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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302270/back-to-the-future-in-a-petri-dish-origin-and-impact-of-resurrected-microbes-in-natural-populations
#1
REVIEW
Shira Houwenhuyse, Emilie Macke, Lien Reyserhove, Lore Bulteel, Ellen Decaestecker
Current natural populations face new interactions because of the re-emergence of ancient microbes and viruses. These risks come from the re-emergence of pathogens kept in laboratories or from pathogens that are retained in the permafrost, which become available upon thawing due to climate change. We here focus on the effects of such re-emergence in natural host populations based on evolutionary theory of virulence and long-term studies, which investigate host-pathogen adaptations. Pathogens tend to be locally and temporally adapted to their co-occurring hosts, but when pathogens from a different environment or different time enter the host community, the degree to which a new host-pathogen interaction is a threat will depend on the specific genotypic associations, the time lag between the host and the pathogen, and the interactions with native or recent host and pathogen species...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300777/internal-genes-of-a-highly-pathogenic-h5n1-influenza-virus-determine-high-viral-replication-in-myeloid-cells-and-severe-outcome-of-infection-in-mice
#2
Hui Li, Konrad C Bradley, Jason S Long, Rebecca Frise, Jonathan W Ashcroft, Lorian C Hartgroves, Holly Shelton, Spyridon Makris, Cecilia Johansson, Bin Cao, Wendy S Barclay
The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 influenza virus has been a public health concern for more than a decade because of its frequent zoonoses and the high case fatality rate associated with human infections. Severe disease following H5N1 influenza infection is often associated with dysregulated host innate immune response also known as cytokine storm but the virological and cellular basis of these responses has not been clearly described. We rescued a series of 6:2 reassortant viruses that combined a PR8 HA/NA pairing with the internal gene segments from human adapted H1N1, H3N2, or avian H5N1 viruses and found that mice infected with the virus with H5N1 internal genes suffered severe weight loss associated with increased lung cytokines but not high viral load...
January 4, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274056/documenting-the-absence-of-brucellosis-in-cattle-goats-and-dogs-in-a-one-health-interface-in-the-mnisi-community-limpopo-south-africa
#3
Gregory Simpson, Tanguy Marcotty, Elodie Rouille, Nelson Matekwe, Jean-Jacques Letesson, Jacques Godfroid
This study shows the absence of the world's most common bacterial zoonoses caused by Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis in cattle, goats and dogs in an agro-pastoral community in South Africa, where heifer vaccination against brucellosis with the live Strain 19 vaccine is compulsory. The study site is bordering wildlife reserves with multiple wildlife species infected with brucellosis. The results showed a low seroprevalence (1.4%) in cattle. Seroprevalence in cattle decreased with age after 4 years in females, males were less positive than females and a tissue culture from a brucellin skin test-positive male was negative...
December 23, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246165/a-veterinary-perspective-on-one-health-in-the-arctic
#4
REVIEW
Christian Sonne, Robert James Letcher, Bjørn Munro Jenssen, Jean-Pierre Desforges, Igor Eulaers, Emilie Andersen-Ranberg, Kim Gustavson, Bjarne Styrishave, Rune Dietz
Exposure to long-range transported industrial chemicals, climate change and diseases is posing a risk to the overall health and populations of Arctic wildlife. Since local communities are relying on the same marine food web as marine mammals in the Arctic, it requires a One Health approach to understand the holistic ecosystem health including that of humans. Here we collect and identify gaps in the current knowledge of health in the Arctic and present the veterinary perspective of One Health and ecosystem dynamics...
December 16, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229654/protocol-for-developing-a-database-of-zoonotic-disease-research-in-india-dozoori
#5
Pranab Chatterjee, Soumyadeep Bhaumik, Abhimanyu Singh Chauhan, Manish Kakkar
INTRODUCTION: Zoonotic and emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) represent a public health threat that has been acknowledged only recently although they have been on the rise for the past several decades. On an average, every year since the Second World War, one pathogen has emerged or re-emerged on a global scale. Low/middle-income countries such as India bear a significant burden of zoonotic and EIDs. We propose that the creation of a database of published, peer-reviewed research will open up avenues for evidence-based policymaking for targeted prevention and control of zoonoses...
