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Infectious disease dynamics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217934/population-dynamics-of-wild-rodents-induce-stochastic-fadeouts-of-a-zoonotic-pathogen
#1
Giorgio Guzzetta, Valentina Tagliapietra, Sarah E Perkins, Heidi C Hauffe, Piero Poletti, Stefano Merler, Annapaola Rizzoli
Stochastic processes play an important role in the infectious disease dynamics of wildlife, especially in species subject to large population oscillations. Here we study the case of a free ranging population of yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) in northern Italy, where circulation of Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus (DOBV) has been detected intermittently since 2001, until an outbreak emerged in 2010. We analyzed the transmission dynamics of the recent outbreak using a computational model that accounts for seasonal changes of the host population and territorial behavior...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210209/lactate-shuttles-in-neuroenergetics-homeostasis-allostasis-and-beyond
#2
REVIEW
Shayne Mason
Understanding brain energy metabolism-neuroenergetics-is becoming increasingly important as it can be identified repeatedly as the source of neurological perturbations. Within the scientific community we are seeing a shift in paradigms from the traditional neurocentric view to that of a more dynamic, integrated one where astrocytes are no longer considered as being just supportive, and activated microglia have a profound influence. Lactate is emerging as the "good guy," contrasting its classical "bad guy" position in the now superseded medical literature...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209904/noninvasive-imaging-of-human-immune-responses-in-a-human-xenograft-model-of-graft-versus-host-disease
#3
Catharina H M J Van Elssen, Mohammad Rashidian, Vladimir Vrbanac, Kai W Wucherpfennig, Zeina El Habre, Jana Sticht, Christian Freund, Johanne Jacobsen, Juanjo Cragnolini, Jessica Ingram, Loes Plaisier, Eric Spierings, Andrew M Tager, Hidde Ploegh
The immune system plays a crucial role in many diseases. Activation or suppression of immunity is often related to clinical outcome. Methods to explore the dynamics of immune responses are important to elucidate their role in conditions characterized by inflammation, such as infectious disease, cancer or auto-immunity. Immuno-PET is a non-invasive method by which disease and immune cell infiltration can be explored simultaneously. Using radiolabeled antibodies or fragments derived from them, it is possible to image disease-specific antigens and immune cell subsets...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209439/post-polio-syndrome-cases-report-and-review-of-literature
#4
Żanna Pastuszak, Adam Stępień, Kazimierz Tomczykiewicz, Renata Piusińska-Macoch, Dariusz Galbarczyk, Agnieszka Rolewska
It is estimated that around 15 million people survived polio infection worldwide since early twentieth century. In 1950 effective vaccination was used for first time. Since that time number of affected people decreased. The last epidemic of Haine-Medine disease in Poland was in 1950s. Another rare cases of infections were observed till 1970s. About at least 15 years after polio virus infection, slowly progressive muscle limbs paresis with muscle atrophy, joints pain, paresthesia were observed in polio survivors...
February 3, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199326/a-mathematical-model-of-calcium-dynamics-in-hsy-cells
#5
Jung Min Han, Akihiko Tanimura, Vivien Kirk, James Sneyd
Saliva is an essential part of activities such as speaking, masticating and swallowing. Enzymes in salivary fluid protect teeth and gums from infectious diseases, and also initiate the digestion process. Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) plays a critical role in saliva secretion and regulation. Experimental measurements of Ca2+ and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) concentrations in HSY cells, a human salivary duct cell line, show that when the cells are stimulated with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or carbachol (CCh), they exhibit coupled oscillations with Ca2+ spike peaks preceding IP3 spike peaks...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194151/structure-and-dynamics-of-antigenic-peptides-in-complex-with-tap
#6
REVIEW
Elisa Lehnert, Robert Tampé
The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) selectively translocates antigenic peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum. Loading onto major histocompatibility complex class I molecules and proofreading of these bound epitopes are orchestrated within the macromolecular peptide-loading complex, which assembles on TAP. This heterodimeric ABC-binding cassette (ABC) transport complex is therefore a major component in the adaptive immune response against virally or malignantly transformed cells. Its pivotal role predestines TAP as a target for infectious diseases and malignant disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193880/spatial-and-temporal-dynamics-of-superspreading-events-in-the-2014-2015-west-africa-ebola-epidemic
#7
Max S Y Lau, Benjamin Douglas Dalziel, Sebastian Funk, Amanda McClelland, Amanda Tiffany, Steven Riley, C Jessica E Metcalf, Bryan T Grenfell
The unprecedented scale of the Ebola outbreak in Western Africa (2014-2015) has prompted an explosion of efforts to understand the transmission dynamics of the virus and to analyze the performance of possible containment strategies. Models have focused primarily on the reproductive numbers of the disease that represent the average number of secondary infections produced by a random infectious individual. However, these population-level estimates may conflate important systematic variation in the number of cases generated by infected individuals, particularly found in spatially localized transmission and superspreading events...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188732/modeling-the-transmission-dynamics-and-control-of-rabies-in-china
#8
REVIEW
Shigui Ruan
Human rabies was first recorded in ancient China in about 556 BC and is still one of the major public-health problems in China. From 1950 to 2015, 130,494 human rabies cases were reported in Mainland China with an average of 1,977 cases per year. It is estimated that 95% of these human rabies cases are due to dog bites. The purpose of this article is to provide a review about the models, results, and simulations that we have obtained recently on studying the transmission of rabies in China. We first construct a basic susceptible, exposed, infectious, and recovered (SEIR) type model for the spread of rabies virus among dogs and from dogs to humans and use the model to simulate the human rabies data in China from 1996 to 2010...
