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Infectious disease dynamics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053740/gene-flow-of-common-ash-fraxinus-excelsior-l-in-a-fragmented-landscape
#1
Devrim Semizer-Cuming, Erik Dahl Kjær, Reiner Finkeldey
Gene flow dynamics of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) is affected by several human activities in Central Europe, including habitat fragmentation, agroforestry expansion, controlled and uncontrolled transfer of reproductive material, and a recently introduced emerging infectious disease, ash dieback, caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Habitat fragmentation may alter genetic connectivity and effective population size, leading to loss of genetic diversity and increased inbreeding in ash populations. Gene flow from cultivated trees in landscapes close to their native counterparts may also influence the adaptability of future generations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050027/new-preventive-approaches-part-ii-role-of-dentin-biomodifiers-in-caries-progression
#2
Ana K Bedran-Russo, Camila A Zamperini
Dental caries is the most prevalent infectious chronic disease in children and adults. With a globally aging population, new demands in the management of dental caries are awakened by the rampant increase in the incidence of dental root caries. Like crown caries, root caries requires bacterial driven tissue demineralization followed by the degradation of the extracellular dentin matrix. Due to the complex composition and ultrastructure, preventive strategies targeting the mineral phase of dentin are insufficient for managing the prevention and progression of root caries...
2017: Monographs in Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049371/combining-epidemiology-with-basic-biology-of-sand-flies-parasites-and-hosts-to-inform-leishmaniasis-transmission-dynamics-and-control
#3
REVIEW
Orin Courtenay, Nathan C Peters, Matthew E Rogers, Caryn Bern
Quantitation of the nonlinear heterogeneities in Leishmania parasites, sand fly vectors, and mammalian host relationships provides insights to better understand leishmanial transmission epidemiology towards improving its control. The parasite manipulates the sand fly via production of promastigote secretory gel (PSG), leading to the "blocked sand fly" phenotype, persistent feeding attempts, and feeding on multiple hosts. PSG is injected into the mammalian host with the parasite and promotes the establishment of infection...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046869/staphylococcus-aureus-alpha-toxin-induces-the-formation-of-dynamic-tubules-labeled-with-lc3-within-host-cells-in-a-rab7-and-rab1b-dependent-manner
#4
María M López de Armentia, María C Gauron, María I Colombo
Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen that causes severe infectious diseases that eventually lead to septic and toxic shock. S. aureus infection is characterized by the production of virulence factors, including enzymes and toxins. After internalization S. aureus resides in a phagosome labeled with Rab7 protein. Here, we show that S. aureus generates tubular structures marked with the small GTPases Rab1b and Rab7 and by the autophagic protein LC3 at early times post-infection. As shown by live cell imaging these tubular structures are highly dynamic, extend, branch and grow in length...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046570/general-ecological-models-for-human-subsistence-health-and-poverty
#5
Calistus N Ngonghala, Giulio A De Leo, Mercedes M Pascual, Donald C Keenan, Andrew P Dobson, Matthew H Bonds
The world's rural poor rely heavily on their immediate natural environment for subsistence and suffer high rates of morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. We present a general framework for modelling subsistence and health of the rural poor by coupling simple dynamic models of population ecology with those for economic growth. The models show that feedbacks between the biological and economic systems can lead to a state of persistent poverty. Analyses of a wide range of specific systems under alternative assumptions show the existence of three possible regimes corresponding to a globally stable development equilibrium, a globally stable poverty equilibrium and bistability...
August 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045456/inference-of-epidemiological-parameters-from-household-stratified-data
#6
James N Walker, Joshua V Ross, Andrew J Black
We consider a continuous-time Markov chain model of SIR disease dynamics with two levels of mixing. For this so-called stochastic households model, we provide two methods for inferring the model parameters-governing within-household transmission, recovery, and between-household transmission-from data of the day upon which each individual became infectious and the household in which each infection occurred, as might be available from First Few Hundred studies. Each method is a form of Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo that allows us to calculate a joint posterior distribution for all parameters and hence the household reproduction number and the early growth rate of the epidemic...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042596/host-heterozygosity-and-genotype-rarity-affect-viral-dynamics-in-an-avian-subspecies-complex
#7
Justin R Eastwood, Raoul F H Ribot, Lee Ann Rollins, Katherine L Buchanan, Ken Walder, Andrew T D Bennett, Mathew L Berg
Genetic diversity at community, population and individual levels is thought to influence the spread of infectious disease. At the individual level, inbreeding and heterozygosity are associated with increased risk of infection and disease severity. Host genotype rarity may also reduce infection risk if pathogens are co-adapted to common or local hosts, but to date, no studies have investigated the relative importance of genotype rarity and heterozygosity for infection in a wild, sexually reproducing vertebrate...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036417/coprophagous-insects-and-the-ecology-of-infectious-diseases-of-wildlife
#8
Elizabeth Nichols, Viviana Alarcón, Shaun Forgie, Luis A Gomez-Puerta, Matthew S Jones
A diversity of macro- and microparasitic species exert strong influences on wildlife population density, community structure, and ecosystem functioning, all through their impacts on individual host fitness. Through consuming, manipulating, and relocating wildlife feces, over 7,000 species of coprophagous dung beetles interact with a staggering diversity of wildlife parasites with fecal-oral transmission in ways that both increase and decrease transmission. Here, we review the mechanisms by which dung beetles influence micro- and macroparasite transmission and outline a future research framework that integrates theory and empirical insights to advance our understanding of how these relationships may interact with ongoing environmental change drivers to further influence wildlife populations and community structure...
