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Leukocyte migration

Elena Chiricozzi, Nicoletta Loberto, Domitilla Schiumarini, Maura Samarani, Giulia Mancini, Anna Tamanini, Giuseppe Lippi, Maria Cristina Dechecchi, Rosaria Bassi, Paola Giussani, Massimo Aureli
Sphingolipids (SLs) are amphiphilic molecules mainly associated with the external leaflet of eukaryotic plasma membrane, and are structural membrane components with key signaling properties. Since the beginning of the last century, a large number of papers described the involvement of these molecules in several aspects of cell physiology and pathology. Several lines of evidence support the critical role of SLs in inflammatory diseases, by acting as anti- or pro-inflammatory mediators. They are involved in control of leukocyte activation and migration, and are recognized as essential players in host response to pathogenic infection...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Gerard Agbayani, Komal Gurnani, Ahmed Zafer, Subash Sad, Lakshmi Krishnan
Selectin-ligand interactions are important for leukocyte homing and functionality. The roles of selectin-ligand interactions in modulating immunity to intracellular infections are not completely understood. Mice lacking the expression of fucosyltransferase-IV and -VII (Fucosyltransferase-IV and -VII double knockout, FtDKO) exhibit deficient functionality of selectin-ligand interactions. We addressed the kinetics of infection and immunity to Listeria monocytogenes (LM), an intracellular pathogen, in FtDKO mice...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Francisco Alcione Nobre da Silva, Sônia Maria de Farias Freire, Marilene Oliveira da Rocha Borges, Francisco Erivaldo Vidal Barros, Maria da de Sousa, Maria Nilce de Sousa Ribeiro, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro Guilhon, Adolfo Henrique Müller, Antonio Carlos Romão Borges
Background: Pluchea quitoc DC. (Asteraceae), a medicinal plant known as "quitoco," "caculucage," "tabacarana" and "madre-cravo," is indicated for inflammatory conditions such as bronchitis, arthritis, and inflammation in the uterus and digestive system. Objective: This study evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the triterpenes compounds obtained from P. quitoc aerial parts. Materials and Methods: The triterpenes compounds β-amyrin, taraxasterol and pseudo-taraxasterol in a mixture (T); β-amyrin, taraxasterol and pseudo-taraxasterol acetates in a mixture (Ta); β-amyrin, taraxasterol, pseudo-taraxasterol acetates in a mixture with β-amyrin, taraxasterol and pseudo-taraxasterol myristates (Tafe) were analyzed in the models of nociception and inflammation...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
Ditmer T Talsma, Kirankumar Katta, Marieke A B Ettema, Berna Kel, Marion Kusche-Gullberg, Moh R Daha, Coen A Stegeman, Jacob van den Born, Lianchun Wang
Inflammation plays a vital role in the development of diabetic nephropathy, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms are only partially understood. Our previous studies demonstrated that, during acute inflammation, endothelial heparan sulfate (HS) contributes to the adhesion and transendothelial migration of leukocytes into perivascular tissues by direct interaction with L-selectin and the presentation of bound chemokines. In the current study, we aimed to assess the role of endothelial HS on chronic renal inflammation and fibrosis in a diabetic nephropathy mouse model...
January 12, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Marcus W Koch, Yaroslav Ilnytskyy, Andrey Golubov, Luanne M Metz, V Wee Yong, Olga Kovalchuk
BACKGROUND: Genetic research in MS mostly compares MS patients with healthy controls, but does not differentiate between MS disease courses. We compared peripheral blood gene expression patterns between extremes of MS phenotypes: patients with mild relapsing-remitting MS (mRRMS) and primary progressive MS (PPMS). METHODS: We analyzed global gene expression profiles of peripheral blood samples of age and gender matched patients with mRRMS and PPMS. Detailed bioinformatic and gene set enrichment analysis, pathway and principle component analyses were used to identify differentially expressed genes and pathways...
January 8, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Stefano Alivernini, Barbara Tolusso, Gianfranco Ferraccioli, Elisa Gremese, Mariola Kurowska-Stolarska, Iain B McInnes
Acute inflammation is a complex and tightly regulated homeostatic process that includes leukocyte migration from the vasculature into tissues to eliminate the pathogen/injury, followed by a pro-resolving response promoting tissue repair. However, if inflammation is uncontrolled as in chronic diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) it leads to tissue damage and disability. Synovial tissue inflammation in RA patients is maintained by sustained activation of multiple inflammatory positive-feedback regulatory pathways in a variety of cells including myeloid cells...
