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Skin and lung parasites

Katarzyna Król-Turmińska, Alina Olender
[b]Abstract Introduction[/b]. Among free-living amoebae that are widely distributed in nature only four genera/species are known as agents of human infections:[i] Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleriafowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris[/i] and[i] Sappiniapedata[/i]. These amoebae are not well adapted to parasitism, and could exist in the human environment without the need for a host. Infections due to these amoebae, despite low morbidity, are characterized by relatively high mortality rate and pose serious clinical problems...
May 11, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Wander de Jesus Jeremias, Flávio Marcos Gomes Araújo, Fábio Ribeiro Queiroz, Fabiano Sviatopolk Mirsky Pais, Ana Carolina Alves de Mattos, Anna Christina de Matos Salim, Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho, Guilherme Correa Oliveira, John Robert Kusel, Renata Guerra-Sá, Roney Santos Coimbra, Élio Hideo Babá
Once inside a vertebrate host after infection, individual schistosomula of the parasite Schistosoma mansoni find a new and complex environment, which requires quick adjustments for survival, such as those that allow it to avoid the innate immune response of the host. Thus, it is very important for the parasite to remain within the skin after entering the host for a period of about 3 days, at which time it can then reach the venous system, migrate to the lungs and, by the end of eighth day post-infection, it reach the portal venous system, while undergoing minimal changes in morphology...
2017: PloS One
Lauren M Webb, Elia D Tait Wojno
The complexity of helminth macroparasites is reflected in the intricate network of host cell types that participate in the Type 2 immune response needed to battle these organisms. In this context, adaptive T helper 2 cells and the Type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13 have been the focus of research for years, but recent work has demonstrated that the innate immune system plays an essential role. Some innate immune cells that promote Type 2 immunity are relatively abundant, such as macrophages and eosinophils...
June 6, 2017: Parasitology
Adele Magliano, Jiri Hava, Andrea Di Giulio, Antonino Barone, Claudio De Liberato
Dermestidae and Tenebrionidae are well known inhabitants of bird's nests and poultry farms, under favourable conditions they can be very abundant under favourable conditions. At times, their larvae shift from a scavenging behaviour to a parasitic/predatory one, entering nestling's plumage and feeding on skin and feathers, and nally provoking skin damages and blood losses. These episodes mainly involve species of the genus Dermestes, but the tenebrionid Alphitobius diaperinus h also been reported to be responsible of similar cases...
April 11, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
Gregory Karadjian, Frédéric Fercoq, Nicolas Pionnier, Nathaly Vallarino-Lhermitte, Emilie Lefoulon, Adélaïde Nieguitsila, Sabine Specht, Leo M Carlin, Coralie Martin
Filarial infections are tropical diseases caused by nematodes of the Onchocercidae family such as Mansonella perstans. The infective larvae (L3) are transmitted into the skin of vertebrate hosts by blood-feeding vectors. Many filarial species settle in the serous cavities including M. perstans in humans and L. sigmodontis, a well-established model of filariasis in mice. L. sigmodontis L3 migrate to the pleural cavity where they moult into L4 around day 9 and into male and female adult worms around day 30. Little is known of the early phase of the parasite life cycle, after the L3 is inoculated in the dermis by the vector and enters the afferent lymphatic vessels and before the moulting processes in the pleural cavity...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Daigo Tsubokawa, Takeshi Hatta, Taisei Kikuchi, Hiroki Maeda, Fusako Mikami, M Abdul Alim, Haruhiko Maruyama, Naotoshi Tsuji
The secretory EF-hand Ca(++)-binding proteins act as calcium signaling molecules for control of cell functions, but those proteins from parasitic helminths are poorly understood. Here, we have identified and characterized an EF-hand Ca(++)-binding protein from the rodent nematode, Strongyloides venezuelensis, termed 'venestatin', which is highly conserved in Strongyloides spp. Canonical two EF-hand domains and a signal peptide are present in venestatin. A gel mobility shift assay and Ruthenium red staining indicated that the recombinant venestatin possesses binding ability with Ca(++) ions...
