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Skin and lung parasites

Farah Adel, José Manuel Ramia, Luis Gijón, Roberto de la Plaza-Llamas, Vladimir Arteaga-Peralta, Carmen Ramiro-Perez
BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by larvae of the parasite Echinococcus that is endemic in many countries of the Mediterranean area. It can affect any organ, with the most common sites being liver (70%) and lung (20%). Splenic hydatid disease, despite being rare, is the third most common location. Other locations such as bone, skin, or kidney are exceptional. OBJECTIVE: To present our experience in extrahepatic and extrapulmonary hydatidosis...
September 5, 2016: Cirugia y Cirujanos
Chiara Cardamone, Roberta Parente, Giulia De Feo, Massimo Triggiani
Mast cells are widely distributed in human organs and tissues and they are particularly abundant at major body interfaces with the external environment such as the skin, the lung and the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, mast cells are located around blood vessels and are highly represented within central and peripheral lymphoid organs. The strategic distribution of mast cells closely reflects the primary role of these cells in providing first-line defense against environmental dangers, in regulating local and systemic inflammatory reactions and in shaping innate and adaptive immune responses...
October 2016: Immunology Letters
Denise McAloose, M Virginia Rago, Matías Di Martino, Andrea Chirife, Sarah H Olson, Lucas Beltramino, Luciana M Pozzi, Luciana Musmeci, Luciano La Sala, Nadia Mohamed, Juan Emilio Sala, Lucas Bandieri, Julian Andrejuk, Ania Tomaszewicz, Tracie Seimon, Mariano Sironi, Luis E Samartino, Victoria Rowntree, Marcela M Uhart
Between 2003 and 2012, 605 southern right whales (SRW; Eubalaena australis) were found dead along the shores of Península Valdés (PV), Argentina. These deaths included alarmingly high annual losses between 2007 and 2012, a peak number of deaths (116) in 2012, and a significant number of deaths across years in calves-of-the-year (544 of 605 [89.9%]; average = 60.4 yr(-1)). Post-mortem examination and pathogen testing were performed on 212 whales; 208 (98.1%) were calves-of-the-year and 48.0% of these were newborns or neonates...
April 12, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
M A Abdel-Maksoud, F A Abdel-Ghaffar, A El-Amir, S Al-Quraishy, G Badr
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of Plasmodium chabaudi infection on the plasma level of circulating immune complexes (CICs), haemoglobin (Hb) content, urine profile, and histological features of female BWF1 mice, the murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 female BWF1 lupus mice were randomly divided into three groups as follows: group (I) control group (P. chabaudi uninfected); group (II) lupus mice infected with live P...
2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Chiung-Yu Hung, Natalia Castro-Lopez, Garry T Cole
Coccidioidomycosis is a potentially life-threatening respiratory disease which is endemic to the southwestern United States and arid regions of Central and South America. It is responsible for approximately 150,000 infections annually in the United States alone. Almost every human organ has been reported to harbor parasitic cells of Coccidioides spp. in collective cases of the disseminated form of this mycosis. Current understanding of the mechanisms of protective immunity against lung infection has been largely derived from murine models of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis...
April 2016: Infection and Immunity
M Freick, L Lapko, M Neubert, M Hardt, H Behn, O Passarge, S Schöniger
Sporadic lymphosarcomas in adult cattle are rare entities with an unknown etiology. This case report describes the course of the disease in a 3.5-year-old cow of the breed German Holstein, which was presented to the veterinarian due to multifocal nodular skin lesions. Several superficial lymph nodes (Lymphonodi mandibulares, parotidei and mammariae) were enlarged, had a tight-elastic consistency and were freely movable. The histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of skin biopsies showed the presence of multifocal cutaneous T-cell lymphosarcomas consistent with a skin leukosis...
2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Esther Kuenzli, Andreas Neumayr, Matthew Chaney, Johannes Blum
Toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara catis, is a worldwide occurring parasitic disease, reaching high prevalences especially in tropical and subtropical countries. The clinical presentation can range from asymptomatic seropositivity to life threatenting disease, depending on the organ system involved. Cardiac involvement, one of the possible manifestations of human Toxocara spp. infection, is rarely reported in case reports. As far as we know, no systematic reviews of clinical presentations have been published till now and no clear recommendations regarding the treatment of Toxocara spp...