January 8, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Xi Wang, Raouf A Khalil
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that degrade various proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Typically, MMPs have a propeptide sequence, a catalytic metalloproteinase domain with catalytic zinc, a hinge region or linker peptide, and a hemopexin domain. MMPs are commonly classified on the basis of their substrates and the organization of their structural domains into collagenases, gelatinases, stromelysins, matrilysins, membrane-type (MT)-MMPs, and other MMPs...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
Junjie Piao, Jie Sun, Yang Yang, Tiefeng Jin, Liyan Chen, Zhenhua Lin
BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the major leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. This study aims to explore molecular mechanism of NSCLC. METHODS: Microarray dataset was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and analyzed by using GEO2R. Functional and pathway enrichment analysis were performed based on Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Then, STRING, Cytoscape and MCODE were applied to construct the Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and screen hub genes...
January 3, 2018: Gene
Gabriela Stanclova, Ilse Schwendenwein, Olaf Merkel, Lukas Kenner, John Dittami, Johannes Fritz, Alexandra Scope
Under the project of "Human-Led Migration," the authors had the unique opportunity to accompany hand-raised northern bald Iibises (NBIs; Geronticus eremita) during migration, which occurred in stages from Bavaria, Germany, to southern Tuscany, Italy. The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of flight, with respect to flight duration, and the more delayed recovery effects on hematologic variables. A total of 31 birds were sampled. Blood samples were taken immediately before takeoff, after landing, and 1 day after the flight...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Sin Yee Gun, Carla Claser, Teck Hui Teo, Shanshan W Howland, Chek Meng Poh, Rebecca Ren Ying Chye, Lisa F P Ng, Laurent Rénia
Host immune response has a key role in controlling the progression of malaria infection. In the well-established murine model of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) with P. berghei ANKA infection, pro-inflammatory Th1 and CD8+ T cells response are essential for disease development. Interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) is a transcription factor which promotes Th1 responses and its absence was previously shown to protect from ECM death. Yet, the exact mechanism of protection remains unknown. Here we demonstrated that IRF1-deficient mice (IRF1KO) were protected from ECM death despite displaying early neurological signs...
December 27, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
Kave Shams, Mariola Kurowska-Stolarska, Fabian Schütte, A David Burden, Clive S McKimmie, Gerard J Graham
Chemokines are the principal regulators of leukocyte migration and are essential for initiation and maintenance of inflammation. Atypical chemokine receptor 2 (ACKR2) binds and scavenges proinflammatory CC-chemokines, regulates cutaneous T-cell positioning, and limits the spread of inflammation in vivo. Altered ACKR2 function has been implicated in several inflammatory disorders, including psoriasis, a common and debilitating T cell-driven disorder characterized by thick erythematous skin plaques. ACKR2 expression is abnormal in psoriatic skin, with decreased expression correlating with recruitment of T cells into the epidermis and increased inflammation...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Shadi Behfar, Gholamhossein Hassanshahi, Alireza Nazari, Hossein Khorramdelazad
Psoriasis (PsO) is a chronic skin disorder resulting from the imbalanced interactionbetween infiltrating immune cells and keratinocytes. These immune cells, including monocytes, are able to mediate the immune responses in inflamed skin lesions. Chemokines are responsible for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. In patients with PsO, the keratinocytes are the main source of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1/CCL2), which is a CC chemokine. After CCL2 binds to the chemokine receptor CCR2, which mainly is expressed on the surface of monocytes, the monocytes differentiate into macrophages and migrate from the blood stream to sites of inflammation...
December 22, 2017: Cytokine
Larissa Jeremias Duarte, Vitor Clasen Chaves, Marcus Vinicius Pereira Dos Santos Nascimento, Eunice Calvete, Mingchuan Li, Elisa Ciraolo, Alessandra Ghigo, Emilio Hirsch, Claudia Maria Oliveira Simões, Flávio Henrique Reginatto, Eduardo M Dalmarco
Fragaria x ananassa Duch., popularly called strawberry, is known for its worldwide consumption and important biological activities, and these effects are related to its high concentration of anthocyanins. Pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside (P3G) is a major anthocyanin found in strawberry, and was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory action in experimental models. The effect of strawberry extract and P3G, on leukocyte migration, exudation levels and many inflammatory mediators, was therefore evaluated in an in vivo model...
