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Infectious disease dynamics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931926/evaluating-wildlife-cattle-contact-rates-to-improve-the-understanding-of-dynamics-of-bovine-tuberculosis-transmission-in-michigan-usa
#1
Michael J Lavelle, Shannon L Kay, Kim M Pepin, Daniel A Grear, Henry Campa, Kurt C VerCauteren
Direct and indirect contacts among individuals drive transmission of infectious disease. When multiple interacting species are susceptible to the same pathogen, risk assessment must include all potential host species. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an example of a disease that can be transmitted among several wildlife species and to cattle, although the potential role of several wildlife species in spillback to cattle remains unclear. To better understand the complex network of contacts and factors driving disease transmission, we fitted proximity logger collars to beef and dairy cattle (n=37), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; n=29), raccoon (Procyon lotor; n=53), and Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana; n=79) for 16 months in Michigan's Lower Peninsula, USA...
December 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924642/development-of-an-rt-qpcr-assay-for-the-specific-detection-of-a-distinct-genetic-lineage-of-the-infectious-bursal-disease-virus
#2
Gonzalo Tomás, Martín Hernández, Ana Marandino, Claudia Techera, Sofia Grecco, Diego Hernández, Alejandro Banda, Yanina Panzera, Ruben Pérez
The infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a major health threat to the world's poultry industry despite intensive controls including proper biosafety practices and vaccination. IBDV (Avibirnavirus, Birnaviridae) is a non-enveloped virus with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome. The virus is traditionally classified into classic, variant and very virulent strains, each with different epidemiological relevance and clinical implications. Recently, a novel worldwide spread genetic lineage was described and denoted as distinct (d) IBDV...
December 7, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920389/resistance-in-persisting-bat-populations-after-white-nose-syndrome-invasion
#3
Kate E Langwig, Joseph R Hoyt, Katy L Parise, Winifred F Frick, Jeffrey T Foster, A Marm Kilpatrick
Increases in anthropogenic movement have led to a rise in pathogen introductions and the emergence of infectious diseases in naive host communities worldwide. We combined empirical data and mathematical models to examine changes in disease dynamics in little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) populations following the introduction of the emerging fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, which causes the disease white-nose syndrome. We found that infection intensity was much lower in persisting populations than in declining populations where the fungus has recently invaded...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920388/human-drivers-of-ecological-and-evolutionary-dynamics-in-emerging-and-disappearing-infectious-disease-systems
#4
REVIEW
Mary A Rogalski, Camden D Gowler, Clara L Shaw, Ruth A Hufbauer, Meghan A Duffy
Humans have contributed to the increased frequency and severity of emerging infectious diseases, which pose a significant threat to wild and domestic species, as well as human health. This review examines major pathways by which humans influence parasitism by altering (co)evolutionary interactions between hosts and parasites on ecological timescales. There is still much to learn about these interactions, but a few well-studied cases show that humans influence disease emergence every step of the way. Human actions significantly increase dispersal of host, parasite and vector species, enabling greater frequency of infection in naive host populations and host switches...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915211/impact-of-waning-acquired-immunity-and-asymptomatic-infections-on-case-control-studies-for-enteric-pathogens
#5
Arie H Havelaar, Arno Swart
Case-control studies of outbreaks and of sporadic cases of infectious diseases may provide a biased estimate of the infection rate ratio, due to selecting controls that are not at risk of disease. We use a dynamic mathematical model to explore biases introduced in results drawn from case-control studies of enteric pathogens by waning and boosting of immunity, and by asymptomatic infections, using Campylobacter jejuni as an example. Individuals in the population are either susceptible (at risk of infection and disease), fully protected (not at risk of either) or partially protected (at risk of infection but not of disease)...
November 28, 2016: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914853/monitoring-the-fitness-of-antiviral-resistant-influenza-strains-during-an-epidemic-a-mathematical-modelling-study
#6
Kathy Leung, Marc Lipsitch, Kwok Yung Yuen, Joseph T Wu
BACKGROUND: Antivirals (eg, oseltamivir) are important for mitigating influenza epidemics. In 2007, an oseltamivir-resistant influenza seasonal A H1N1 strain emerged and spread to global fixation within 1 year. This event showed that antiviral-resistant (AVR) strains can be intrinsically more transmissible than their contemporaneous antiviral-sensitive (AVS) counterpart. Surveillance of AVR fitness is therefore essential. Our objective was to develop a simple method for estimating AVR fitness from surveillance data...
