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Iron homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919686/structural-and-functional-study-of-chuy-from-escherichia-coli-strain-cft073
#1
Hun Kim, Akhilesh Kumar Chaurasia, Truc Kim, Jongkeun Choi, Sung Chul Ha, Doyoun Kim, Kyeong Kyu Kim
The uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain CFT073 contains multiple iron and heme transport systems, which facilitate infection of the host urinary tract. To elucidate the molecular and cellular function of ChuY, a hypothetical gene in the heme degradation/utilization pathway, we solved the crystal structure of ChuY at 2.4 Å resolution. ChuY has high structural homology with human biliverdin and flavin reductase. We confirmed that ChuY has flavin mononucleotide (FMN) reductase activity, using NAD(P)H as a cofactor, and shows porphyrin ring binding affinity...
December 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908408/protective-effect-of-magnesium-acetyltaurate-against-nmda-induced-retinal-damage-involves-restoration-of-minerals-and-trace-elements-homeostasis
#2
Azliana Jusnida Ahmad Jafri, Natasha Najwa Nor Arfuzir, Lidawani Lambuk, Igor Iezhitsa, Renu Agarwal, Puneet Agarwal, Norhafiza Razali, Anna Krasilnikova, Maria Kharitonova, Vasily Demidov, Evgeny Serebryansky, Anatoly Skalny, Alexander Spasov, Ahmad Pauzi Md Yusof, Nafeeza Mohd Ismail
Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity involving N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been recognized as a final common outcome in pathological conditions involving death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Overstimulation of NMDA receptors results in influx of calcium (Ca) and sodium (Na) ions and efflux of potassium (K). NMDA receptors are blocked by magnesium (Mg). Such changes due to NMDA overstimulation are also associated with not only the altered levels of minerals but also that of trace elements and redox status...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904062/promising-therapies-for-fungal-infection-based-on-the-study-to-elucidate-mechanisms-to-cope-with-stress-in-candida-species
#3
Kazuyuki Hirai, Tatsuya Inukai, Hironobu Nakayama
In recent years, the incidence of fungal infections has been increasing, particularly among patients with immune systems compromised by human immunodeficiency virus infection, organ transplantation, and/or chemotherapy for cancer. Current therapies for treating systemic fungal infection have limited effectiveness and have created problems of adverse reactions and drug resistance. These issues therefore motivate us to develop novel antifungals. Elucidation of stress response mechanisms and virulence factors in pathogenic fungi is required in developing an effective antifungal strategy...
2016: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903529/angiocrine-bmp2-signaling-in-murine-liver-controls-normal-iron-homeostasis
#4
Philipp-Sebastian Koch, Victor Olsavszky, Friederike Ulbrich, Carsten Sticht, Alexandra Demory, Thomas Leibing, Thomas Henzler, Mathias Meyer, Johanna Zierow, Sven Schneider, Katja Breitkopf-Heinlein, Haristi Gaitantzi, Bradley Spencer-Dene, Bernd Arnold, Kay Klapproth, Kai Schledzewski, Sergij Goerdt, Cyrill Géraud
Microvascular endothelial cells (EC) display a high degree of phenotypic and functional heterogeneity among different organs. Organ-specific EC control their tissue microenvironment by angiocrine factors in health and disease. Liver sinusoidal EC (LSEC) are uniquely differentiated to fulfil important organ-specific functions in development, under homeostatic conditions, and in regeneration and liver pathology. Recently, Bmp2 has been identified by us as an organ-specific angiokine derived from LSEC. To study angiocrine Bmp2 signaling in the liver, we conditionally deleted Bmp2 in LSEC using EC subtype-specific Stab2-Cre mice...