February 2016: Acta Tropica
Cornelis H Smit, Christiaan L Kies, Hamish E G McWilliam, Els N T Meeusen, Cornelis H Hokke, Angela van Diepen
Schistosomiasis is a tropical disease affecting over 230 million people worldwide. Although effective drug treatment is available, reinfections are common, and development of immunity is slow. Most antibodies raised during schistosome infection are directed against glycans, some of which are thought to be protective. Developing schistosomula are considered most vulnerable to immune attack, and better understanding of local antibody responses raised against glycans expressed by this life stage might reveal possible glycan vaccine candidates for future vaccine research...
January 2016: Infection and Immunity
Ji Liu, Tong Pan, Xu You, Yiyue Xu, Jinyi Liang, Yanin Limpanont, Xi Sun, Kamolnetr Okanurak, Huanqin Zheng, Zhongdao Wu, Zhiyue Lv
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is considered second only to malaria as the most devastating parasitic disease in tropical countries. Schistosome cercariae invade the host by penetrating the skin and migrate though the lungs and portal circulation to their final destination in the hepatic portal system and eventually the mesenteric veins. Previous studies have shown that the cytotoxic pathways that target schistosomulum in the lung-stage involve nitric oxide (NO) produced by macrophages. By contrast, skin-stage schistosomulas can evade clearance, indicating that they might be freed from macrophage NO-mediated cytotoxicity to achieve immune evasion; however, the critical molecules and mechanisms involved remain unknown...
2015: Parasites & Vectors
Usama S Belal, Kazumi Norose, Rabie M Mohamed, Shuichi Sekine, Takumi Nukaga, Kousei Ito, Manal Z Abdellatif, Noha H Abdelgelil, Akihiko Yano
The abundance of Toxoplasma gondii with or without sulfamethoxazole (SMX) treatment was evaluated with quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction in various organs of wild-type C57BL/6 mice, a susceptible immunocompetent host, after peroral infection with a cyst-forming Fukaya strain of T. gondii. SMX affected different organs in three ways: T. gondii was reduced independently of SMX (skin and kidney); T. gondii was not eradicated with continuous treatment (brain, heart, and lung); and T. gondii was eradicated with continuous treatment (tongue, skeletal muscle, and small intestine)...
February 2016: Parasitology International
Serpil Sevinc, Ozgur Samancıiar, Taner Ozturk, Saban Unsal, Seyda Ors Kaya
Echinococcosis/hydatidosis is a frequent parasitic and zoonotic disease in the population engaged with agriculture and stockbreeding. It is seen most frequently in the liver and lung in adults. Mediastinal location of the disease is very rare. In this study we aimed to present a 31-year-old man having hydatid disease in the anterior mediastinum fistulated to the skin in the right subclavicular region, together with the literature. The patient was operated on through a partial sternotomy incision, and excision of the cyst and the fistula was performed...
December 2014: Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska, Polish Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
Stephen A Redpath, Nienke van der Werf, Andrew S MacDonald, Rick M Maizels, Matthew D Taylor
Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells play a key role in suppression of immune responses during parasitic helminth infection, both by controlling damaging immunopathology and by inhibiting protective immunity. During the patent phase of Schistosoma mansoni infection, Foxp3(+) Treg cells are activated and suppress egg-elicited Th2 responses, but little is known of their induction and role during the early prepatent larval stage of infection. We quantified Foxp3(+) Treg cell responses during the first 3 weeks of murine S...
October 2015: Infection and Immunity
Qiong Liang, Yiqiang Chen, Jinliang Kong, Yiping Pan
OBJECTIVE: To improve the diagnosis and treatment of eosinophilic lung disease. METHODS: Patients who were diagnosed with eosinophilic lung disease and hospitalized in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University Hospital were retrospectively analyzed from January 2004 to August 2012. Data of etiology, clinical manifestation, imaging and pathological features, diagnosis and treatment were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 25 patients were diagnosed with eosinophilic lung disease including 9 chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, 6 churg-strauss syndrome, and 10 cases of parasitic infection of which two patients were the simple pulmonary eosinophilia (Löffler syndrome)...