September 28, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034325/collection-of-viable-aerosolized-influenza-virus-and-other-respiratory-viruses-in-a-student-health-care-center-through-water-based-condensation-growth
#9
Maohua Pan, Tania S Bonny, Julia Loeb, Xiao Jiang, John A Lednicky, Arantzazu Eiguren-Fernandez, Susanne Hering, Z Hugh Fan, Chang-Yu Wu
The dynamics and significance of aerosol transmission of respiratory viruses are still controversial, for the major reasons that virus aerosols are inefficiently collected by commonly used air samplers and that the collected viruses are inactivated by the collection method. Without knowledge of virus viability, infection risk analyses lack accuracy. This pilot study was performed to (i) determine whether infectious (viable) respiratory viruses in aerosols could be collected from air in a real world environment by the viable virus aerosol sampler (VIVAS), (ii) compare and contrast the efficacy of the standard bioaerosol sampler, the BioSampler, with that of the VIVAS for the collection of airborne viruses in a real world environment, and (iii) gain insights for the use of the VIVAS for respiratory virus sampling...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030543/counteracting-structural-errors-in-ensemble-forecast-of-influenza-outbreaks
#10
Sen Pei, Jeffrey Shaman
For influenza forecasts generated using dynamical models, forecast inaccuracy is partly attributable to the nonlinear growth of error. As a consequence, quantification of the nonlinear error structure in current forecast models is needed so that this growth can be corrected and forecast skill improved. Here, we inspect the error growth of a compartmental influenza model and find that a robust error structure arises naturally from the nonlinear model dynamics. By counteracting these structural errors, diagnosed using error breeding, we develop a new forecast approach that combines dynamical error correction and statistical filtering techniques...
October 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028886/analysis-of-protein-targets-in-pathogen-host-interaction-in-infectious-diseases-a-case-study-on-plasmodium-falciparum-and-homo-sapiens-interaction-network
#11
Sovan Saha, Kaustav Sengupta, Piyali Chatterjee, Subhadip Basu, Mita Nasipuri
Infection and disease progression is the outcome of protein interactions between pathogen and host. Pathogen, the role player of Infection, is becoming a severe threat to life as because of its adaptability toward drugs and evolutionary dynamism in nature. Identifying protein targets by analyzing protein interactions between host and pathogen is the key point. Proteins with higher degree and possessing some topologically significant graph theoretical measures are found to be drug targets. On the other hand, exceptional nodes may be involved in infection mechanism because of some pathway process and biologically unknown factors...
September 23, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021163/resource-driven-encounters-among-consumers-and-implications-for-the-spread-of-infectious-disease
#12
Rebecca K Borchering, Steve E Bellan, Jason M Flynn, Juliet R C Pulliam, Scott A McKinley
Animals share a variety of common resources, which can be a major driver of conspecific encounter rates. In this work, we implement a spatially explicit mathematical model for resource visitation behaviour in order to examine how changes in resource availability can influence the rate of encounters among consumers. Using simulations and asymptotic analysis, we demonstrate that, under a reasonable set of assumptions, the relationship between resource availability and consumer conspecific encounters is not monotonic...
October 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019133/proteomic-analysis-of-lung-tissue-by-dige
#13
Jarlath E Nally, Simone Schuller
Lungs perform an essential physiological function, mediated by a complex series of events that involve the coordination of multiple cell types to support not only gaseous exchange, but homeostasis and protection from infection. Guinea pigs are an important animal disease model for a number of infectious and noninfectious pulmonary conditions and the availability of a complete genome facilitates comprehensive analysis of tissues using the tools of proteomics. Here, we describe the application of 2-D Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) to compare, quantify, and identify differential protein expression of proteins in lung tissue from guinea pigs with leptospiral pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome (LPHS) compared to noninfected controls...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017553/which-phenotypic-traits-of-resistance-should-be-improved-in-cattle-to-control-paratuberculosis-dynamics-in-a-dairy-herd-a-modelling-approach
#14
Racem Ben Romdhane, Gaël Beaunée, Guillaume Camanes, Raphaël Guatteo, Christine Fourichon, Pauline Ezanno
Paratuberculosis is a worldwide disease causing production losses in dairy cattle herds. Variability of cattle response to exposure to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) has been highlighted. Such individual variability could influence Map spread at larger scale. Cattle resistance to paratuberculosis has been shown to be heritable, suggesting genetic selection could enhance disease control. Our objective was to identify which phenotypic traits characterising the individual course of infection influence Map spread in a dairy cattle herd...