November 30, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902780/co-regulation-of-iron-metabolism-and-virulence-associated-functions-by-iron-and-xibr-a-novel-iron-binding-transcription-factor-in-the-plant-pathogen-xanthomonas
#5
Sheo Shankar Pandey, Pradeep Kumar Patnana, Santosh Kumar Lomada, Archana Tomar, Subhadeep Chatterjee
Abilities of bacterial pathogens to adapt to the iron limitation present in hosts is critical to their virulence. Bacterial pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to coordinately regulate iron metabolism and virulence associated functions to maintain iron homeostasis in response to changing iron availability in the environment. In many bacteria the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) functions as transcription factor that utilize ferrous form of iron as cofactor to regulate transcription of iron metabolism and many cellular functions...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901468/loss-of-frataxin-activates-the-iron-sphingolipid-pdk1-mef2-pathway-in-mammals
#6
Kuchuan Chen, Tammy Szu-Yu Ho, Guang Lin, Kai Li Tan, Matthew N Rasband, Hugo J Bellen
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in Frataxin (FXN). Loss of FXN causes impaired mitochondrial function and iron homeostasis. An elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was previously proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of FRDA. We recently showed that loss of frataxin homolog (fh), a Drosophila homolog of FXN, causes a ROS independent neurodegeneration in flies (Chen et al., 2016). In fh mutants, iron accumulation in the nervous system enhances the synthesis of sphingolipids, which in turn activates 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 (Pdk1) and myocyte enhancer factor-2 (Mef2) to trigger neurodegeneration of adult photoreceptors...
November 30, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897970/an-essential-cell-autonomous-role-for-hepcidin-in-cardiac-iron-homeostasis
#7
Samira Lakhal-Littleton, Magda Wolna, Yu Jin Chung, Helen C Christian, Lisa C Heather, Marcella Brescia, Vicky Ball, Rebeca Diaz, Ana Santos, Daniel Biggs, Kieran Clarke, Benjamin Davies, Peter A Robbins
Hepcidin is the master regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Derived primarily from the liver, it inhibits the iron exporter ferroportin in the gut and spleen, the sites of iron absorption and recycling respectively. Recently, we demonstrated that ferroportin is also found in cardiomyocytes, and that its cardiac-specific deletion leads to fatal cardiac iron overload. Hepcidin is also expressed in cardiomyocytes, where its function remains unknown. To define the function of cardiomyocyte hepcidin, we generated mice with cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of hepcidin, or knock-in of hepcidin-resistant ferroportin...
November 29, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890361/iron-dysregulation-in-beta-thalassemia
#8
REVIEW
Kamonlak Leecharoenkiat, Pathrapol Lithanatudom, Wannapa Sornjai, Duncan R Smith
Iron deficiency anemia and iron overload conditions affect more than one billion people worldwide. Iron homeostasis involves the regulation of cells that export iron into the plasma and cells that utilize or store iron. The cellular iron balance in humans is primarily mediated by the hepcidin-ferroportin axis. Ferroportin is the sole cellular iron export protein, and its expression is regulated transcriptionally, post-transcriptionally and post-translationally. Hepcidin, a hormone produced by liver cells, post-translationally regulates ferroportin expression on iron exporting cells by binding with ferroportin and promoting its internalization by endocytosis and subsequent degradation by lysosomes...
November 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886462/loss-of-ppr3-ppr4-ppr6-or-ppr10-perturbs-iron-homeostasis-and-leads-to-apoptotic-cell-death-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#9
Yang Su, Yanmei Yang, Ying Huang
Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins characterized by tandem arrays of a degenerate 35-amino-acid repeat belong to a large family of RNA-binding proteins that are involved in posttranscriptional control of organelle gene expression. PPR proteins are ubiquitous in eukaryotes, and particularly prevalent in higher plants. Schizosaccharomyces pombe has ten PPR proteins. Among them, ppr3, ppr4, ppr6 and ppr10 participate in mitochondrial posttranscriptional processes and are required for mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) function...
