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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813761/epidemiologic-study-of-bacteria-zoonotic-diseases-in-south-dakota-2010-2014
#1
Jessica L Ludvik, Susan M Anderson, Mark K Huntington
BACKGROUND: Although the burden of infectious diseases has decreased dramatically due to advances in health care, disease prevention and numerous public health efforts and innovations, zoonotic diseases continue to pose a problem in terms of both existing and emerging diseases. These risks are of particular concern in rural areas, in which there is more contact with animals for occupational and recreational purposes. As a rural and agricultural state, South Dakota has a large percentage of its population at risk of exposure to zoonotic diseases through their substantial contact time with animals...
June 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812659/predicting-zoonoses
#2
Karl Gruber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811870/meat-inspection-of-reindeer-a-rich-source-of-data-for-monitoring-food-safety-and-animal-and-environmental-health-in-sweden
#3
Arja Helena Kautto, Ivar Vågsholm, Rauni Niskanen
Background: ​This study scrutinized carcass conditions recorded in post mortem inspections (PMI) of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus, L.) during 2015-2016 because of the importance for monitoring food safety and animal and environmental health threats. Material and methods: PMI results were retrieved from the National Food Agency. A negative binomial regression model was applied. For actual parameters, incident risk rate (IRR) with confidence intervals was calculated. Results and discussion: The number of conditions found in PMI varied widely between years and batches...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807281/toxoplasma-gondii-in-the-cornigliese-sheep-breed-in-italy-meat-juice-serology-in-vitro-isolation-and-genotyping
#4
A Vismarra, E Barilli, M Miceli, C Mangia, M Genchi, F Brindani, L Kramer, C Bacci
Toxoplasma gondii is considered one of the most important food-borne parasitic zoonoses globally and sheep are important intermediate hosts of the parasite. Meat and milk from infected sheep are considered an important source of infection for humans. Here, the authors evaluated T. gondii infection in the Italian Cornigliese sheep breed using meat juice ELISA, and in vitro assay for followed by Real Time-PCR and PCR-RFLP. Twenty-one hearts were collected at slaughter. Meat juice serology was carried out on all samples, while eleven hearts with the highest antibody titres were subjected to acid-peptic digestion and seeding onto Vero cells...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794984/seasonality-richness-and-prevalence-of-intestinal-parasites-of-three-neotropical-primates-alouatta-seniculus-ateles-hybridus-and-cebus-versicolor-in-a-fragmented-forest-in-colombia
#5
Silvia Rondón, Mario Ortiz, Cielo León, Nelson Galvis, Andrés Link, Camila González
Studies on parasites infecting non-human primates are essential to better understand the potential threat to humans of zoonoses transmission, particularly under the current processes of pervasive land use change and biodiversity loss. The natural ecosystems in the Middle Magdalena river basin in Colombia have suffered a dramatic reduction and transformation into pastures and agroindustrial monocultures, threatening their biodiversity, and probably affecting the dynamics between parasites and their hosts, as well as altering the disease transmission cycles between wild populations and humans...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783428/apex-predators-rockshelters-and-zoonoses-in-the-patagonian-holocene
#6
Martin Fugassa, Romina Petrigh
Carnivorous mammals are a trophic guild with an important role in the dissemination of parasite infective stages (larvae, eggs, cysts, and oocysts). In the present study, new samples of coprolites attributed to carnivorous mammals, obtained from two archaeological caves, were analyzed for the presence of parasites, with the aim to increase the knowledge about parasites in rockshelters that could have spread to humans and other mammals. To this purpose, fragments of 3 coprolites from Cerro Casa de Piedra, cave 5 (CCP5) and cave 7 (CCP7) were examined...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772262/evolution-and-emergence-of-pathogenic-viruses-past-present-and-future
#7
Mohammad K Parvez, Shama Parveen
Incidences of emerging/re-emerging deadly viral infections have significantly affected human health despite extraordinary progress in the area of biomedical knowledge. The best examples are the recurring outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya fever in tropical and sub-tropical regions, the recent epidemic of Zika in the Americas and the Caribbean, and the SARS, MERS, and influenza A outbreaks across the globe. The established natural reservoirs of human viruses are mainly farm animals, and, to a lesser extent, wild animals and arthropods...
