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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646219/efficient-and-unbiased-metagenomic-recovery-of-rna-virus-genomes-from-human-plasma-samples
#1
Carmen F Manso, David F Bibby, Jean L Mbisa
RNA viruses cause significant human pathology and are responsible for the majority of emerging zoonoses. Mainstream diagnostic assays are challenged by their intrinsic diversity, leading to false negatives and incomplete characterisation. New sequencing techniques are expanding our ability to agnostically interrogate nucleic acids within diverse sample types, but in the clinical setting are limited by overwhelming host material and ultra-low target frequency. Through selective host RNA depletion and compensatory protocol adjustments for ultra-low RNA inputs, we are able to detect three major blood-borne RNA viruses - HIV, HCV and HEV...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639244/veterinary-public-health-in-italy-from-healthy-animals-to-healthy-food-contribution-to-improve-economy-in-developing-countries
#2
Margherita Cacaci, Rossella Colomba Lelli
The role of the veterinarian as a public health officer is intrinsic to the history and the culture of veterinary organization in Italy. The Veterinary service being part of the Health administration since the birth of the Italian State in the XIX Century. In the second half of the last century the birth of the Italian National Health Service confirmed that the function of the Italian veterinary service was to analyze and reduce the risks for the human population connected to the relationship man-animal-environment, animal health, food safety and security...
June 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636590/host-and-viral-traits-predict-zoonotic-spillover-from-mammals
#3
Kevin J Olival, Parviez R Hosseini, Carlos Zambrana-Torrelio, Noam Ross, Tiffany L Bogich, Peter Daszak
The majority of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, with viruses that originate in wild mammals of particular concern (for example, HIV, Ebola and SARS). Understanding patterns of viral diversity in wildlife and determinants of successful cross-species transmission, or spillover, are therefore key goals for pandemic surveillance programs. However, few analytical tools exist to identify which host species are likely to harbour the next human virus, or which viruses can cross species boundaries. Here we conduct a comprehensive analysis of mammalian host-virus relationships and show that both the total number of viruses that infect a given species and the proportion likely to be zoonotic are predictable...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620577/population-structure-of-the-soft-tick-ornithodoros-maritimus-and-its-associated-infectious-agents-within-a-colony-of-its-seabird-host-larus-michahellis
#4
Marlene Dupraz, Céline Toty, Elodie Devillers, Thomas Blanchon, Eric Elguero, Marion Vittecoq, Sara Moutailler, Karen D McCoy
The epidemiology of vector-borne zoonoses depends on the movement of both hosts and vectors, which can differ greatly in intensity across spatial scales. Because of their life history traits and small size, vector dispersal may be frequent, but limited in distance. However, little information is available on vector movement patterns at local spatial scales, and particularly for ticks, transmitting the greatest diversity of recognized infectious agents. To test the degree to which ticks can disperse and disseminate pathogens at local scales, we investigated the temporal dynamics and population structure of the soft tick Ornithodoros maritimus within a colony of its seabird host, the Yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis...
August 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619165/the-use-of-animals-as-a-surveillance-tool-for-monitoring-environmental-health-hazards-human-health-hazards-and-bioterrorism
#5
REVIEW
Jacqueline Pei Shan Neo, Boon Huan Tan
This review discusses the utilization of wild or domestic animals as surveillance tools for monitoring naturally occurring environmental and human health hazards. Besides providing early warning to natural hazards, animals can also provide early warning to societal hazards like bioterrorism. Animals are ideal surveillance tools to humans because they share the same environment as humans and spend more time outdoors than humans, increasing their exposure risk. Furthermore, the biologically compressed lifespans of some animals may allow them to develop clinical signs more rapidly after exposure to specific pathogens...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616492/the-role-of-environmental-health-in-one-health-a-uganda-perspective
#6
David Musoke, Rawlance Ndejjo, Edwinah Atusingwize, Abdullah Ali Halage
BACKGROUND: One Health is the integrative effort of multiple disciplines working locally, nationally and globally to attain optimal health for people, animals and the environment. As the human population continues to increase across the world, the interface of people, animals and the environment becomes more significant and impactful. For the past few years, the One Health concept has brought together experts in the areas of animal and human health. It has provided a new synthesis for public health and veterinary communities across the world...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616478/human-livestock-contacts-and-their-relationship-to-transmission-of-zoonotic-pathogens-a-systematic-review-of-literature
#7
REVIEW
Gijs Klous, Anke Huss, Dick J J Heederik, Roel A Coutinho
BACKGROUND: Micro-organisms transmitted from vertebrate animals - including livestock - to humans account for an estimated 60% of human pathogens. Micro-organisms can be transmitted through inhalation, ingestion, via conjunctiva or physical contact. Close contact with animals is crucial for transmission. The role of intensity and type of contact patterns between livestock and humans for disease transmission is poorly understood. In this systematic review we aimed to summarise current knowledge regarding patterns of human-livestock contacts and their role in micro-organism transmission...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610640/multi-country-outbreak-of-salmonella-enteritidis-infection-linked-to-the-international-ice-hockey-tournament
#8
T Pärn, V Dahl, T Lienemann, J Perevosčikovs, B DE Jong
In April 2015, Finnish public health authorities alerted European Union member states of a possible multi-country Salmonella enteritidis outbreak linked to an international youth ice-hockey tournament in Latvia. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Finnish and Latvian authorities initiated an outbreak investigation to identify the source. The investigation included a description of the outbreak, retrospective cohort study, microbiological investigation and trace-back. We identified 154 suspected and 96 confirmed cases from seven countries...