December 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226606/the-challenges-of-implementing-an-integrated-one-health-surveillance-system-in-australia
#6
I Johnson, A Hansen, P Bi
As 75 per cent of emerging infectious diseases are of animal origin, a One Health approach that integrates the health of humans, animals and the environment could provide an earlier opportunity for zoonotic disease detection and prevention. In Australia, human, animal and ecological health are managed by separate sectors with limited communication. This study aims to explore how professionals in these fields perceive a One Health approach to zoonotic disease surveillance, aiming to identify the challenges to the implementation of an integrated system in Australia...
December 10, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219305/brucellosis-improved-diagnostics-and-vaccine-insights-from-synthetic-glycans
#7
David R Bundle, John McGiven
Brucellosis is a serious zoonotic bacterial disease that is ranked by the World Health Organization among the top seven "neglected zoonoses" that threaten human health and cause poverty. It is a costly, highly contagious disease that affects ruminants, cattle, sheep, goats, and other productive animals such as pigs. Symptoms include abortions, infertility, decreased milk production, weight loss, and lameness. Brucellosis is also the most common bacterial disease that is transmitted from animals to humans, with approximately 500 000 new human cases each year...
December 8, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212937/experimental-adaptive-evolution-of-sivcpz-to-pandemic-hiv-1-using-a-humanized-mouse-model
#8
Kei Sato, Naoko Misawa, Junko S Takeuchi, Tomoko Kobayashi, Taisuke Izumi, Hirofumi Aso, Shumpei Nagaoka, Keisuke Yamamoto, Izumi Kimura, Yoriyuki Konno, Yusuke Nakano, Yoshio Koyanagi
HIV-1, the causative agent of AIDS, is originated from SIVcpz, the chimpanzee precursor of the human virus, approximately 100 years ago. This indicates that HIV-1 has emerged through the cross-species transmission of SIVcpz from chimpanzees to humans. However, it remains unclear how SIVcpz has evolved into pandemic HIV-1 in humans. To address this question, we inoculated three SIVcpz (MB897, EK505, and MT145), four pandemic HIV-1 (NL4-3, NLCSFV3, JRCSF and AD8) and 2 non-pandemic HIV-1 (YBF30 and DJO0131) strains...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211907/evaluation-of-the-hygienogram-scores-and-related-data-obtained-after-cleaning-and-disinfection-of-poultry-houses-in-flanders-during-the-period-2007-to-2014
#9
H Maertens, K De Reu, S Van Weyenberg, E Van Coillie, E Meyer, H Van Meirhaeghe, F Van Immerseel, V Vandenbroucke, M Vanrobaeys, J Dewulf
Cleaning and disinfection (C&D) of poultry houses is an essential aspect in farm hygiene management. Adequate performance of the different steps of a C&D protocol and the use of suitable products are key to prevent and control zoonoses and animal diseases. Hygiene monitoring on total aerobic flora through sampling with agar contact plates at different locations of the poultry house results in a hygienogram score that is used to evaluate the proper execution of C&D.This study analyzed the hygienogram scores of 19,739 poultry flocks in Flanders after C&D...