February 7, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188030/unveiling-of-hiv-dynamics-among-transgender-women-a-respondent-driven-sampling-study-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#9
Beatriz Grinsztejn, Emilia M Jalil, Laylla Monteiro, Luciane Velasque, Ronaldo I Moreira, Ana Cristina F Garcia, Cristiane V Castro, Alícia Krüger, Paula M Luz, Albert Y Liu, Willi McFarland, Susan Buchbinder, Valdilea G Veloso, Erin C Wilson
BACKGROUND: The burden of HIV in transgender women (transwomen) in Brazil remains unknown. We aimed to estimate HIV prevalence among transwomen in Rio de Janeiro and to identify predictors of newly diagnosed HIV infections. METHODS: We recruited transwomen from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, by respondent-driven sampling. Eligibility criteria were self-identification as transwomen, being 18 years of age or older, living in Rio de Janeiro or its metropolitan area, and having a valid peer recruitment coupon...
February 7, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186146/dynamics-of-epidemic-diseases-on-a-growing-adaptive-network
#10
Güven Demirel, Edmund Barter, Thilo Gross
The study of epidemics on static networks has revealed important effects on disease prevalence of network topological features such as the variance of the degree distribution, i.e. the distribution of the number of neighbors of nodes, and the maximum degree. Here, we analyze an adaptive network where the degree distribution is not independent of epidemics but is shaped through disease-induced dynamics and mortality in a complex interplay. We study the dynamics of a network that grows according to a preferential attachment rule, while nodes are simultaneously removed from the network due to disease-induced mortality...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179512/drought-and-immunity-determine-the-intensity-of-west-nile-virus-epidemics-and-climate-change-impacts
#11
Sara H Paull, Daniel E Horton, Moetasim Ashfaq, Deeksha Rastogi, Laura D Kramer, Noah S Diffenbaugh, A Marm Kilpatrick
The effect of global climate change on infectious disease remains hotly debated because multiple extrinsic and intrinsic drivers interact to influence transmission dynamics in nonlinear ways. The dominant drivers of widespread pathogens, like West Nile virus, can be challenging to identify due to regional variability in vector and host ecology, with past studies producing disparate findings. Here, we used analyses at national and state scales to examine a suite of climatic and intrinsic drivers of continental-scale West Nile virus epidemics, including an empirically derived mechanistic relationship between temperature and transmission potential that accounts for spatial variability in vectors...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177887/use-of-social-network-analysis-and-global-sensitivity-and-uncertainty-analyses-to-better-understand-an-influenza-outbreak
#12
Jianhua Liu, Hongbo Jiang, Hao Zhang, Chun Guo, Lei Wang, Jing Yang, Shaofa Nie
In the summer of 2014, an influenza A(H3N2) outbreak occurred in Yichang city, Hubei province, China. A retrospective study was conducted to collect and interpret hospital and epidemiological data on it using social network analysis and global sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Results for degree (χ2=17.6619, P<0.0001) and betweenness(χ2=21.4186, P<0.0001) centrality suggested that the selection of sampling objects were different between traditional epidemiological methods and newer statistical approaches...