June 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601472/detection-and-phylogenetic-characterisation-of-novel-anaplasma-and-ehrlichia-species-in-amblyomma-triguttatum-subsp-from-four-allopatric-populations-in-australia
#9
Alexander W Gofton, Helen P Waudby, Sophie Petit, Telleasha L Greay, Una M Ryan, Peter J Irwin
Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp. are tick-borne pathogens that can cause severe disease in domestic animals, and several species are responsible for emerging zoonoses in the northern hemisphere. Until recently, the only members of these genera reported in Australia (A. marginale, A. centrale, and A. platys) were introduced from other continents, through the importation of domestic animals and their associated ticks. However, unique Anaplasma and Ehrlichia 16S rRNA gene sequences were recently detected for the first time in native Australian ticks, particularly in Amblyomma triguttatum subsp...
May 27, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584181/facility-based-surveillance-for-emerging-infectious-diseases-diagnostic-practices-in-rural-west-african-hospital-settings-observations-from-ghana
#10
Freya L Jephcott, James L N Wood, Andrew A Cunningham
The aim of this study was to better understand the effectiveness of Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) facility-based surveillance in detecting newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in rural West African settings. A six-month ethnographic study was undertaken in 2012 in the Techiman Municipality of the Brong-Ahafo Region of Ghana, aimed at documenting the trajectories of febrile illness cases of unknown origin occurring within four rural communities. Particular attention was paid to where these trajectories involved the use of formal healthcare facilities and the diagnostic practices that occurred there...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584180/engaging-research-with-policy-and-action-what-are-the-challenges-of-responding-to-zoonotic-disease-in-africa
#11
REVIEW
Kevin Louis Bardosh, Jake Cornwall Scoones, Delia Grace, Gladys Kalema-Zikusoka, Kate E Jones, Katinka de Balogh, David Waltner-Toews, Bernard Bett, Susan C Welburn, Elizabeth Mumford, Vupenyu Dzingirai
Zoonotic diseases will maintain a high level of public policy attention in the coming decades. From the spectre of a global pandemic to anxieties over agricultural change, urbanization, social inequality and threats to natural ecosystems, effectively preparing and responding to endemic and emerging diseases will require technological, institutional and social innovation. Much current discussion emphasizes the need for a 'One Health' approach: bridging disciplines and sectors to tackle these complex dynamics...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584179/zoonoses-one-health-and-complexity-wicked-problems-and-constructive-conflict
#12
REVIEW
David Waltner-Toews
Infectious zoonoses emerge from complex interactions among social and ecological systems. Understanding this complexity requires the accommodation of multiple, often conflicting, perspectives and narratives, rooted in different value systems and temporal-spatial scales. Therefore, to be adaptive, successful and sustainable, One Health approaches necessarily entail conflicts among observers, practitioners and scholars. Nevertheless, these integrative approaches have, both implicitly and explicitly, tended to marginalize some perspectives and prioritize others, resulting in a kind of technocratic tyranny...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584178/views-from-many-worlds-unsettling-categories-in-interdisciplinary-research-on-endemic-zoonotic-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Hayley MacGregor, Linda Waldman
Interdisciplinary research on zoonotic disease has tended to focus on 'risk' of disease transmission as a conceptual common denominator. With reference to endemic zoonoses at the livestock-human interface, we argue for considering a broader sweep of disciplinary insights from anthropology and other social sciences in interdisciplinary dialogue, in particular cross-cultural perspectives on human-animal engagement. We consider diverse worldviews where human-animal encounters are perceived of in terms of the kinds of social relations they generate, and the notion of culture is extended to the 'natural' world...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584177/structural-drivers-of-vulnerability-to-zoonotic-disease-in-africa
#14
Vupenyu Dzingirai, Salome Bukachi, Melissa Leach, Lindiwe Mangwanya, Ian Scoones, Annie Wilkinson
This paper argues that addressing the underlying structural drivers of disease vulnerability is essential for a 'One Health' approach to tackling zoonotic diseases in Africa. Through three case studies-trypanosomiasis in Zimbabwe, Ebola and Lassa fever in Sierra Leone and Rift Valley fever in Kenya-we show how political interests, commercial investments and conflict and securitization all generate patterns of vulnerability, reshaping the political ecology of disease landscapes, influencing traditional coping mechanisms and affecting health service provision and outbreak responses...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584176/one-health-contributions-towards-more-effective-and-equitable-approaches-to-health-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#15
REVIEW