December 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209498/intensifying-poultry-production-systems-and-the-emergence-of-avian-influenza-in-china-a-one-health-ecohealth-epitome
#10
Marius Gilbert, Xiangming Xiao, Timothy P Robinson
Several kinds of pressure can lead to the emergence of infectious diseases. In the case of zoonoses emerging from livestock, one of the most significant changes that has taken place since the mid twentieth century is what has been termed the "livestock revolution", whereby the stock of food animals, their productivity and their trade has increased rapidly to feed rising and increasingly wealthy and urbanized populations. Further increases are projected in the future in low and middle-income countries. Using avian influenza as an example, we discuss how the emergence of avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 in China was linked to rapid intensification of the poultry sector taking place in landscapes rich in wetland agriculture and wild waterfowls habitats, providing an extensive interface with the wild reservoir of avian influenza viruses...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198370/whole-genome-sequencing-analysis-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-weltevreden-isolated-from-human-stool-and-contaminated-food-samples-collected-from-the-southern-coastal-area-of-china
#11
Baisheng Li, Xingfen Yang, Hailing Tan, Bixia Ke, Dongmei He, Haiyan Wang, Qiuxia Chen, Changwen Ke, Yonghui Zhang
Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden is the most common non-typhoid Salmonella found in South and Southeast Asia. It causes zoonoses worldwide through the consumption of contaminated foods and seafood, and is considered as an important food-borne pathogen in China, especially in the Southern coastal area. We compared the whole genomes of 44 S. Weltevreden strains isolated from human stool and contaminated food samples from Southern Coastal China, in order to investigate their phylogenetic relationships and establish their genetic relatedness to known international strains...
October 31, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181611/human-wildlife-interactions-predict-febrile-illness-in-park-landscapes-of-western-uganda
#12
Jonathan Salerno, Noam Ross, Ria Ghai, Michael Mahero, Dominic A Travis, Thomas R Gillespie, Joel Hartter
Fevers of unknown origin complicate treatment and prevention of infectious diseases and are a global health burden. We examined risk factors of self-reported fever-categorized as "malarial" and "nonmalarial"-in households adjacent to national parks across the Ugandan Albertine Rift, a biodiversity and emerging infectious disease hotspot. Statistical models fitted to these data suggest that perceived nonmalarial fevers of unknown origin were associated with more frequent direct contact with wildlife and with increased distance from parks where wildlife habitat is limited to small forest fragments...
December 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177093/patchy-promiscuity-machine-learning-applied-to-predict-the-host-specificity-of-salmonella-enterica-and-escherichia-coli
#13
Nadejda Lupolova, Tim J Dallman, Nicola J Holden, David L Gally
Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli are bacterial species that colonize different animal hosts with sub-types that can cause life-threatening infections in humans. Source attribution of zoonoses is an important goal for infection control as is identification of isolates in reservoir hosts that represent a threat to human health. In this study, host specificity and zoonotic potential were predicted using machine learning in which Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers were built based on predicted proteins from whole genome sequences...
October 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161853/effects-of-isolation-and-slaughter-strategies-in-different-species-on-emerging-zoonoses
#14
Jing-An Cui, Fangyuan Chen
Zoonosis is the kind of infectious disease transmitting among different species by zoonotic pathogens. Different species play different roles in zoonoses. In this paper, we established a basic model to describe the zoonotic pathogen transmission from wildlife, to domestic animals, to humans. Then we put three strategies into the basic model to control the emerging zoonoses. Three strategies are corresponding to control measures of isolation, slaughter or similar in wildlife, domestic animals and humans respectively...