October 10, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992880/delayed-introduction-of-immunosuppressive-regimens-in-critically-ill-patients-after-liver-transplantation
#15
Ying Luo, Wen-Bin Ji, Wei-Dong Duan, Xian-Jie Shi, Zhi-Ming Zhao
BACKGROUND: The manipulation of immunosuppression therapy remains challenging in patients who develop infectious diseases or multiple organ dysfunction after liver transplantation. We evaluated the outcomes of delayed introduction of immunosuppression in the patients after liver transplantation under immune monitoring with ImmuKnow assay. METHODS: From March 2009 to February 2014, 225 consecutive liver recipients in our institute were included. The delayed administration of immunosuppressive regimens was attempted in 11 liver recipients with multiple severe comorbidities...
October 15, 2017: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988403/deterministic-and-stochastic-analysis-of-an-eco-epidemiological-model
#16
Chandan Maji, Debasis Mukherjee, Dipak Kesh
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a contagious prion disease among the deer family that has the potential to disrupt the ecosystems where deer occur in abundance. To understand the dynamics of this emerging infectious disease, we consider a simple eco-epidemic model where the host population is infected by CWD. Boundedness of the system is established. The structure of equilibria and their linearized stability are investigated. The persistence condition is discussed. By constructing a suitable Lyapunov function, we discuss the global stability of the endemic equilibrium...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987024/urban-landscapes-can-change-virus-gene-flow-and-evolution-in-a-fragmentation-sensitive-carnivore
#17
Nicholas M Fountain-Jones, Meggan E Craft, W Chris Funk, Chris Kozakiewicz, Daryl Trumbo, Erin E Boydston, Lisa M Lyren, Kevin Crooks, Justin S Lee, Sue VandeWoude, Scott Carver
Urban expansion has widespread impacts on wildlife species globally, including the transmission and emergence of infectious diseases. However, there is almost no information about how urban landscapes shape transmission dynamics in wildlife. Using an innovative phylodynamic approach combining host and pathogen molecular data with landscape characteristics and host traits, we untangle the complex factors that drive transmission networks of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) in bobcats (Lynx rufus). We found that the urban landscape played a significant role in shaping FIV transmission...
October 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981860/molecular-identification-of-leishmania-spp-in-sand-flies-diptera-psychodidae-phlebotominae-from-ecuador
#18
Cristina Quiroga, Varsovia Cevallos, Diego Morales, Manuel E Baldeón, Paúl Cárdenas, Patricio Rojas-Silva, Patricio Ponce
The detection and identification of natural infections in sand flies by Leishmania protozoan species in endemic areas is a key factor in assessing the risk of leishmaniasis and in designing prevention and control measures for this infectious disease. In this study, we analyzed the Leishmania DNA using nuclear ribosomal internal transcript spacer (ITS) sequences. Parasite DNA was extracted from naturally infected, blood-fed sand flies collected in nine localities considered leishmaniasis-endemic foci in Ecuador...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979849/clinical-applications-of-advanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-techniques-for-arthritis-evaluation
#19
REVIEW
Teodoro Martín Noguerol, Antonio Luna, Marta Gómez Cabrera, Alexie D Riofrio
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has allowed a comprehensive evaluation of articular disease, increasing the detection of early cartilage involvement, bone erosions, and edema in soft tissue and bone marrow compared to other imaging techniques. In the era of functional imaging, new advanced MRI sequences are being successfully applied for articular evaluation in cases of inflammatory, infectious, and degenerative arthropathies. Diffusion weighted imaging, new fat suppression techniques such as DIXON, dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI, and specific T2 mapping cartilage sequences allow a better understanding of the physiopathological processes that underlie these different arthropathies...
September 18, 2017: World Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979611/forecasting-seasonal-influenza-with-a-state-space-sir-model
#20
Dave Osthus, Kyle S Hickmann, Petruţa C Caragea, Dave Higdon, Sara Y Del Valle
Seasonal influenza is a serious public health and societal problem due to its consequences resulting from absenteeism, hospitalizations, and deaths. The overall burden of influenza is captured by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's influenza-like illness network, which provides invaluable information about the current incidence. This information is used to provide decision support regarding prevention and response efforts. Despite the relatively rich surveillance data and the recurrent nature of seasonal influenza, forecasting the timing and intensity of seasonal influenza in the U...
March 2017: Annals of Applied Statistics
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