August 4, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770219/quantifying-the-availability-of-vertebrate-hosts-to-ticks-a-camera-trapping-approach
#8
Tim R Hofmeester, J Marcus Rowcliffe, Patrick A Jansen
The availability of vertebrate hosts is a major determinant of the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne zoonoses in natural and anthropogenic ecosystems and thus drives disease risk for wildlife, livestock, and humans. However, it remains challenging to quantify the availability of vertebrate hosts in field settings, particularly for medium-sized to large-bodied mammals. Here, we present a method that uses camera traps to quantify the availability of warm-bodied vertebrates to ticks. The approach is to deploy camera traps at questing height at a representative sample of random points across the study area, measure the average photographic capture rate for vertebrate species, and then correct these rates for the effective detection distance...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766326/a-review-of-brucellosis-in-iran-epidemiology-risk-factors-diagnosis-control-and-prevention
#9
Maryam Golshani, Saeid Buozari
Brucellosis caused by species of Brucella is among the most prevalent zoonoses with the annual incidence of half a million cases globally. Most parts of Iran are endemic for brucellosis, and the annual incidence of the human and animal brucellosis is still high. At present, there is no safe and protective human vaccine against brucellosis, and the only preventive strategy is animal vaccination, which harbors significant disadvantages. Considering the identification of many immunogenic proteins in Brucella, several studies have recently been performed to evaluate the vaccine potency of such antigens as a new subunit vaccine candidate...
August 2, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764110/urban-environments-alter-parasite-fauna-weight-and-reproductive-activity-in-the-quenda-isoodon-obesulus
#10
Alison E Hillman, Alan J Lymbery, Aileen D Elliot, R C Andrew Thompson
Some wildlife species are capable of surviving in urbanised environments. However, the implications of urbanisation on wildlife health, and public health regarding zoonoses, are often unknown. Quenda (syn. southern brown bandicoots, Isoodon obesulus) survive in many areas of Perth, Australia, despite urbanisation. This study investigated differences in gastrointestinal and macroscopic ecto-parasitic infections, morphometrics and reproductive status between bushland and urban dwelling quenda. 287 quenda in the greater Perth region were captured and sampled for faeces (to detect gastrointestinal parasites), blood (to detect Toxoplasma gondii antibodies), ectoparasites, and morphometrics...
July 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761492/gastrointestinal-helminths-and-ectoparasites-in-the-stray-cats-felidae-felis-catus-of-ahar-municipality-northwestern-iran
#11
Mohammad Yakhchali, Nasser Hajipour, Reza Malekzadeh-Viayeh, Bijan Esmaeilnejad, Taher Nemati-Haravani, Mohammad Fathollahzadeh, Rasool Jafari
BACKGROUND: The stray cats are considered as the sources of emerging humans and domestic livestock pathogens and the zoonoses of public health importance. The present study was aimed to elucidate intestinal helminth infections and infestation with ectoparasites of the stray cats of Ahar City, northwestern Iran. METHODS: Totally, 51 stray cats were randomly trapped from different parts of the city between Mar and Nov 2013. The cats were assessed for ectoparasites by hair brushing, skin scraping, acetate tape preparation and othic swabs...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761469/parasitic-infections-of-bicoloured-white-toothed-shrew-crocidura-leucodon-from-dasht-e-razan-western-iran
#12
Ali Yousefi, Ali Eslami, Sadegh Rahbari, Iraj Mobedi
BACKGROUND: The prevalence and intensity of endo and ectoparasites in shrews inhabiting in the Dasht-e Razan of Hamedan Province, Iran, were determined in this study. METHODS: By live traps, 64 shrews belong to species bicoloured white-toothed shrews (Crocidura leucodon) were trapped during 2010-2012. Captured animals were euthanized and their gender recorded. The blood thick and thin smears were stained with Geimsa and examined for protozoan parasites. Then, ectoparasites were collected and preserved in 70% ethanol and after necropsies; different organs were examined for helminthes...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754024/a-comprehensive-review-of-common-bacterial-parasitic-and-viral-zoonoses-at-the-human-animal-interface-in-egypt
#13
REVIEW
Yosra A Helmy, Hosny El-Adawy, Elsayed M Abdelwhab
Egypt has a unique geographical location connecting the three old-world continents Africa, Asia and Europe. It is the country with the highest population density in the Middle East, Northern Africa and the Mediterranean basin. This review summarizes the prevalence, reservoirs, sources of human infection and control regimes of common bacterial, parasitic and viral zoonoses in animals and humans in Egypt. There is a gap of knowledge conerning the epidemiology of zoonotic diseases at the human-animal interface in different localities in Egypt...
July 21, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747170/spatial-prediction-and-validation-of-zoonotic-hazard-through-micro-habitat-properties-where-does-puumala-hantavirus-hole-up
#14
Hussein Khalil, Gert Olsson, Magnus Magnusson, Magnus Evander, Birger Hörnfeldt, Frauke Ecke
BACKGROUND: To predict the risk of infectious diseases originating in wildlife, it is important to identify habitats that allow the co-occurrence of pathogens and their hosts. Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) is a directly-transmitted RNA virus that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans, and is carried and transmitted by the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In northern Sweden, bank voles undergo 3-4 year population cycles, during which their spatial distribution varies greatly. METHODS: We used boosted regression trees; a technique inspired by machine learning, on a 10 - year time-series (fall 2003-2013) to develop a spatial predictive model assessing seasonal PUUV hazard using micro-habitat variables in a landscape heavily modified by forestry...