November 25, 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884072/the-biological-effect-of-asbestos-exposure-is-dependent-on-changes-in-iron-homeostasis
#10
Andrew J Ghio, Joleen M Soukup, Lisa A Dailey, Judy H Richards, Haiyan Tong
Functional groups on the surface of fibrous silicates can complex iron. We tested the postulate that (1) asbestos complexes and sequesters host cell iron resulting in a disruption of metal homeostasis and (2) this loss of essential metal results in an oxidative stress and biological effect in respiratory epithelial cells. Exposure of BEAS-2B cells to 50 μg/mL chrysotile resulted in diminished concentrations of mitochondrial iron. Preincubation of these cells with 200 μM ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) prevented significant mitochondrial iron loss following the same exposure...
November 24, 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883261/prevention-of-neural-tube-defects-in-lrp-mutant-mouse-embryos-by-folic-acid-supplementation
#11
Julia A Sabatino, Bethany A Stokes, Irene E Zohn
BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common structural birth defects in humans and are caused by the complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Periconceptional supplementation with folic acid can prevent NTDs in both mouse models and human populations. A better understanding of how genes and environmental factors interact is critical toward development of rational strategies to prevent NTDs. Low density lipoprotein-related protein 2 (Lrp2) is involved in endocytosis of the folic acid receptor among numerous other nutrients and ligands...
November 24, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876630/disruptions-of-the-genes-involved-in-lysine-biosynthesis-iron-acquisition-and-secondary-metabolisms-affect-virulence-and-fitness-in-metarhizium-robertsii
#12
Bruno Giuliano Garisto Donzelli, B Gillian Turgeon, Donna M Gibson, Stuart B Krasnoff
Based on genomic analysis, polyketide synthase (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) pathways account for biosynthesis of the majority of the secondary metabolites produced by the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii. To evaluate the contribution of these pathways to M. robertsii fitness and/or virulence, mutants deleted for mrpptA, the Sfp-type 4' phosphopantetheinyl transferase gene required for their activation were generated. ΔmrpptA strains were deficient in PKS and NRPS activity resulting in colonies that lacked the typical green pigment and failed to produce the nonribosomal peptides (destruxins, serinocylins, and the siderophores ferricrocin and metachelins) as well as the hybrid polyketide-peptides (NG-39x) that are all produced by the wild type (WT) M...
November 19, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875949/treponema-iron-and-neurodegeneration
#13
A Jolivet-Gougeon, M Bonnaure Mallet
Spirochetes are suspected to be linked to the genesis of neurological diseases, including neurosyphillis or neurodegeneration (ND). Impaired iron homeostasis has been implicated in loss of function in several enzymes requiring iron as a cofactor, formation of toxic oxidative species, inflammation and elevated production of beta-amyloid proteins. This review proposes to discuss the link that may exist between the involvement of Treponema spp. in the genesis or worsening of ND, and iron dyshomeostasis. Proteins secreted by Treponema can act directly on iron metabolism, with hemin binding ability (HbpA and HbpB) and iron reductase able to reduce the central ferric iron of hemin, iron-containing proteins (rubredoxin, neelaredoxin, desulfoferrodoxin metalloproteins, bacterioferritins etc)...
November 21, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872738/the-icet-a-recommendations-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-disturbances-of-glucose-homeostasis-in-thalassemia-major-patients
#14
Vincenzo De Sanctis, Ashraf T Soliman, Heba Elsedfy, Saif Al Yaarubi, Nicos Skordis, Doaa Khater, Mohamed El Kholy, Iva Stoeva, Bernadette Fiscina, Michael Angastiniotis, Shahina Daar, Christos Kattamis
Iron overload in patients with thalassemia major (TM) affects glucose regulation and is mediated by several mechanisms. The pathogenesis of glycaemic abnormalities in TM is complex and multifactorial. It has been predominantly attributed to a combination of reduced insulin secretory capacity and insulin resistance. The exact mechanisms responsible for progression from norm glycaemia to overt diabetes in these patients are still poorly understood but are attributed mainly to insulin deficiency resulting from the toxic effects of iron deposited in the pancreas and insulin resistance...
