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Infectious disease dynamics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223580/modeling-hiv-disease-progression-and-transmission-at-population-level-the-potential-impact-of-modifying-disease-progression-in-hiv-treatment-programs
#1
Jennifer M Ross, Roger Ying, Connie L Celum, Jared M Baeten, Katherine K Thomas, Pamela M Murnane, Heidi van Rooyen, James P Hughes, Ruanne V Barnabas
INTRODUCTION: Mathematical models that incorporate HIV disease progression dynamics can estimate the potential impact of strategies that delay HIV disease progression and reduce infectiousness for persons not on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Suppressive treatment of HIV-positive persons co-infected with herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) with valacyclovir, an HSV-2 antiviral, can lower HIV viral load, but the impact of partially-suppressive valacyclovir relative to fully-suppressive ART on population HIV transmission has not been estimated...
December 5, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215864/platinum-nanocatalyst-amplification-redefining-the-gold-standard-for-lateral-flow-immunoassays-with-ultra-broad-dynamic-range
#2
Colleen N Loynachan, Michael R Thomas, Eleanor R Gray, Daniel A Richards, Jeongyun Kim, Benjamin S Miller, Jennifer Clare Brookes, Shweta Agarwal, Vijay Chudasama, Rachel A McKendry, Molly M Stevens
Paper-based lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are one of the most widely used point-of-care (PoC) devices, however, their application in early disease diagnostics is often limited due to insufficient sensitivity for the requisite sample sizes and the short timeframes of PoC testing. To address this, we developed a serum-stable, nanoparticle catalyst-labelled LFIA with a sensitivity surpassing that of both current commercial and published sensitivities for paper-based detection of p24, one of the earliest and most conserved biomarkers of HIV...
December 7, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211731/social-mixing-in-fiji-who-eats-with-whom-contact-patterns-and-the-implications-of-age-and-ethnic-heterogeneity-for-disease-dynamics-in-the-pacific-islands
#3
Conall H Watson, Jeremaia Coriakula, Dung Tran Thi Ngoc, Stefan Flasche, Adam J Kucharski, Colleen L Lau, Nga Tran Vu Thieu, Olivier le Polain de Waroux, Kitione Rawalai, Tan Trinh Van, Mere Taufa, Stephen Baker, Eric J Nilles, Mike Kama, W John Edmunds
Empirical data on contact patterns can inform dynamic models of infectious disease transmission. Such information has not been widely reported from Pacific islands, nor strongly multi-ethnic settings, and few attempts have been made to quantify contact patterns relevant for the spread of gastrointestinal infections. As part of enteric fever investigations, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of the general public in Fiji, finding that within the 9,650 mealtime contacts reported by 1,814 participants, there was strong like-with-like mixing by age and ethnicity, with higher contact rates amongst iTaukei than non-iTaukei Fijians...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207239/the-human-microbiota-infectious-disease-and-global-health-challenges-and-opportunities
#4
Abraham J Waldman, Emily P Balskus
Despite significant advances in treating infectious diseases worldwide, morbidity and mortality associated with these pathogens remains extraordinarily high and represents a critical scientific and global health challenge. Current strategies to combat these infectious agents include a combination of vaccines, small molecule drugs, increased hygiene standards, and disease-specific interventions. While these approaches have helped to drastically reduce the incidence and number of deaths associated with infection, continued investment in current strategies and the development of novel therapeutic approaches will be required to address these global health threats...
December 5, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203737/-pertussis-in-children-with-incomplete-active-immunization
#5
Alexandr B Nadraga, Iryna V Dybas
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, a significant increase in the incidence of pertussis among children has been observed both in Ukraine and worldwide. Infants who were partially vaccinated or children who became ill in a short time after complete active immunization with primary vaccination complex against pertussis are more often referred to our clinic with the diagnosis of "pertussis". THE AIM: The clinical peculiarities of pertussis study in partially vaccinated infants and infants who are in the process of vaccination against pertussis...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202081/phylodynamic-applications-in-21st-century-global-infectious-disease-research
#6
Brittany D Rife, Carla Mavian, Xinguang Chen, Massimo Ciccozzi, Marco Salemi, Jae Min, Mattia Cf Prosperi
Background: Phylodynamics, the study of the interaction between epidemiological and pathogen evolutionary processes within and among populations, was originally defined in the context of rapidly evolving viruses and used to characterize transmission dynamics. The concept of phylodynamics has evolved since the early 21st century, extending its reach to slower-evolving pathogens, including bacteria and fungi, and to the identification of influential factors in disease spread and pathogen population dynamics...