October 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157374/time-series-analysis-based-on-two-part-models-for-excessive-zero-count-data-to-detect-farm-level-outbreaks-of-swine-echinococcosis-during-meat-inspections
#15
Yasumoto Adachi, Kohei Makita
Echinococcus multilocularis is a parasite that causes highly pathogenic zoonoses and is maintained in foxes and rodents on Hokkaido Island, Japan. Detection of E. multilocularis infections in swine is epidemiologically important. In Hokkaido, administrative information is provided to swine producers based on the results of meat inspections. However, as the current criteria for providing administrative information often results in delays in providing information to producers, novel criteria are needed. Time series models were developed to monitor autocorrelations between data and lags using data collected from 84 producers at the Higashi-Mokoto Meat Inspection Center between April 2003 and November 2015...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155827/the-asian-house-shrew-suncus-murinus-as-a-reservoir-and-source-of-human-outbreaks-of-plague-in-madagascar
#16
Soanandrasana Rahelinirina, Minoarisoa Rajerison, Sandra Telfer, Cyril Savin, Elisabeth Carniel, Jean-Marc Duplantier
Identifying key reservoirs for zoonoses is crucial for understanding variation in incidence. Plague re-emerged in Mahajanga, Madagascar in the 1990s but there has been no confirmed case since 1999. Here we combine ecological and genetic data, from during and after the epidemics, with experimental infections to examine the role of the shrew Suncus murinus in the plague epidemiological cycle. The predominance of S. murinus captures during the epidemics, their carriage of the flea vector and their infection with Yersinia pestis suggest they played an important role in the maintenance and transmission of plague...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155664/prioritizing-zoonoses-for-global-health-capacity-building-themes-from-one-health-zoonotic-disease-workshops-in-7-countries-2014-2016
#17
Stephanie J Salyer, Rachel Silver, Kerri Simone, Casey Barton Behravesh
Zoonotic diseases represent critical threats to global health security. Effective mitigation of the impact of endemic and emerging zoonotic diseases of public health importance requires multisectoral collaboration and interdisciplinary partnerships. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention created the One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization Tool to help countries identify zoonotic diseases of greatest national concern using input from representatives of human health, agriculture, environment, and wildlife sectors...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130123/informal-value-chain-actors-knowledge-and-perceptions-about-zoonotic-diseases-and-biosecurity-in-kenya-and-the-importance-for-food-safety-and-public-health
#18
Simon Nyokabi, Regina Birner, Bernard Bett, Linda Isuyi, Delia Grace, Denise Güttler, Johanna Lindahl
Zoonotic diseases, transmitted from animals to humans, are a public health challenge in developing countries. Livestock value chain actors have an important role to play as the first line of defence in safeguarding public health. However, although the livelihood and economic impacts of zoonoses are widely known, adoption of biosecurity measures aimed at preventing zoonoses is low, particularly among actors in informal livestock value chains in low and middle-income countries. The main objective of this study was to investigate knowledge of zoonoses and adoption of biosecurity measures by livestock and milk value chain actors in Bura, Tana River County, in Kenya, where cattle, camels, sheep and goats are the main livestock kept...
November 13, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124901/raccoon-roundworm-baylisascaris-procyonis-as-an-occupational-hazard-1-knowledge-of-b-%C3%A2-procyonis-and-attitudes-towards-it-and-other-zoonoses-among-wildlife-rehabilitators
#19
S G H Sapp, B A Murray, E R Hoover, G T Green, M J Yabsley
Wildlife rehabilitators are at risk of zoonotic diseases because they often have prolonged contact with many species of wildlife and their bodily fluids. Raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) is a common zoonotic parasite of raccoons that has the potential to cause severe or fatal neurologic disease in a broad variety of hosts if the eggs within raccoon faeces are ingested. We administered an online survey to wildlife rehabilitators to assess their knowledge regarding aspects of transmission, biology and disease caused by B...
November 10, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117192/can-you-catch-ebola-from-a-stork-bite-inductive-reasoning-influences-generalization-of-perceived-zoonosis-risk
#20
Tyler Davis, Micah B Goldwater, Molly E Ireland, Nicholas Gaylord, Jason Van Allen
Emerging zoonoses are a prominent global health threat. Human beliefs are central to drivers of emerging zoonoses, yet little is known about how people make inferences about risk in such scenarios. We present an inductive account of zoonosis risk perception, suggesting that beliefs about the range of animals able to transmit diseases to each other influence how people generalize risks to other animals and health behaviors. Consistent with our account, in Study 1, we find that participants who endorse higher likelihoods of cross-species disease transmission have stronger intentions to report animal bites...
2017: PloS One
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