July 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Ryan Dos Santos Costa, Camila Alexandrina Figueiredo, Maurıcio Lima Barreto, Neuza Maria Alcantara-Neves, Laura Cunha Rodrigues, Alvaro A Cruz, Candelaria Vergara, Nicholas Rafaels, Cassandra Foster, Joseph Potee, Monica Campbell, Rasika A Mathias, Kathleen C Barnes
BACKGROUND: Allergic asthma is a complex disorder that results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Studies suggest that helminth infections can activate a regulatory network characterized by the production of regulatory cytokines, such as interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and subsequently protect against immune-mediated diseases, such as asthma. On the other hand, TGF-β1 is increased in the lungs of individuals with asthma and may modulate airway inflammation...
April 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Martina Slapničková, Valeriya Volkova, Marie Čepičková, Tatyana Kobets, Matyáš Šíma, Milena Svobodová, Peter Demant, Marie Lipoldová
BACKGROUND: Sex influences susceptibility to many infectious diseases, including some manifestations of leishmaniasis. The disease is caused by parasites that enter to the skin and can spread to the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, bone marrow, and sometimes lungs. Parasites induce host defenses including cell infiltration, leading to protective or ineffective inflammation. These responses are often influenced by host genotype and sex. We analyzed the role of sex in the impact of specific gene loci on eosinophil infiltration and its functional relevance...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Jesus A Chavez, Wei Chen, Wendy L Frankel, Christina A Arnold
Hydrophilic polymer coating of medical devices serves to lubricate the device and prevent device-related complications. The coating can be mechanically disrupted and result in downstream injury via presumed thromboembolism. This process has been reported in the brain, heart, lung, and skin, and has been replicated through animal studies and in vitro histologic processing of the polymer coating. We report the first description of hydrophilic polymer-associated ischemic enterocolitis in a series of 7 specimens (small bowel=2, colon=4, aortic thrombus=1) from 3 patients...
February 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Farah Adel, José Manuel Ramia, Luis Gijón, Roberto de la Plaza-Llamas, Vladimir Arteaga-Peralta, Carmen Ramiro-Perez
BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by larvae of the parasite Echinococcus that is endemic in many countries of the Mediterranean area. It can affect any organ, with the most common sites being liver (70%) and lung (20%). Splenic hydatid disease, despite being rare, is the third most common location. Other locations such as bone, skin, or kidney are exceptional. OBJECTIVE: To present our experience in extrahepatic and extrapulmonary hydatidosis...
September 5, 2016: Cirugia y Cirujanos
Chiara Cardamone, Roberta Parente, Giulia De Feo, Massimo Triggiani
Mast cells are widely distributed in human organs and tissues and they are particularly abundant at major body interfaces with the external environment such as the skin, the lung and the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, mast cells are located around blood vessels and are highly represented within central and peripheral lymphoid organs. The strategic distribution of mast cells closely reflects the primary role of these cells in providing first-line defense against environmental dangers, in regulating local and systemic inflammatory reactions and in shaping innate and adaptive immune responses...
October 2016: Immunology Letters
Denise McAloose, M Virginia Rago, Matías Di Martino, Andrea Chirife, Sarah H Olson, Lucas Beltramino, Luciana M Pozzi, Luciana Musmeci, Luciano La Sala, Nadia Mohamed, Juan Emilio Sala, Lucas Bandieri, Julian Andrejuk, Ania Tomaszewicz, Tracie Seimon, Mariano Sironi, Luis E Samartino, Victoria Rowntree, Marcela M Uhart
Between 2003 and 2012, 605 southern right whales (SRW; Eubalaena australis) were found dead along the shores of Península Valdés (PV), Argentina. These deaths included alarmingly high annual losses between 2007 and 2012, a peak number of deaths (116) in 2012, and a significant number of deaths across years in calves-of-the-year (544 of 605 [89.9%]; average = 60.4 yr(-1)). Post-mortem examination and pathogen testing were performed on 212 whales; 208 (98.1%) were calves-of-the-year and 48.0% of these were newborns or neonates...
April 12, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
M A Abdel-Maksoud, F A Abdel-Ghaffar, A El-Amir, S Al-Quraishy, G Badr
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of Plasmodium chabaudi infection on the plasma level of circulating immune complexes (CICs), haemoglobin (Hb) content, urine profile, and histological features of female BWF1 mice, the murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 female BWF1 lupus mice were randomly divided into three groups as follows: group (I) control group (P. chabaudi uninfected); group (II) lupus mice infected with live P...