2017: Global Health Research and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199925/exhibiting-good-health-public-health-exhibitions-in-london-1948-71
#7
Alex Mold
This article examines the changing nature of public health services and their relationship with the public in post-war Britain by an analysis of the exhibitions mounted by Medical Officers of Health (MOsH) in London. Focusing on the period 1948-71, the article explores a time when public health practice, and the problems it faced, were in flux. A decline in infectious disease and an increase in chronic conditions linked to lifestyle required a new role for public health services. Exhibitions were one of several methods that MOsH used to inform the public about dangers to their health, but also to persuade them to change their behaviour...
January 2018: Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199090/voluntary-vaccination-dilemma-with-evolving-psychological-perceptions
#8
Xue Feng, Bin Wu, Long Wang
Voluntary vaccination is a universal control protocol for infectious diseases. Yet there exists a social dilemma between individual benefits and public health: non-vaccinators free ride via the herd immunity from adequate vaccinators who bear vaccination cost. This is due to the interplay between disease prevalence and individual vaccinating behavior. To complicate matters further, individual vaccinating behavior depends on the perceived vaccination cost rather than the actual one. The perception of vaccination cost is an individual trait, which varies from person to person, and evolves in response to the disease prevalence and vaccination coverage...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196741/bayesian-inference-of-epidemiological-parameters-from-transmission-experiments
#9
Ben Hu, Jose L Gonzales, Simon Gubbins
Epidemiological parameters for livestock diseases are often inferred from transmission experiments. However, there are several limitations inherent to the design of such experiments that limits the precision of parameter estimates. In particular, infection times and latent periods cannot be directly observed and infectious periods may also be censored. We present a Bayesian framework accounting for these features directly and employ Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques to provide robust inferences and quantify the uncertainty in our estimates...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196679/a-synthetic-population-for-modelling-the-dynamics-of-infectious-disease-transmission-in-american-samoa
#10
Zhijing Xu, Kathryn Glass, Colleen L Lau, Nicholas Geard, Patricia Graves, Archie Clements
Agent-based modelling is a useful approach for capturing heterogeneity in disease transmission. In this study, a synthetic population was developed for American Samoa using an iterative approach based on population census, questionnaire survey and land use data. The population will be used as the basis for a new agent-based model, intended specifically to fill the knowledge gaps about lymphatic filariasis transmission and elimination, but also to be readily adaptable to model other infectious diseases. The synthetic population was characterized by the statistically realistic population and household structure, and high-resolution geographic locations of households...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193397/nurses-preparedness-for-infectious-diseases-outbreaks-a-literature-review-and-narrative-synthesis-of-qualitative-evidence
#11
REVIEW
Stanley K K Lam, Enid W Y Kwong, Maria S Y Hung, Samantha M C Pang, Vico C L Chiang
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This paper seeks to explore the core components that constitute nurses' preparedness in an epidemic event. BACKGROUND: Healthcare service providers have worked to augment efforts to protect the public from the impact of epidemic events. While constituting the major healthcare taskforce, nurses are frequently tasked with fronting the response to an infectious disease outbreak. Given the crucial role of nurses in the management of prevailing epidemics, the constituents of their preparedness in epidemic events should be identified...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193194/impact-of-individual-behaviour-change-on-the-spread-of-emerging-infectious-diseases
#12
Q L Yan, S Y Tang, Y N Xiao
Human behaviour plays an important role in the spread of emerging infectious diseases, and understanding the influence of behaviour changes on epidemics can be key to improving control efforts. However, how the dynamics of individual behaviour changes affects the development of emerging infectious disease is a key public health issue. To develop different formula for individual behaviour change and introduce how to embed it into a dynamic model of infectious diseases, we choose A/H1N1 and Ebola as typical examples, combined with the epidemic reported cases and media related news reports...