May 2015: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
Patrick Driguez, Hamish E G McWilliam, Soraya Gaze, David Piedrafita, Mark S Pearson, Rie Nakajima, Mary Duke, Angela Trieu, Denise L Doolan, Fernanda C Cardoso, Algis Jasinskas, Geoffrey N Gobert, Philip L Felgner, Alex Loukas, Els Meeusen, Donald P McManus
The schistosome blood flukes are some of the largest global causes of parasitic morbidity. Further study of the specific antibody response during schistosomiasis may yield the vaccines and diagnostics needed to combat this disease. Therefore, for the purposes of antigen discovery, sera and antibody-secreting cell (ASC) probes from semi-permissive rats and sera from susceptible mice were used to screen a schistosome protein microarray. Following Schistosoma japonicum infection, rats had reduced pathology, increased antibody responses and broader antigen recognition profiles compared with mice...
January 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
Hiroyuki Matsuoka, Hiroyuki Tomita, Ryuta Hattori, Meiji Arai, Makoto Hirai
We produced a transgenic rodent malaria parasite (Plasmodium berghei) that contained the luciferase gene under a promoter region of elongation factor-1α. These transgenic (TG) parasites expressed luciferase in all stages of their life cycle, as previously reported. However, we were the first to succeed in observing sporozoites as a mass in mouse skin following their deposition by the probing of infective mosquitoes. Our transgenic parasites may have emitted stronger bioluminescence than previous TG parasites...
March 2015: Tropical Medicine and Health
Gabriele Sganga
Sepsis represents a clinical syndrome following an infection and it is characterized by classical signs of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS): fever or ipothermia, tachycardia, tachipnea, leucocytosis or leucopenia. There may also be symptoms related to a specific infection such as a cough in pneumonia or burning with urination in a kidney infection, and abdominal pain in an intraabdominal sepsis. Common locations for the primary infection include lungs, brain, urinary tract, skin and soft tissues, and mainly abdominal organs...
April 2015: Urologia
Tosson A Morsy
The most important insects from medical point of view are the blood suckers or the insect- borne diseases. Still others, almost non-blood>suckers, but may attack man and animal to depos it their eggs or larvae of myiasis producing flies in skin, nose, eye, lung, ear, anus, vagina, and oral cavity as well as accidental gastrointestinal ones causing pathogenic condition known as myiasis causing different pathogenic conditions. Nosocomial myiasis must be noted carefully, especially in case of hospitalized patients...
December 2014: Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology
Ben Roediger, Wolfgang Weninger
Type 2 cytokine-driven immune responses are important against parasite infections but also underlie the development of inflammatory allergic diseases. Type 2 CD4(+) T (Th2) cells have long been believed to act as central regulators of allergic conditions via the production of the signature cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. However, the more recent identification of group 2 innate lymphoid cells ILC (ILC2) cells, which also produce the same cytokines, necessitates a reevaluation of the relative roles these two populations play during type 2 inflammation...
2015: Advances in Immunology
Łukasz Kuźma, Monika Derda, Edward Hadaś, Halina Wysokińska
Amoebae from the genus Acanthamoeba are known agents leading to various diseases such as granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system, amoebic keratitis (AK), chronic eye infection, amoebic pneumitis (AP), chronic lung infection, and skin infections. It is known that various synthetic anti-Acanthamoeba substances are ineffective. Therefore, other substances, e.g., natural plant compounds, are the focus of biological investigations regarding anti-parasite activity...
January 2015: Parasitology Research
Makoto Kodama, Mayumi Akaki, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Haruhiko Maruyama, Eiji Nagayasu, Tetsuhiro Yokouchi, Yasuji Arimura, Hiroaki Kataoka
INTRODUCTION: Paragonimiasis is a food-borne infection caused by Paragonimus parasites. The lungs and pleura are the primary sites for the infection; however, ectopic infection can occur in other organs such as skin, liver and brain. It is difficult to make a diagnosis of ectopic paragonimiasis due to an ignorance of, and unfamiliarity with the disease. We report the case of a patient with subcutaneous paragonimiasis diagnosed by histopathological analysis and serological testing. CASE PRESENTATION: A 39-year-old Chinese immigrant woman presented with a subcutaneous nodule in her left lower back...
2014: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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