November 30, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913489/platelets-in-infectious-disease
#7
Elizabeth Middleton, Matthew T Rondina
Sepsis is a dynamic, acute, infectious disease syndrome characterized by dysregulated thrombo-inflammatory responses. The high mortality associated with sepsis has been recognized since the earliest clinicians' writings. Despite this, advances in the treatment of sepsis have been more modest. This is limited, in part, by the heterogeneity in the definition, population, presentation, and causal factors of infectious syndromes. Given the persistently high morbidity and mortality associated with sepsis, a better understanding of the dysregulated cellular biology underpinning sepsis is needed...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913131/using-phenomenological-models-for-forecasting-the-2015-ebola-challenge
#8
Bruce Pell, Yang Kuang, Cecile Viboud, Gerardo Chowell
BACKGROUND: The rising number of novel pathogens threatening the human population has motivated the application of mathematical modeling for forecasting the trajectory and size of epidemics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We summarize the real-time forecasting results of the logistic equation during the 2015 Ebola challenge focused on predicting synthetic data derived from a detailed individual-based model of Ebola transmission dynamics and control. We also carry out a post-challenge comparison of two simple phenomenological models...
November 19, 2016: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902357/pathogenesis-of-senecavirus-a-infection-in-finishing-pigs
#9
Lok R Joshi, Maureen H V Fernandes, Travis Clement, Steven Lawson, Angela Pillatzki, Talita P Resende, Fabio Vanucci, Gerald F Kutish, Eric Nelson, Diego G Diel
Senecavirus A (SVA) is an emerging picornavirus that has been recently associated with vesicular disease and neonatal mortality in swine. Many aspects of SVA infection biology and pathogenesis, however, remain unknown. Here the pathogenesis of SVA was investigated in finishing pigs. Animals were inoculated via the oronasal route with a contemporary SVA strain SD15-26 and monitored for clinical signs and lesions associated with SVA infection. Viremia was assessed in serum and virus shedding monitored in oral and nasal secretions and feces by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) and/or virus isolation...
October 14, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902345/advances-in-canine-distemper-virus-cdv-pathogenesis-research-a-wildlife-perspective
#10
Angelika Katrin Loots, Emily Mitchell, Desiré Lee Dalton, Antoinette Kotzé, Estelle H Venter
Canine distemper virus (CDV) has emerged as a significant disease of wildlife, is highly contagious and readily transmitted between susceptible hosts. Initially described as an infectious disease of domestic dogs, it is now recognised as a global multi-host pathogen, infecting and causing mass mortalities in a wide range of carnivore species. The last decade has seen the effect of numerous CDV outbreaks in various wildlife populations. Prevention of CDV requires a clear understanding of the potential hosts in danger of infection as well as the dynamic pathways CDV uses to gain entry to its host cells and its ability to initiate viral shedding and disease transmission...
November 28, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899728/evolution-of-sex-differences-in-trait-and-age-specific-vulnerabilities
#11
David C Geary
Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice generally have a heightened sensitivity to stressors. They have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and nutritional and social stressors, and they are compromised by exposure to man-made toxins. Although these traits can differ from one species or sex to the next, an understanding of the dynamics of competition and choice can in theory be used to generate a priori predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894161/climate-and-season-the-effects-on-ophthalmic-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Ayub Qassim, Mthulisi Viki, Soo Khai Ng, Hubertus Jersmann, Robert J Casson
Seasonal changes and climate have a significant impact on human health. Diseases influenced by temperature and climate conditions are likely to undergo dynamic pattern shifts with consequent impact on human health. A number of infectious and non-infectious ophthalmic diseases are influenced by temperature and seasonality. Awareness of this is important from public and global health perspective in addition to resource allocation strategies. We examine the evidence for a seasonal pattern to ophthalmic diseases and assess the possible impact of climate change...
November 28, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892501/a-social-contagious-model-of-the-obesity-epidemic
#13
He Huang, Zhijun Yan, Yahong Chen, Fangyan Liu
Obesity has been recognized as a global epidemic by WHO, followed by many empirical evidences to prove its infectiousness. However, the inter-person spreading dynamics of obesity are seldom studied. A distinguishing feature of the obesity epidemic is that it is driven by a social contagion process which cannot be perfectly described by the infectious disease models. In this paper, we propose a novel belief decision model based on the famous Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence to model obesity epidemic as the competing spread of two obesity-related behaviors: physical inactivity and physical activity...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889206/protlid-a-residue-based-pharmacophore-approach-to-identify-cognate-protein-ligands-in-the-immunoglobulin-superfamily
#14
Eng-Hui Yap, Andras Fiser
Members of the extracellular immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) play a key role in immune regulation through the control of the co-stimulatory pathway, and have emerged as potent drug targets in cancers, infectious diseases, and autoimmunity. Despite the difficult experimental access to this class of proteins, single structures of ectodomains of IgSF proteins are solved with regularity. However, the most biologically critical challenge for this class of proteins is the identification of their cognate ligands that communicate intercellular signals...