2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Chiung-Yu Hung, Natalia Castro-Lopez, Garry T Cole
Coccidioidomycosis is a potentially life-threatening respiratory disease which is endemic to the southwestern United States and arid regions of Central and South America. It is responsible for approximately 150,000 infections annually in the United States alone. Almost every human organ has been reported to harbor parasitic cells of Coccidioides spp. in collective cases of the disseminated form of this mycosis. Current understanding of the mechanisms of protective immunity against lung infection has been largely derived from murine models of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis...
April 2016: Infection and Immunity
M Freick, L Lapko, M Neubert, M Hardt, H Behn, O Passarge, S Schöniger
Sporadic lymphosarcomas in adult cattle are rare entities with an unknown etiology. This case report describes the course of the disease in a 3.5-year-old cow of the breed German Holstein, which was presented to the veterinarian due to multifocal nodular skin lesions. Several superficial lymph nodes (Lymphonodi mandibulares, parotidei and mammariae) were enlarged, had a tight-elastic consistency and were freely movable. The histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of skin biopsies showed the presence of multifocal cutaneous T-cell lymphosarcomas consistent with a skin leukosis...
2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Esther Kuenzli, Andreas Neumayr, Matthew Chaney, Johannes Blum
Toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara catis, is a worldwide occurring parasitic disease, reaching high prevalences especially in tropical and subtropical countries. The clinical presentation can range from asymptomatic seropositivity to life threatenting disease, depending on the organ system involved. Cardiac involvement, one of the possible manifestations of human Toxocara spp. infection, is rarely reported in case reports. As far as we know, no systematic reviews of clinical presentations have been published till now and no clear recommendations regarding the treatment of Toxocara spp...
February 2016: Acta Tropica
Cornelis H Smit, Christiaan L Kies, Hamish E G McWilliam, Els N T Meeusen, Cornelis H Hokke, Angela van Diepen
Schistosomiasis is a tropical disease affecting over 230 million people worldwide. Although effective drug treatment is available, reinfections are common, and development of immunity is slow. Most antibodies raised during schistosome infection are directed against glycans, some of which are thought to be protective. Developing schistosomula are considered most vulnerable to immune attack, and better understanding of local antibody responses raised against glycans expressed by this life stage might reveal possible glycan vaccine candidates for future vaccine research...
January 2016: Infection and Immunity
Ji Liu, Tong Pan, Xu You, Yiyue Xu, Jinyi Liang, Yanin Limpanont, Xi Sun, Kamolnetr Okanurak, Huanqin Zheng, Zhongdao Wu, Zhiyue Lv
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is considered second only to malaria as the most devastating parasitic disease in tropical countries. Schistosome cercariae invade the host by penetrating the skin and migrate though the lungs and portal circulation to their final destination in the hepatic portal system and eventually the mesenteric veins. Previous studies have shown that the cytotoxic pathways that target schistosomulum in the lung-stage involve nitric oxide (NO) produced by macrophages. By contrast, skin-stage schistosomulas can evade clearance, indicating that they might be freed from macrophage NO-mediated cytotoxicity to achieve immune evasion; however, the critical molecules and mechanisms involved remain unknown...
October 7, 2015: Parasites & Vectors
Usama S Belal, Kazumi Norose, Rabie M Mohamed, Shuichi Sekine, Takumi Nukaga, Kousei Ito, Manal Z Abdellatif, Noha H Abdelgelil, Akihiko Yano
The abundance of Toxoplasma gondii with or without sulfamethoxazole (SMX) treatment was evaluated with quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction in various organs of wild-type C57BL/6 mice, a susceptible immunocompetent host, after peroral infection with a cyst-forming Fukaya strain of T. gondii. SMX affected different organs in three ways: T. gondii was reduced independently of SMX (skin and kidney); T. gondii was not eradicated with continuous treatment (brain, heart, and lung); and T. gondii was eradicated with continuous treatment (tongue, skeletal muscle, and small intestine)...
February 2016: Parasitology International
Serpil Sevinc, Ozgur Samancıiar, Taner Ozturk, Saban Unsal, Seyda Ors Kaya
Echinococcosis/hydatidosis is a frequent parasitic and zoonotic disease in the population engaged with agriculture and stockbreeding. It is seen most frequently in the liver and lung in adults. Mediastinal location of the disease is very rare. In this study we aimed to present a 31-year-old man having hydatid disease in the anterior mediastinum fistulated to the skin in the right subclavicular region, together with the literature. The patient was operated on through a partial sternotomy incision, and excision of the cyst and the fistula was performed...
December 2014: Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska, Polish Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
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