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Antipsychotic Weight Gain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624847/the-microbiome-gut-brain-axis-implications-for-schizophrenia-and-antipsychotic-induced-weight-gain
#1
REVIEW
S Kanji, T M Fonseka, V S Marshe, V Sriretnakumar, M K Hahn, D J Müller
With the emergence of knowledge implicating the human gut microbiome in the development and regulation of several physiological systems, evidence has accumulated to suggest a role for the gut microbiome in psychiatric conditions and drug response. A complex relationship between the enteric nervous system, the gut microbiota and the central nervous system has been described which allows for the microbiota to influence and respond to a variety of behaviors and psychiatric conditions. Additionally, the use of pharmaceuticals may interact with and alter the microbiota to potentially contribute to adverse effects of the drug...
June 17, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613395/clozapine-dose-for-schizophrenia
#2
REVIEW
Selvizhi Subramanian, Birgit A Völlm, Nick Huband
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia and related disorders such as schizophreniform and schizoaffective disorder are serious mental illnesses characterised by profound disruptions in thinking and speech, emotional processes, behaviour and sense of self. Clozapine is useful in the treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders, particularly when other antipsychotic medications have failed. It improves positive symptoms (such as delusions and hallucinations) and negative symptoms (such as withdrawal and poverty of speech)...
June 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601891/effect-of-liraglutide-treatment-on-prediabetes-and-overweight-or-obesity-in-clozapine-or-olanzapine-treated-patients-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorder-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
Julie R Larsen, Louise Vedtofte, Mathilde S L Jakobsen, Hans R Jespersen, Michelle I Jakobsen, Camilla K Svensson, Kamuran Koyuncu, Ole Schjerning, Peter S Oturai, Andreas Kjaer, Jimmi Nielsen, Jens J Holst, Claus T Ekstrøm, Christoph U Correll, Tina Vilsbøll, Anders Fink-Jensen
Importance: Compared with the general population, patients with schizophrenia have a 2- to 3-fold higher mortality rate primarily caused by cardiovascular disease. Previous interventions designed to counteract antipsychotic-induced weight gain and cardiometabolic disturbances reported limited effects. Objectives: To determine the effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide added to clozapine or olanzapine treatment of schizophrenia spectrum disorders...
June 10, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599949/quetiapine-extended-release-versus-aripiprazole-in-children-and-adolescents-with-first-episode-psychosis-the-multicentre-double-blind-randomised-tolerability-and-efficacy-of-antipsychotics-tea-trial
#4
Anne Katrine Pagsberg, Pia Jeppesen, Dea Gowers Klauber, Karsten Gjessing Jensen, Ditte Rudå, Marie Stentebjerg-Olesen, Peter Jantzen, Simone Rasmussen, Eva Ann-Sofie Saldeen, Maj-Britt Glenn Lauritsen, Niels Bilenberg, Anne Dorte Stenstrøm, Louise Nyvang, Sarah Madsen, Thomas M Werge, Theis Lange, Christian Gluud, Maria Skoog, Per Winkel, Jens Richardt M Jepsen, Birgitte Fagerlund, Christoph U Correll, Anders Fink-Jensen
BACKGROUND: Head-to-head trials to guide antipsychotic treatment choices for paediatric psychosis are urgently needed because extrapolations from adult studies might not be implementable. In this superiority trial with two-sided significance testing, we aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of quetiapine-extended release (quetiapine-ER) versus aripiprazole in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis, to determine whether differences between the two treatments were sufficient to guide clinicians in their choice of one drug over the other...
June 6, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595931/aripiprazole-induced-adverse-metabolic-alterations-in-polyi-c-neurodevelopmental-model-of-schizophrenia-in-rats
#5
Katerina Horska, Jana Ruda-Kucerova, Eva Drazanova, Michal Karpisek, Regina Demlova, Tomas Kasparek, Hana Kotolova
Schizophrenia appears to be linked to higher incidence of metabolic syndrome even in the absence of antipsychotic treatment. Atypical antipsychotics substantially differ in their propensity to induce metabolic alterations. Aripiprazole is considered to represent an antipsychotic drug with low risk of metabolic syndrome development. The aim of this study was to evaluate metabolic phenotype of neurodevelopmental polyI:C rat model and assess metabolic effects of chronic aripiprazole treatment with regard to complex neuroendocrine regulations of energy homeostasis...
June 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586744/protective-effects-of-green-tea-on-olanzapine-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-rats
#6
Bibi Marjan Razavi, Fariba Lookian, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Atypical antipsychotics particularly olanzapine are associated with obesity and serious metabolic disturbances. As green tea (Camellia sinensis) is generally associated with beneficial effects on obesity and other metabolic disturbances, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of green tea aqueous extract (GTAE) on olanzapine induced weight gain and metabolic abnormalities in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into eight groups: control, olanzapine (5mg/kg/day, IP.), GTAE (25, 50 and 100mg/kg/day, IP...