2016: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870896/m30-antagonizes-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-activation-and-neurodegeneration-induced-by-corticosterone-in-the-hippocampus
#15
Chun-Sing Lam, George Lim Tipoe, Johnny Kong-Ching Wong, Moussa B H Youdim, Man-Lung Fung
Monoamine oxidases (MAO), downstream targets of glucocorticoid, maintain the turnover and homeostasis of monoamine neurotransmitters; yet, its pathophysiological role in monoamine deficiency, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation remains controversial. Protective effects of M30, a brain selective MAO inhibitor with iron-chelating antioxidant properties, have been shown in models of neurodegenerative diseases. This study aims to examine the neuroprotective mechanism of M30 against depressive-like behavior induced by corticosterone (CORT)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867027/therapeutic-potential-of-hepcidin-the-master-regulator-of-iron-metabolism
#16
REVIEW
Daniel Vyoral, Jiri Petrak
Iron is an essential biogenic element for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In humans iron is present in hundreds of different metalloproteins. The peptide hormone hepcidin serves as a master regulator of iron homeostasis on the level of single cells and whole organism - by altering cell surface expression of cellular iron exporter - protein ferroportin. Altered levels of extracellular hepcidin lead to pathological conditions such as hemochromatosis and iron loading or, on the other side, iron restrictive anemias...
November 17, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864295/endothelial-cells-produce-bone-morphogenetic-protein-6-required-for-iron-homeostasis-in-mice
#17
Susanna Canali, Kimberly B Zumbrennen-Bullough, Amanda B Core, Chia-Yu Wang, Manfred Nairz, Richard Bouley, Filip K Swirski, Jodie L Babitt
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)6 signaling in hepatocytes is a central transcriptional regulator of the iron hormone hepcidin to control systemic iron balance. How iron levels are sensed to regulate hepcidin production is not known, but local induction of liver BMP6 expression by iron is proposed to have a critical role. To identify the cellular source of BMP6 responsible for hepcidin and iron homeostasis regulation, we generated mice with tissue specific ablation of Bmp6 in different liver cell populations and evaluated their iron phenotype...
November 18, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856328/the-therapeutic-potential-of-iron-targeting-gallium-compounds-in-human-disease-from-basic-research-to-clinical-application
#18
REVIEW
Christopher R Chitambar
Gallium, group IIIa metal, shares certain chemical characteristics with iron which enable it to function as an iron mimetic that can disrupt iron-dependent tumor cell growth. Gallium may also display antimicrobial activity by disrupting iron homeostasis in certain bacteria and fungi. Gallium's action on iron homeostasis leads to inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase, mitochondrial function, and changes in proteins of iron transport and storage. In addition, gallium induces an increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in cells which triggers downstream upregulation of metallothionein and hemoxygenase-1...
November 14, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855289/potential-contribution-of-the-hepcidin-macrophage-axis-to-plaque-vulnerability-in-acute-myocardial-infarction-in-human
#19
Masahiro Sasai, Yoshitaka Iso, Takuya Mizukami, Naohisa Tomosugi, Takeyuki Sambe, Akira Miyazaki, Hiroshi Suzuki
OBJECTIVES: Hepcidin-25 serves as a key peptide in the regulation of iron homeostasis and inflammation. It remains unknown whether hepcidin-25 plays an adverse role in atherosclerotic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hepcidin-25 is involved in the pathophysiology of coronary plaque vulnerability. METHODS AND RESULTS: Serum hepcidin-25 levels were quantitatively determined by the LC-MS/MS assay system. Peripheral blood was collected from patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI, n=33) and patients with stable angina pectoris (sCAD, n=19)...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853903/does-any-drug-to-treat-cancer-target-mtor-and-iron-hemostasis-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Mohammad Jodeiri Farshbaf, Kamran Ghaedi
The prevalence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease are increased by age. Alleviation of their symptoms and protection of normal neurons against degeneration are the main aspects of the research to establish novel therapeutic strategies. Iron as the one of most important cation not only play important role in the structure of electron transport chain proteins but also has pivotal duties in cellular activities. But disruption in iron hemostasis can make it toxin to neurons which causes lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and etc...
November 16, 2016: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
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