S Cleaveland, J Sharp, B Abela-Ridder, K J Allan, J Buza, J A Crump, A Davis, V J Del Rio Vilas, W A de Glanville, R R Kazwala, T Kibona, F J Lankester, A Lugelo, B T Mmbaga, M P Rubach, E S Swai, L Waldman, D T Haydon, K Hampson, J E B Halliday
Emerging zoonoses with pandemic potential are a stated priority for the global health security agenda, but endemic zoonoses also have a major societal impact in low-resource settings. Although many endemic zoonoses can be treated, timely diagnosis and appropriate clinical management of human cases is often challenging. Preventive 'One Health' interventions, e.g. interventions in animal populations that generate human health benefits, may provide a useful approach to overcoming some of these challenges. Effective strategies, such as animal vaccination, already exist for the prevention, control and elimination of many endemic zoonoses, including rabies, and several livestock zoonoses (e...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584175/one-health-emerging-infectious-diseases-and-wildlife-two-decades-of-progress
#16
REVIEW
Andrew A Cunningham, Peter Daszak, James L N Wood
Infectious diseases affect people, domestic animals and wildlife alike, with many pathogens being able to infect multiple species. Fifty years ago, following the wide-scale manufacture and use of antibiotics and vaccines, it seemed that the battle against infections was being won for the human population. Since then, however, and in addition to increasing antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens, there has been an increase in the emergence of, mostly viral, zoonotic diseases from wildlife, sometimes causing fatal outbreaks of epidemic proportions...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584174/poor-livestock-keepers-ecosystem-poverty-health-interactions
#17
REVIEW
Delia Grace, Johanna Lindahl, Francis Wanyoike, Bernard Bett, Tom Randolph, Karl M Rich
Humans have never been healthier, wealthier or more numerous. Yet, present success may be at the cost of future prosperity and in some places, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, poverty persists. Livestock keepers, especially pastoralists, are over-represented among the poor. Poverty has been mainly attributed to a lack of access, whether to goods, education or enabling institutions. More recent insights suggest ecosystems may influence poverty and the self-reinforcing mechanisms that constitute poverty traps in more subtle ways...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584173/spatial-seasonal-and-climatic-predictive-models-of-rift-valley-fever-disease-across-africa
#18
David W Redding, Sonia Tiedt, Gianni Lo Iacono, Bernard Bett, Kate E Jones
Understanding the emergence and subsequent spread of human infectious diseases is a critical global challenge, especially for high-impact zoonotic and vector-borne diseases. Global climate and land-use change are likely to alter host and vector distributions, but understanding the impact of these changes on the burden of infectious diseases is difficult. Here, we use a Bayesian spatial model to investigate environmental drivers of one of the most important diseases in Africa, Rift Valley fever (RVF). The model uses a hierarchical approach to determine how environmental drivers vary both spatially and seasonally, and incorporates the effects of key climatic oscillations, to produce a continental risk map of RVF in livestock (as a proxy for human RVF risk)...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584172/integrative-modelling-for-one-health-pattern-process-and-participation
#19
REVIEW
I Scoones, K Jones, G Lo Iacono, D W Redding, A Wilkinson, J L N Wood
This paper argues for an integrative modelling approach for understanding zoonoses disease dynamics, combining process, pattern and participatory models. Each type of modelling provides important insights, but all are limited. Combining these in a '3P' approach offers the opportunity for a productive conversation between modelling efforts, contributing to a 'One Health' agenda. The aim is not to come up with a composite model, but seek synergies between perspectives, encouraging cross-disciplinary interactions...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584171/local-disease-ecosystem-livelihood-dynamics-reflections-from-comparative-case-studies-in-africa
#20
Melissa Leach, Bernard Bett, M Said, Salome Bukachi, Rosemary Sang, Neil Anderson, Noreen Machila, Joanna Kuleszo, Kathryn Schaten, Vupenyu Dzingirai, Lindiwe Mangwanya, Yaa Ntiamoa-Baidu, Elaine Lawson, Kofi Amponsah-Mensah, Lina M Moses, Annie Wilkinson, Donald S Grant, James Koninga
This article explores the implications for human health of local interactions between disease, ecosystems and livelihoods. Five interdisciplinary case studies addressed zoonotic diseases in African settings: Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Kenya, human African trypanosomiasis in Zambia and Zimbabwe, Lassa fever in Sierra Leone and henipaviruses in Ghana. Each explored how ecological changes and human-ecosystem interactions affect pathogen dynamics and hence the likelihood of zoonotic spillover and transmission, and how socially differentiated peoples' interactions with ecosystems and animals affect their exposure to disease...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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