July 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724483/using-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus-in-infectious-disease-research
#15
Mitchell V Palmer, Rebecca J Cox, W Ray Waters, Tyler C Thacker, Diana L Whipple
Between 1940 and 2004, more than 335 emerging infectious disease events were reported in the scientific literature. The majority (60%) of these events involved zoonoses, most of which (72%) were of wildlife origin or had an epidemiologically important wildlife host. Because this trend of increasing emerging diseases likely will continue, understanding the pathogenesis, transmission, and diagnosis of these diseases in the relevant wildlife host is paramount. Achieving this goal often requires using wild animals as research subjects, which are vastly different from the traditional livestock or laboratory animals used by most universities and institutions...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712869/evaluation-of-human-platelet-lysate-and-dimethyl-sulfoxide-as-cryoprotectants-for-the-cryopreservation-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#16
Chuan Wang, Ran Xiao, Yi-Lin Cao, Hong-Yu Yin
Cryopreservation provides an effective technique to maintain the functional properties of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) are frequently used as cryoprotectants for this purpose. However, the use of DMSO can result in adverse effects and toxic reactions and FBS can introduce risks of viral, prion, zoonose contaminations and evoke immune responses after injection. It is therefore crucial to reduce DMSO concentrations and use serum-free solution in the cryopreservation process...
July 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710265/francisella-like-endosymbionts-and-rickettsia-species-in-local-and-imported-hyalomma-ticks
#17
Tal Azagi, Eyal Klement, Gidon Perlman, Yaniv Lustig, Kosta Y Mumcuoglu, Dmitry Apanaskevich, Yuval Gottlieb
Hyalomma ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are hosts for Francisella like endosymbionts (FLE) and may serve as vectors of zoonotic disease agents. This study was aimed to provide initial characterization of the interaction between Hyalomma and FLE and to determine the prevalence of pathogenic Rickettsia in these ticks. Hyalomma marginatum, H. rufipes, H. dromedarii, H. aegyptium and H. excavatum ticks, identified morphologically and molecularly, were collected from different hosts and locations, representing the genus distribution in Israel, as well as from migratory birds...
July 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689517/an-assessment-of-irish-farmers-knowledge-of-the-risk-of-spread-of-infection-from-animals-to-humans-and-their-transmission-prevention-practices
#18
M M Mahon, M C Sheehan, P F Kelleher, A J Johnson, S M Doyle
The aim of this study was to ascertain farmers' knowledge of the risk of spread of infection from animals to humans, and their transmission prevention practices. This was a survey of farmers who submitted material to Ireland's Regional Veterinary Laboratories in 2015. There was an 84% response rate (1044 farmers). Ninety per cent of farmers were not aware that infection can be acquired from apparently healthy animals. Over half were not aware that disease could be contracted from sick poultry or pets. Conversely, the knowledge of the risk to pregnant women of infection from birthing animals was high (88%)...
September 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685049/setting-health-research-priorities-using-the-chnri-method-vii-a-review-of-the-first-50-applications-of-the-chnri-method
#19
Igor Rudan, Sachiyo Yoshida, Kit Yee Chan, Devi Sridhar, Kerri Wazny, Harish Nair, Aziz Sheikh, Mark Tomlinson, Joy E Lawn, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Rajiv Bahl, Mickey Chopra, Harry Campbell, Shams El Arifeen, Robert E Black, Simon Cousens
BACKGROUND: Several recent reviews of the methods used to set research priorities have identified the CHNRI method (acronym derived from the "Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative") as an approach that clearly became popular and widely used over the past decade. In this paper we review the first 50 examples of application of the CHNRI method, published between 2007 and 2016, and summarize the most important messages that emerged from those experiences. METHODS: We conducted a literature review to identify the first 50 examples of application of the CHNRI method in chronological order...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683217/combination-of-antimicrobials-and-essential-oils-as-an-alternative-for-the-control-of-salmonella-enterica-multiresistant-strains-related-to-foodborne-disease
#20
Ana Lucía Solarte, Rafael Jesús Astorga, Fabiana Aguiar, Ángela Galán-Relaño, Alfonso Maldonado, Belén Huerta
Due to the increase in bacterial resistance to antimicrobials (AMBs) commonly used in veterinary and human medicine, the new strategies for controlling zoonoses focus on the study of natural products with demonstrated AMB activity, such as essential oils (EOs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of the combination of enrofloxacin (ENR), ceftiofur (CEF), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) with cinnamon, clove, oregano, and red thyme EOs against multiple drug-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica...
July 6, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
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