May 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Yuan Zhang, Juan-Juan Han, Xiao-Yan Liang, Li Zhao, Fei Zhang, Javad Rasouli, Zhe-Zhi Wang, Guang-Xian Zhang, Xing Li
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs involved in immune response regulation. Specific miRNAs have been linked to the development of various autoimmune diseases; however, their contribution to the modulation of CNS-directed cellular infiltration remains unclear. In this study, we found that miR-23b, in addition to its reported functions in the suppression of IL-17-associated autoimmune inflammation, halted the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), by directly inhibiting the migration of pathogenic leukocytes to the CNS...
November 26, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Elisabeth Karsten, Cameron J Hill, Benjamin R Herbert
Red blood cells are widely accepted to be inert carriers of oxygen and haemoglobin, but there is growing evidence that they play a much more critical role in immune function. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a key cytokine in disease with additional oxido-reductase activity, which aids in managing oxidative stress. Although two studies have reported the presence of MIF in red blood cells, no study has quantified the levels of this protein. In this study, freshly isolated plasma, platelets, leukocytes, and red blood cells from healthy individuals were collected and the concentration of MIF was determined using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay...
December 21, 2017: Cytokine
Belay Tesfamariam
The adventitia functions as a dynamic compartment for cell trafficking into and out of the artery wall, and communicates with medial and intimal cells. The resident cells in the tunica adventitia play an integral role in the regulation of vessel wall structure, repair, tone, and remodeling. Following injury to the vascular wall, adventitial fibroblasts are activated, which proliferate and differentiate into migratory myofibroblasts, and initiate inflammation through the secretion of soluble factors such as chemokines, cytokines, and adhesion molecules...
December 13, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
He Jiang, Yazhen Hu, Xiaolei Wei, Xun Xiao, Ivan Jakovlić, Xiaoling Liu, Jianguo Su, Gailing Yuan
Besides their function as a physical barrier against pathogens, β-defensins possess the ability to induce direct or indirect chemotaxis in leukocytes of mammals. However little is known about the ability of defensins to guide the migration of macrophages in fish. The objective of our study was to investigate whether β-defensin 1 (maBD1) can recruit leukocytes (specifically macrophages) in vivo and in vitro in a farmed cyprinid fish Megalobrama amblycephala. The M. amblycephala β-defensin 1 (maBD1) gene was amplified from the head-kidney transcriptome...
December 12, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Annabelle Drouillard, Antoinette Neyra, Anne-Laure Mathieu, Antoine Marçais, Mélanie Wencker, Jacqueline Marvel, Alexandre Belot, Thierry Walzer
The role of sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) in leukocyte trafficking has been well deciphered in mice but remains largely unaddressed in humans. In this study, we assessed the ex vivo response to S1P of primary human T cell subsets. We found that tonsil but not blood leukocytes were responsive to S1P gradients, suggesting that T cell responsiveness is regulated during their recirculation in vivo. Tonsil naive T cells were readily chemoattracted by S1P in an FTY720-sensitive, S1PR1-dependent manner. Surprisingly, S1P had the opposite effect on effector memory T cells, resident memory T cells, and recently activated T cells, inhibiting their spontaneous or chemokine-induced migration...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Malin Samuelsson, Katarzyna Potrzebowska, Janne Lehtonen, Jason P Beech, Ekatarina Skorova, Heli Uronen-Hansson, Lena Svensson
The regulation of cell adhesion and motility is complex and requires the intracellular trafficking of integrins to and from sites of cell adhesion, especially in fast-moving cells such as leukocytes. The Rab family of guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) is essential for vesicle transport, and vesicles mediate intracellular integrin trafficking. We showed that RhoB regulates the vesicular transport of the integrin LFA-1 along the microtubule network in migrating T lymphocytes. Impairment in RhoB function resulted in the accumulation of both LFA-1 and the recycling endosomal marker Rab11 at the rear of migrating T lymphocytes and decreased the association between these molecules...
December 12, 2017: Science Signaling
John J Mooney, Roscoe O Brady
PURPOSE: Rosenblat and McIntyre (Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2015;132: 180-191) propose that immune disorders are important mediators between bipolar disorders and medical comorbidities. Rosenblat et al (Bipolar Disord. 2016;18:89-101) present a meta-analysis showing that adjunctive anti-inflammatory agents could evoke moderate antidepressant responses in bipolar disorders. We propose using the anti-inflammatory drug colchicine to improve the long-term safety and efficacy of lithium treatment for bipolar disorders...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
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