November 28, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192177/up-regulation-of-interleukin-21-contributes-to-liver-pathology-of-schistosomiasis-by-driving-gc-immune-responses-and-activating-hscs-in-mice
#13
Yanyan Wang, Cai Lin, Yun Cao, Zhongliang Duan, Zhixun Guan, Jing Xu, Xing-Quan Zhu, Chaoming Xia
The pathology of schistosome egg-induced liver granuloma, fibrosis and eventually liver scarring is complicated. CD4+ helper T (Th) cells play critical roles in both host humoral immunity and cellular immunity against parasitic infection and immunopathology in schistosomiasis. Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are another specialized subset of Th cells and involved in infectious diseases. However, the immune regulatory mechanism of Tfh cells in severe liver pathology of schistosomiasis is still poorly understood...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188001/responses-to-a-warming-world-integrating-life-history-immune-investment-and-pathogen-resistance-in-a-model-insect-species
#14
Alice M Laughton, Cian O O'Connor, Robert J Knell
Environmental temperature has important effects on the physiology and life history of ectothermic animals, including investment in the immune system and the infectious capacity of pathogens. Numerous studies have examined individual components of these complex systems, but little is known about how they integrate when animals are exposed to different temperatures. Here, we use the Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella) to understand how immune investment and disease resistance react and potentially trade-off with other life-history traits...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186587/effective-online-bayesian-phylogenetics-via-sequential-monte-carlo-with-guided-proposals
#15
Mathieu Fourment, Brian C Claywell, Vu Dinh, Connor McCoy, Frederick A Matsen Iv, Aaron E Darling
Modern infectious disease outbreak surveillance produces continuous streams of sequence data which require phylogenetic analysis as data arrives. Current software packages for Bayesian phylogenetic inference are unable to quickly incorporate new sequences as they become available, making them less useful for dynamically unfolding evolutionary stories. This limitation can be addressed by applying a class of Bayesian statistical inference algorithms called sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) to conduct online inference, wherein new data can be continuously incorporated to update the estimate of the posterior probability distribution...
November 27, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182471/a-model-for-temporal-dynamics-of-brown-rot-spreading-in-fruit-orchards
#16
Daniele Bevacqua, Bénédicte Quilot-Turion, Luca Bolzoni
Brown rot, caused by Monilinia spp., is a major disease of stone fruits and, in favorable environmental conditions and in the absence of fungicide treatments, it causes important economic losses. In the present work, we propose a modification of classical susceptible, exposed, infectious and removed (SEIR) compartmental models to grasp the peculiarities of the progression of brown rot epidemics in stone fruit orchards in the last stage of the fruit growth (i.e. from the end of the pit hardening to harvest time)...
November 28, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176349/epidemiology-of-community-acquired-bacterial-meningitis
#17
Matthijs C Brouwer, Diederik van de Beek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The epidemiology of bacterial meningitis has been dynamic in the past 30 years following introduction of conjugated vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type B, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. The purpose of this review is to describe recent developments in bacterial meningitis epidemiology. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of bacterial meningitis in Western countries (Finland, Netherlands, and the United States) gradually declined by 3-4% per year to 0...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163915/field-deployable-quantitative-rapid-identification-of-active-ebola-virus-infection-in-unprocessed-blood
#18
Kavit Shah, Emma Bentley, Adam Tyler, Kevin S R Richards, Edward Wright, Linda Easterbrook, Diane Lee, Claire Cleaver, Louise Usher, Jane E Burton, James K Pitman, Christine B Bruce, David Edge, Martin Lee, Nelson Nazareth, David A Norwood, Sterghios A Moschos
The West African Ebola virus outbreak underlined the importance of delivering mass diagnostic capability outside the clinical or primary care setting in effectively containing public health emergencies caused by infectious disease. Yet, to date, there is no solution for reliably deploying at the point of need the gold standard diagnostic method, real time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), in a laboratory infrastructure-free manner. In this proof of principle work, we demonstrate direct performance of RT-qPCR on fresh blood using far-red fluorophores to resolve fluorogenic signal inhibition and controlled, rapid freeze/thawing to achieve viral genome extraction in a single reaction chamber assay...
November 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163408/environmental-nutrient-supply-directly-alters-plant-traits-but-indirectly-determines-virus-growth-rate
#19
Christelle Lacroix, Eric W Seabloom, Elizabeth T Borer
Ecological stoichiometry and resource competition theory both predict that nutrient rates and ratios can alter infectious disease dynamics. Pathogens such as viruses hijack nutrient rich host metabolites to complete multiple steps of their epidemiological cycle. As the synthesis of these molecules requires nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), environmental supply rates, and ratios of N and P to hosts can directly limit disease dynamics. Environmental nutrient supplies also may alter virus epidemiology indirectly by changing host phenotype or the dynamics of coinfecting pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162706/vaccine-effects-on-heterogeneity-in-susceptibility-and-implications-for-population-health-management
#20
Kate E Langwig, Andrew R Wargo, Darbi R Jones, Jessie R Viss, Barbara J Rutan, Nicholas A Egan, Pedro Sá-Guimarães, Min Sun Kim, Gael Kurath, M Gabriela M Gomes, Marc Lipsitch
Heterogeneity in host susceptibility is a key determinant of infectious disease dynamics but is rarely accounted for in assessment of disease control measures. Understanding how susceptibility is distributed in populations, and how control measures change this distribution, is integral to predicting the course of epidemics with and without interventions. Using multiple experimental and modeling approaches, we show that rainbow trout have relatively homogeneous susceptibility to infection with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and that vaccination increases heterogeneity in susceptibility in a nearly all-or-nothing fashion...
November 21, 2017: MBio
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