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Iron sensing metabolic pathway

Tracey A Rouault, Nunziata Maio
Fe-S cofactors are composed of iron and inorganic sulfur in various stoichiometries. A complex assembly pathway conducts their initial synthesis and subsequent binding to recipient proteins. In this minireview, we discuss how discovery of the role of the mammalian cytosolic aconitase, known as iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1), led to the characterization of the function of its Fe-S cluster in sensing and regulating cellular iron homeostasis. Moreover, we present an overview of recent studies that have provided insights into the mechanism of Fe-S cluster transfer to recipient Fe-S proteins...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ana Rita da Silva, Joana Neves, Katarzyna Mleczko-Sanecka, Amol Tandon, Sven W Sauer, Matthias W Hentze, Martina U Muckenthaler
Expression of the hepatic peptide hormone hepcidin responds to iron levels via BMP/SMAD signaling, to inflammatory cues via JAK/STAT signaling, to the nutrient-sensing mTOR pathway, as well as to proliferative signals and gluconeogenesis. Here, we asked the question whether hepcidin expression is altered by metabolites generated by intermediary metabolism. To identify such metabolites, we took advantage of a comprehensive RNAi screen, which revealed effectors involved in citrate metabolism. We show that the inhibition of citrate-consuming enzymes increases hepcidin mRNA expression in primary murine hepatocytes...
August 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Volker H Haase
The oxygen-sensitive hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway plays a central role in the control of erythropoiesis and iron metabolism. The discovery of prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) proteins as key regulators of HIF activity has led to the development of inhibitory compounds that are now in phase 3 clinical development for the treatment of renal anemia, a condition that is commonly found in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. This review provides a concise overview of clinical effects associated with pharmacologic PHD inhibition and was written in memory of Professor Lorenz Poellinger...
July 15, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
Eloi Camprubi, Sean F Jordan, Rafaela Vasiliadou, Nick Lane
Iron-sulphur proteins are ancient and drive fundamental processes in cells, notably electron transfer and CO2 fixation. Iron-sulphur minerals with equivalent structures could have played a key role in the origin of life. However, the 'iron-sulphur world' hypothesis has had a mixed reception, with questions raised especially about the feasibility of a pyrites-pulled reverse Krebs cycle. Phylogenetics suggests that the earliest cells drove carbon and energy metabolism via the acetyl CoA pathway, which is also replete in Fe(Ni)S proteins...
May 3, 2017: IUBMB Life
Diana J Wallin, Tara G Zamora, Michelle Alexander, Kathleen M Ennis, Phu V Tran, Michael K Georgieff
BackgroundPhlebotomy-induced anemia (PIA) is common in premature infants and affects neurodevelopment. PIA alters hippocampal metabolism in neonatal mice through tissue hypoxia and iron deficiency. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway senses the status of critical metabolites (e.g., oxygen, iron), thereby regulating hippocampal growth and function. We determined the effect of PIA and recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) treatment on mTOR signaling and expression of genes related to mTOR pathway functions...
September 2017: Pediatric Research
María Teresa Martínez-Pastor, Ana Perea-García, Sergi Puig
Iron is a redox active element that functions as an essential cofactor in multiple metabolic pathways, including respiration, DNA synthesis and translation. While indispensable for eukaryotic life, excess iron can lead to oxidative damage of macromolecules. Therefore, living organisms have developed sophisticated strategies to optimally regulate iron acquisition, storage and utilization in response to fluctuations in environmental iron bioavailability. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transcription factors Aft1/Aft2 and Yap5 regulate iron metabolism in response to low and high iron levels, respectively...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Peter Hortschansky, Hubertus Haas, Eva M Huber, Michael Groll, Axel A Brakhage
The CCAAT binding complex (CBC), consisting of a heterotrimeric core structure, is highly conserved in eukaryotes and constitutes an important general transcriptional regulator. Scope of the review. In this review we discuss the scientific history and the current state of knowledge of the multiple gene regulatory functions, protein motifs and structure of the CBC in fungi with a special focus on Aspergillus species. Major conclusions and general significance. Initially identified as a transcriptional activator of respiration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in other fungal species the CBC was found to be involved in highly diverse pathways, but a general rationale for its involvement was missing...
