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Infectious disease dynamics

Jessica Enright, Rowland Raymond Kao
In many populations, the patterns of potentially infectious contacts are transients that can be described as a network with dynamic links. The relative timescales of link and contagion dynamics and the characteristics that drive their tempos can lead to important differences to the static case. Here, we propose some essential nomenclature for their analysis, and then review the relevant literature. We describe recent advances in they apply to infection processes, considering all of the methods used to record, measure and analyse them, and their implications for disease transmission...
April 28, 2018: Epidemics
Robert R Wilkinson, Kieran J Sharkey
The duration of the infectious period is a crucial determinant of the ability of an infectious disease to spread. We consider an epidemic model that is network based and non-Markovian, containing classic Kermack-McKendrick, pairwise, message passing, and spatial models as special cases. For this model, we prove a monotonic relationship between the variability of the infectious period (with fixed mean) and the probability that the infection will reach any given subset of the population by any given time. For certain families of distributions, this result implies that epidemic severity is decreasing with respect to the variance of the infectious period...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Galit Alter, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Simone A Joosten
Antibodies are antigen recognizing immunoglobulins with an amazingly diverse repertoire in the antigen specific domain. The diversity of the antibody response is further increased by modifications such as somatic recombination and hypermutation. Furthermore, variation in the isotype and post-translational modifications such as Fc glycosylation further increase diversity of the effector functions. In particular variations in the glycan structures contribute significantly to the functional capacities of the antibodies...
June 11, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
Eric J G Pollitt, Piotr T Szkuta, Nicola Burns, Simon J Foster
Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal that can also cause systemic infections. This transition requires evasion of the immune response and the ability to exploit different niches within the host. However, the disease mechanisms and the dominant immune mediators against infection are poorly understood. Previously it has been shown that the infecting S. aureus population goes through a population bottleneck, from which very few bacteria escape to establish the abscesses that are characteristic of many infections...
June 14, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Jens Wilting, Viola Priesemann
When assessing spatially extended complex systems, one can rarely sample the states of all components. We show that this spatial subsampling typically leads to severe underestimation of the risk of instability in systems with propagating events. We derive a subsampling-invariant estimator, and demonstrate that it correctly infers the infectiousness of various diseases under subsampling, making it particularly useful in countries with unreliable case reports. In neuroscience, recordings are strongly limited by subsampling...
June 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Uwadiae Obahiagbon, Joseph T Smith, Meilin Zhu, Benjamin A Katchman, Hany Arafa, Karen S Anderson, Jennifer M Blain Christen
An effective method of combating infectious diseases is the deployment of hand-held devices at the point-of-care (POC) for screening or self-monitoring applications. There is a need for very sensitive, low-cost and quantitative diagnostic devices. In this study, we present a low-cost, multiplexed fluorescence detection platform that has a high sensitivity and wide dynamic range. Our system features inexpensive 3 × 3 mm interference filters with a high stopband rejection, sharp transition edges, and greater than 90% transmission in the passband...
April 4, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Tobias S Brett, Eamon B O'Dea, Éric Marty, Paige B Miller, Andrew W Park, John M Drake, Pejman Rohani
Epidemic transitions are an important feature of infectious disease systems. As the transmissibility of a pathogen increases, the dynamics of disease spread shifts from limited stuttering chains of transmission to potentially large scale outbreaks. One proposed method to anticipate this transition are early-warning signals (EWS), summary statistics which undergo characteristic changes as the transition is approached. Although theoretically predicted, their mathematical basis does not take into account the nature of epidemiological data, with are typically aggregated into periodic case reports and subject to reporting error...
June 8, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Ilona Merikanto, Jouni T Laakso, Veijo Kaitala
BACKGROUND: Environmentally growing pathogens present an increasing threat for human health, wildlife and food production. Treating the hosts with antibiotics or parasitic bacteriophages fail to eliminate diseases that grow also in the outside-host environment. However, bacteriophages could be utilized to suppress the pathogen population sizes in the outside-host environment in order to prevent disease outbreaks. Here, we introduce a novel epidemiological model to assess how the phage infections of the bacterial pathogens affect epidemiological dynamics of the environmentally growing pathogens...
June 8, 2018: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
Nwora Lance Okeke, Meredith E Clement, Mehri S McKellar, Jason E Stout
Background: The traditional definition of engagement in HIV care in terms of only clinic attendance and viral suppression provides a limited understanding of how persons living with HIV (PLWH) interact with the health care system. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with ≥1 HIV clinic visits at the Duke Adult Infectious Diseases Clinic between 2008 and 2013. Health care utilization was characterized by 4 indicators: clinic attendance in each half of the year (yes/no), number of emergency department (ED) visits/year (0, 1, or 2+), inpatient admissions/year (0, 1, 2+), and viral suppression (never, intermittent, always)...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Adriana Lima Vallochi, Livia Teixeira, Karina da Silva Oliveira, Clarissa Menezes Maya-Monteiro, Patricia T Bozza
Lipid droplets (lipid bodies, LDs) are dynamic organelles that have important roles in regulating lipid metabolism, energy homeostasis, cell signaling, membrane trafficking, and inflammation. LD biogenesis, composition, and functions are highly regulated and may vary according to the stimuli, cell type, activation state, and inflammatory environment. Increased cytoplasmic LDs are frequently observed in leukocytes and other cells in a number of infectious diseases. Accumulating evidence reveals LDs participation in fundamental mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions, including cell signaling and immunity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Manabu Ote, Hirotaka Kanuka
Background: Vector-borne infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms transmitted mainly by blood-sucking arthropod vectors. In laboratories, the handling of insects carrying human pathogens requires extra caution because of safety concerns over their escape risk. Based on standard insect containment practices, there have been cases where costly enhancements were required to definitely protect laboratory workers and neighbors from potential infection through mosquito bites...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Jennifer Broom, Alex Broom, Emma Kirby, Jeffrey J Post
PURPOSE: Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) is a common area of antimicrobial misuse. The aim of this study was to explore the social dynamics that influence the use of SAP. METHODS: 20 surgeons and anaesthetists from a tertiary referral hospital in Australia participated in semi-structured interviews focusing on experiences and perspectives on SAP prescribing. Interview data were analysed using the framework approach. RESULTS: Systematic analysis of the participants' account of the social factors influencing SAP revealed four themes...