February 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176860/massively-parallel-digital-high-resolution-melt-for-rapid-and-absolutely-quantitative-sequence-profiling
#13
Daniel Ortiz Velez, Hannah Mack, Julietta Jupe, Sinead Hawker, Ninad Kulkarni, Behnam Hedayatnia, Yang Zhang, Shelley Lawrence, Stephanie I Fraley
In clinical diagnostics and pathogen detection, profiling of complex samples for low-level genotypes represents a significant challenge. Advances in speed, sensitivity, and extent of multiplexing of molecular pathogen detection assays are needed to improve patient care. We report the development of an integrated platform enabling the identification of bacterial pathogen DNA sequences in complex samples in less than four hours. The system incorporates a microfluidic chip and instrumentation to accomplish universal PCR amplification, High Resolution Melting (HRM), and machine learning within 20,000 picoliter scale reactions, simultaneously...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167517/the-need-to-optimize-adolescent-immunization
#14
Henry H Bernstein, Joseph A Bocchini
The adolescent period heralds the pediatric patient's transition into adulthood. It is a time of dynamic development during which effective preventive care measures can promote safe behaviors and the development of lifelong health habits. One of the foundations of preventive adolescent health care is timely vaccination, and every visit can be viewed as an opportunity to update and complete an adolescent's immunizations.In the past decade, the adolescent immunization schedule has expanded to include 2 doses of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, 1 dose of tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis, absorbed vaccine, 2 or 3 doses of human papillomavirus vaccine, depending on the child's age, and an annual influenza vaccine...
February 6, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163258/proteomics-tracing-the-footsteps-of-infectious-disease
#15
Todd M Greco, Ileana M Cristea
Every year, a major cause of human disease and death worldwide is infection with the various pathogens - viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa - that are intrinsic to our ecosystem. In efforts to control the prevalence of infectious disease and develop improved therapies, the scientific community has focused on building a molecular picture of pathogen infection and spread. These studies have been aimed at defining the cellular mechanisms that allow pathogen entry into hosts cells, their replication and transmission, as well as the core mechanisms of host defense against pathogens...
February 5, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161305/mathematical-model-for-the-impact-of-awareness-on-the-dynamics-of-infectious-diseases
#16
G O Agaba, Y N Kyrychko, K B Blyuss
This paper analyses an SIRS-type model for infectious diseases with account for behavioural changes associated with the simultaneous spread of awareness in the population. Two types of awareness are included into the model: private awareness associated with direct contacts between unaware and aware populations, and public information campaign. Stability analysis of different steady states in the model provides information about potential spread of disease in a population, and well as about how the disease dynamics is affected by the two types of awareness...
February 2, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159021/ebola-outbreak-preparedness-planning-a-qualitative-study-of-clinicians-experiences
#17
J Broom, A Broom, V Bowden
OBJECTIVES: The 2014-15 Ebola outbreak in West Africa highlighted the challenges many hospitals face when preparing for the potential emergence of highly contagious diseases. This study examined the experiences of frontline health care professionals in an Australian hospital during the outbreak, with a focus on participant views on information, training and preparedness, to inform future outbreak preparedness planning. STUDY DESIGN: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 healthcare professionals involved in Ebola preparedness planning, at a hospital in Australia...
February 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148977/survey-of-meta-genomic-approaches-for-understanding-microbial-community-dynamics
#18
REVIEW
Anukriti Sharma, Rup Lal
Advancement in the next generation sequencing technologies has led to evolution of the field of genomics and metagenomics in a slim duration with nominal cost at precipitous higher rate. While metagenomics and genomics can be separately used to reveal the culture-independent and culture-based microbial evolution, respectively, (meta)genomics together can be used to demonstrate results at population level revealing in-depth complex community interactions for specific ecotypes. The field of metagenomics which started with answering "who is out there?" based on 16S rRNA gene has evolved immensely with the precise organismal reconstruction at species/strain level from the deeply covered metagenome data outweighing the need to isolate bacteria of which 99% are de facto non-cultivable...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135281/dispersal-of-male-and-female-culex-quinquefasciatus-and-aedes-albopictus-mosquitoes-using-stable-isotope-enrichment
#19
Matthew C I Medeiros, Emily C Boothe, E Brendan Roark, Gabriel L Hamer
The dispersal patterns of mosquito vectors are important drivers of vector-borne infectious disease dynamics and understanding movement patterns is pivotal to devise successful intervention strategies. Here, we investigate the dispersal patterns of two globally important mosquito vectors, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus, by marking naturally-occurring larvae with stable isotopes (13C or 15N). Marked individuals were captured with 32 CDC light trap, 32 gravid trap, and 16 BG Sentinel at different locations within two-kilometer radii of six larval habitats enriched with either 13C or 15N...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134131/design-and-characterization-of-a-cough-simulator
#20
Bo Zhang, Chao Zhu, Zhiming Ji, Chao-Hsin Lin
Expiratory droplets from human coughing have always been considered as potential carriers of pathogens, responsible for respiratory infectious disease transmission. To study the transmission of disease by human coughing, a transient repeatable cough simulator has been designed and built. Cough droplets are generated by different mechanisms, such as the breaking of mucus, condensation and high-speed atomization from different depths of the respiratory tract. These mechanisms in coughing produce droplets of different sizes, represented by a bimodal distribution of "fine" and "coarse" droplets...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
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