May 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Massimiliano Magro, Luca Fasolato, Emanuela Bonaiuto, Nadia Andrea Andreani, Davide Baratella, Vittorino Corraducci, Giovanni Miotto, Barbara Cardazzo, Fabio Vianello
BACKGROUND: Mineral iron(III) recognition by bacteria is considered a matter of debate. The peculiar surface chemistry of novel naked magnetic nanoparticles, called SAMNs (surface active maghemite nanoparticles) characterized by solvent exposed Fe(3+) sites on their surface, was exploited for studying mineral iron sensing in Pseudomonas fluorescens. METHODS: SAMNs were applied for mimicking Fe(3+) ions in solution, acting as magnetically drivable probes to evaluate putative Fe(3+) recognition sites on the microorganism surface...
October 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Miguel C Lucena, Patricia Carvalho-Cruz, Joana L Donadio, Isadora A Oliveira, Rafaela M de Queiroz, Monica M Marinho-Carvalho, Mauro Sola-Penna, Iron F de Paula, Katia C Gondim, Mark E McComb, Catherine E Costello, Stephen A Whelan, Adriane R Todeschini, Wagner B Dias
Deregulated cellular metabolism is a hallmark of tumors. Cancer cells increase glucose and glutamine flux to provide energy needs and macromolecular synthesis demands. Several studies have been focused on the importance of glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway. However, a neglected but very important branch of glucose metabolism is the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP). The HBP is a branch of the glucose metabolic pathway that consumes ∼2-5% of the total glucose, generating UDP-GlcNAc as the end product...
June 17, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Julia Yue Cui, Curtis D Klaassen
The pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are well-known xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptors with overlapping functions. However, there lacks a quantitative characterization to distinguish between the PXR and CAR target genes and signaling pathways in the liver. The present study performed a transcriptomic comparison of the PXR- and CAR-targets using RNA-Seq in livers of adult wild-type mice that were treated with the prototypical PXR ligand PCN (200mg/kg, i.p. once daily for 4days in corn oil) or the prototypical CAR ligand TCPOBOP (3mg/kg, i...
September 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
W A Weigel, D R Demuth
The QseBC two-component system (TCS) is associated with quorum sensing and functions as a global regulator of virulence. Based on sequence similarity within the sensor domain and conservation of an acidic motif essential for signal recognition, QseBC is primarily distributed in the Enterobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae. In Escherichia coli, QseC responds to autoinducer-3 and/or epinephrine/norepinephrine. Binding of epinephrine/norepinephrine is inhibited by adrenergic antagonists; hence QseC functions as a bacterial adrenergic receptor...
October 2016: Molecular Oral Microbiology
Marian Valko, Klaudia Jomova, Christopher J Rhodes, Kamil Kuča, Kamil Musílek
Transition metal ions are key elements of various biological processes ranging from oxygen formation to hypoxia sensing, and therefore, their homeostasis is maintained within strict limits through tightly regulated mechanisms of uptake, storage and secretion. The breakdown of metal ion homeostasis can lead to an uncontrolled formation of reactive oxygen species, ROS (via the Fenton reaction, which produces hydroxyl radicals), and reactive nitrogen species, RNS, which may cause oxidative damage to biological macromolecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids...
January 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Henriette Irmer, Sonia Tarazona, Christoph Sasse, Patrick Olbermann, Jürgen Loeffler, Sven Krappmann, Ana Conesa, Gerhard H Braus
BACKGROUND: Invasive aspergillosis is started after germination of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia that are inhaled by susceptible individuals. Fungal hyphae can grow in the lung through the epithelial tissue and disseminate hematogenously to invade into other organs. Low fungaemia indicates that fungal elements do not reside in the bloodstream for long. RESULTS: We analyzed whether blood represents a hostile environment to which the physiology of A. fumigatus has to adapt...