December 6, 2016: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884543/immunometabolism-is-it-under-the-eye-of-the-clock
#15
REVIEW
James O Early, Anne M Curtis
Molecular clocks allow an organism to track time of day, providing the means to anticipate and respond to the daily changes within the environment. In mammals the molecular clock consists of a network of proteins that form auto-regulatory feedback loops that drive rhythms in physiology and behavior. In recent times the extent to which the molecular clock controls key metabolic and immune pathways has begun to emerge. For example, the main clock protein BMAL1 has been linked to mitochondrial metabolism, mitochondrial dynamics and various host defense pathways...
November 21, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873107/assessment-of-potential-impacts-of-climate-change-on-agricultural-development-in-the-lower-benue-river-basin
#16
Roland Clement Abah, Brilliant Mareme Petja
Agriculture in the Lower Benue River Basin faces several challenges which threaten the future of agricultural development. This study was an assessment of potential impacts of climate change on agricultural development in the Lower Benue River Basin. Through analysis of physical and socioeconomic parameters, the study adapted an impact assessment model to rank potential impacts on agricultural development in the study area. Rainfall intensity seemed to be increasing with a gradual reduction in the number of rainy days...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871125/eye-of-the-finch-characterization-of-the-ocular-microbiome-of-house-finches-in-relation-to-mycoplasmal-conjunctivitis
#17
Courtney A Thomason, Ariel Leon, Laila T Kirkpatrick, Lisa K Belden, Dana M Hawley
Vertebrate ocular microbiomes are poorly characterized and virtually unexplored in wildlife species. Pathogen defense is considered a key function of microbiomes, but determining microbiome stability during disease is critical for understanding the role of resident microbial communities in infectious disease dynamics. Here, we characterize the ocular bacterial microbiome of house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus), prior to and during experimental infection with an inflammatory ocular disease, Mycoplasmal conjunctivitis, caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870539/hepatitis-c-in-poland-in-2014
#18
Magdalena Rosińska, Natalia Parda, Małgorzata Stępień
INTRODUCTION: . Currently, hepatitis C (HCV infection) is one of the public health priorities worldwide. It is associated with a considerable improvement of methods undertaken to eliminate this disease. Due to the predominance of chronic infections of long asymptomatic course, the number of cases detected in successive years does not reflect the actual dynamics of the epidemiological situation of hepatitis C. To a large extent, it depends on current testing practices. The modifications in the provisions on the notification of diagnosed cases may also have an effect on the number of HCV infections registered in successive years...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866742/spatiotemporal-patterns-of-paddy-rice-croplands-in-china-and-india-from-2000-to-2015
#19
Geli Zhang, Xiangming Xiao, Chandrashekhar M Biradar, Jinwei Dong, Yuanwei Qin, Michael A Menarguez, Yuting Zhou, Yao Zhang, Cui Jin, Jie Wang, Russell B Doughty, Mingjun Ding, Berrien Moore
Due to rapid population growth and urbanization, paddy rice agriculture is experiencing substantial changes in the spatiotemporal pattern of planting areas in the two most populous countries-China and India-where food security is always the primary concern. However, there is no spatially explicit and continuous rice-planting information in either country. This knowledge gap clearly hinders our ability to understand the effects of spatial paddy rice area dynamics on the environment, such as food and water security, climate change, and zoonotic infectious disease transmission...
November 17, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865741/seasonal-population-movements-and-the-surveillance-and-control-of-infectious-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Caroline O Buckee, Andrew J Tatem, C Jessica E Metcalf
National policies designed to control infectious diseases should allocate resources for interventions based on regional estimates of disease burden from surveillance systems. For many infectious diseases, however, there is pronounced seasonal variation in incidence. Policy-makers must routinely manage a public health response to these seasonal fluctuations with limited understanding of their underlying causes. Two complementary and poorly described drivers of seasonal disease incidence are the mobility and aggregation of human populations, which spark outbreaks and sustain transmission, respectively, and may both exhibit distinct seasonal variations...
November 16, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
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