May 28, 2018: Infection
Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Estela Giménez, Víctor Vinuesa, Tamara Ruiz-Merlo, Patricia Parra, Paula Amat, Miguel Montejo, Aurora Paez-Vega, Sara Cantisán, Julián Torre-Cisneros, Jesús Fortún, Amado Andrés, Rafael San Juan, Francisco López-Medrano, David Navarro, José María Aguado
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies on monitoring of post-transplant cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) are limited by single-center designs and disparate risk categories. We aimed to assess the clinical value of a regular monitoring strategy in a large multicenter cohort of intermediate-risk kidney transplant (KT) recipients. METHODS: We recruited 124 CMV-seropositive KT recipients with no T-cell-depleting induction preemptively managed at four Spanish institutions...
May 24, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Vid Bakovic, Martin Schebeck, Arndt Telschow, Christian Stauffer, Hannes Schuler
The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia has been used to control insect pests owing to its ability to manipulate their life history and suppress infectious diseases. Therefore, knowledge on Wolbachia dynamics in natural populations is fundamental. The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi , is infected with the Wolbachia strain w Cer2, mainly present in southern and central European populations, and is currently spreading into w Cer2-uninfected populations driven by high unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility...
May 2018: Biology Letters
Jon D Reuter, Suzanne L Nelson
A population of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) resides throughout the island of St John, US Virgin Islands, predominately in the Virgin Islands National Park. Adult deer ( n=23), ranging from 1 yr to 8 yr old, were assessed to characterize body condition and health. Serologic samples were screened for important viral pathogens in the area, including Zika, chikungunya, bluetongue, and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses. Samples were collected in July 2016; males were in velvet and all females were in diestrus...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Ana Teresa Mancini Pimenta, Isadora Alonso Correa, Patricia Pereira Dos Santos Melli, Renata Abduch, Geraldo Duarte, José Carlos Couto-Fernandez, Silvana Maria Quintana
BACKGROUND: Increasing genetic diversity of HIV-1 and emergence of drug-resistant mutations may reduce the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy and prophylaxis that are used to prevent mother-to-child transmission. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic diversity and prevalence of drug-resistant mutations among HIV-infected pregnant women. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at an outpatient clinic for infectious diseases within gynecology and obstetrics...
March 2018: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
Dajana F Lendak, Dunja M Mihajlović, Aleksandra S Novakov-Mikić, Jasmina M Boban, Milan Ubavić, Snežana V Brkić
Although the role of B cells in sepsis immunoregulation has become an interesting topic, there is lack of data on the role of B cell function regulators in prediction of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of A Proliferation Inducing Ligand (APRIL) and soluble Transmembrane Activator and CAML Interactor Protein (sTACI), the main B cell function regulators, in prediction of MODS development within the first 48h after admission to intensive care unit, among septic patients...
May 21, 2018: Virulence
Joshua Kiddy K Asamoah, Farai Nyabadza, Baba Seidu, Mehar Chand, Hemen Dutta
Vaccination and treatment are the most effective ways of controlling the transmission of most infectious diseases. While vaccination helps susceptible individuals to build either a long-term immunity or short-term immunity, treatment reduces the number of disease-induced deaths and the number of infectious individuals in a community/nation. In this paper, a nonlinear deterministic model with time-dependent controls has been proposed to describe the dynamics of bacterial meningitis in a population. The model is shown to exhibit a unique globally asymptotically stable disease-free equilibrium ℰ 0 , when the effective reproduction number ℛ VT ≤ 1, and a globally asymptotically stable endemic equilibrium ℰ 1 , when ℛ VT > 1; and it exhibits a transcritical bifurcation at ℛ VT = 1...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Fatemeh Kaveh-Yazdy, Ali-Mohammad Zareh-Bidoki
BACKGROUND: Digital epidemiology tries to identify diseases dynamics and spread behaviors using digital traces collected via search engines logs and social media posts. However, the impacts of news on information-seeking behaviors have been remained unknown. METHODS: Data employed in this research provided from two sources, (1) Parsijoo search engine query logs of 48 months, and (2) a set of documents of 28 months of Parsijoo's news service. Two classes of topics, i...
July 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Edwin Barrios, Sunmi Lee, Olga Vasilieva
There are many infectious diseases that can be spread by daily commuting of people and dengue fever is one of them. The absence of vaccine and irregularities in ongoing vector control programs make this disease the most frequent and persistent in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This paper targets to access the effects of daily commuting on dengue transmission dynamics by using a deterministic two-patch model fitted to observed data gathered in Cali, Colombia where dengue fever is highly persistent and exhibits endemo-epidemic patterns...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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