2015: BMC Genomics
Gianpiero Vigani, Franco Faoro, Anna Maria Ferretti, Francesca Cantele, Dario Maffi, Marcello Marelli, Mauro Maver, Irene Murgia, Graziano Zocchi
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria, as recently suggested, might be involved in iron sensing and signalling pathways in plant cells. For a better understanding of the role of these organelles in mediating the Fe deficiency responses in plant cells, it is crucial to provide a full overview of their modifications occurring under Fe-limited conditions. The aim of this work is to characterize the ultrastructural as well as the biochemical changes occurring in leaf mitochondria of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L...
2015: PloS One
John H Hammond, Emily F Dolben, T Jarrod Smith, Sabin Bhuju, Deborah A Hogan
UNLABELLED: In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the transcription factor Anr controls the cellular response to low oxygen or anoxia. Anr activity is high in oxygen-limited environments, including biofilms and populations associated with chronic infections, and Anr is necessary for persistence in a model of pulmonary infection. In this study, we characterized the Anr regulon in biofilm-grown cells at 1% oxygen in the laboratory strain PAO1 and in a quorum sensing (QS)-deficient clinical isolate, J215...
September 2015: Journal of Bacteriology
Henrique Machado, Eva C Sonnenschein, Jette Melchiorsen, Lone Gram
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance in bacteria spreads quickly, overtaking the pace at which new compounds are discovered and this emphasizes the immediate need to discover new compounds for control of infectious diseases. Terrestrial bacteria have for decades been investigated as a source of bioactive compounds leading to successful applications in pharmaceutical and biotech industries. Marine bacteria have so far not been exploited to the same extent; however, they are believed to harbor a multitude of novel bioactive chemistry...
2015: BMC Genomics
Henrique Machado, Eva C Sonnenschein, Jette Melchiorsen, Lone Gram
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance in bacteria spreads quickly, overtaking the pace at which new compounds are discovered and this emphasizes the immediate need to discover new compounds for control of infectious diseases. Terrestrial bacteria have for decades been investigated as a source of bioactive compounds leading to successful applications in pharmaceutical and biotech industries. Marine bacteria have so far not been exploited to the same extent; however, they are believed to harbor a multitude of novel bioactive chemistry...
2015: BMC Genomics
Robert J Simpson, Andrew T McKie
Iron and oxygen metabolism are intimately linked with one another. A change in the level of either metabolite results in activation of common pathways. At the heart of these responses lies a group of iron and oxygen dependent enzymes called prolyl hydroxylases. Prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) require both iron and oxygen for optimal activity and their biological activity is to carry out the critical post-translational modification of the addition of a hydroxyl group to specific proline residues within Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIFs)-well known transcription factors originally thought to regulate responses to hypoxia but which are now known to regulate key iron metabolism proteins too...
February 2015: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Jérémy Couturier, Jonathan Przybyla-Toscano, Thomas Roret, Claude Didierjean, Nicolas Rouhier
Glutaredoxins (Grxs) are major oxidoreductases involved in the reduction of glutathionylated proteins. Owing to the capacity of several class I Grxs and likely all class II Grxs to incorporate iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters, they are also linked to iron metabolism. Most Grxs bind [2Fe-2S] clusters which are oxidatively- and reductively-labile and have identical ligation, involving notably external glutathione. However, subtle differences in the structural organization explain that class II Fe-S Grxs, having more labile and solvent-exposed clusters, can accept Fe-S clusters and transfer them to client proteins, whereas class I Fe-S Grxs usually do not...
June 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jason C Crack, Jeffrey Green, Andrew J Thomson, Nick E Le Brun
Iron-sulfur cluster proteins exhibit a range of physicochemical properties that underpin their functional diversity in biology, which includes roles in electron transfer, catalysis, and gene regulation. Transcriptional regulators that utilize iron-sulfur clusters are a growing group that exploit the redox and coordination properties of the clusters to act as sensors of environmental conditions including O2, oxidative and nitrosative stress, and metabolic nutritional status. To understand the mechanism by which a cluster detects such analytes and then generates modulation of DNA-binding affinity, we have undertaken a combined strategy of in vivo and in vitro studies of a range of regulators...
October 21, 2014: Accounts of Chemical Research
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