaining two transmembrane isoforms differ only at their extreme C-terminal domains resulting in differential localization in epithelia and polarity of viral infection...
September 7, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855946/evaluation-of-the-central-and-peripheral-effects-of-doxepin-on-carrageenan-induced-inflammatory-paw-edema-in-rat
#20
Mohsen Zabihi, Valiollah Hajhashemi, Mohsen Minaiyan, Ardeshir Talebi
The anti-inflammatory effects of anti-depressants have been demonstrated recently. Doxepin, a tricyclic antidepressant drug (TCA), has some special properties in comparison with the other members of its family. It has some H1, H2, alpha-1 adrenergic and muscarinic receptor blocking effects. It revealed also anti-nociceptive and relatively potent sedative effects. This study was aimed to evaluate its possible anti-inflammatory effect in a well-established animal model. Male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were used in carrageenan-induced inflammatory paw edema model...
August 2017: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
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