June 3, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584741/adverse-drug-events-in-patients-with-mental-disorder-in-an-ambulatory-setting
#7
Naveen Kumar, Sangeeta Sharma, Vinod Kapoor
BACKGROUND: Although adverse drug events (ADEs) among inpatients occur frequently and are widely studied, few data are available on ADEs among outpatients with mental disorders. AIMS: To determine the rates, types, and severity of ADEs in patients with mental disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of patients with mental disorder attending outpatient department. Data were collected over a period of 6 months. RESULTS: A total of 400 patients (217 schizophrenia patients, 127 bipolar affective disorder patients, and 56 patients of depression) with a mean age of 32...
April 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584269/time-dependent-changes-and-potential-mechanisms-of-glucose-lipid-metabolic-disorders-associated-with-chronic-clozapine-or-olanzapine-treatment-in-rats
#8
Xuemei Liu, Zhixiang Wu, Jiamei Lian, Chang-Hua Hu, Xu-Feng Huang, Chao Deng
Chronic treatment with second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) has been associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. To evaluate the longitudinal changes in glucose-lipid homeostasis after SGA use, we studied the time-dependent effects of olanzapine (OLZ) (3 mg/kg, b.i.d.) or clozapine (CLZ) (20 mg/kg, b.i.d.) treatment on metabolic profiles for 9 weeks in rats. Although only OLZ significantly increased body weight in rats, both OLZ and CLZ elevated blood lipid levels. Chronic OLZ treatment induced significant weight gain leading to a higher fasting insulin level and impaired glucose tolerance, whereas CLZ lowered fasting insulin levels and impaired glucose tolerance independent of weight gain...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579786/topiramate-add-on-treatment-associated-with-normalization-of-prolactin-levels-in-a-patient-with-schizophrenia
#9
Yinglin Huang, Huan Ma, Yuan Wang, Miao Peng, Gang Zhu
Topiramate has been used increasingly in the management of psychiatric conditions. Clinical trials demonstrated that topiramate augmentation was effective in controlling negative symptoms in schizophrenia. This case report presents a case of a 38-year-old man with schizophrenia who achieved full negative symptom remission upon the adjunctive use of topiramate. However, the remarkable finding of this case is the concomitant decrease in the level of prolactin when topiramate (50 mg/day) was started and the rebound after discontinuation of topiramate...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560263/dopamine-d2-receptors-and-the-circadian-clock-reciprocally-mediate-antipsychotic-drug-induced-metabolic-disturbances
#10
Zachary Freyberg, Michael J McCarthy
Antipsychotic drugs are widely prescribed medications, used for numerous psychiatric illnesses. However, antipsychotic drugs cause serious metabolic side effects that can lead to substantial weight gain and increased risk for type 2 diabetes. While individual drugs differ, all antipsychotic drugs may cause these important side effects to varying degrees. Given that the single unifying property shared by these medications is blockade of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors, these receptors likely play a role in antipsychotic drug-induced metabolic side effects...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558630/leukopenia-associated-with-risperidone-treatment
#11
Matthew Morrison, Autumn Schultz, Deborah L Sanchez, Maria C Catalano, Glenn Catalano
Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic agent that was originally approved by the United States Food and Drug Adminstration for the treatment of schizophrenia. There are many side effects that are frequently associated with the use of risperidone. These include weight gain, anxiety, extra-pyramidal side effects, and elevated prolactin levels. More infrequently, the use of risperidone has been linked to leukopenia. We will now present the case of a 66-year-old gentleman who developed leukopenia after the initiation of risperidone to control agitation due to delirium...
May 30, 2017: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540050/effect-of-atypical-antipsychotics-on-body-weight-in-geriatric-psychiatric-inpatients
#12
Eugene Yh Yeung, Soojin Chun, Alan Douglass, Timothy E Lau
BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that antipsychotic-induced weight gain is not a great concern in the elderly population. This study investigated the weight change in elderly patients with various treatment duration and antipsychotics. Part 1 of the study was to determine whether atypical antipsychotics induced weight change in elderly patients. Part 2 was to determine whether certain atypical antipsychotics induced more weight change in elderly patients. METHODS: In Part 1, a retrospective chart review was done on 115 geriatric inpatients...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531893/association-study-of-serotonin-3-receptor-subunit-gene-variants-in-antipsychotic-induced-weight-gain
#13
Clement C Zai, Arun K Tiwari, Nabilah I Chowdhury, Eva J Brandl, Sajid A Shaikh, Natalie Freeman, Jeffrey A Lieberman, Herbert Y Meltzer, James L Kennedy, Daniel J Müller
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a chronic severe neuropsychiatric disorder, where pharmacological treatment has been hindered by adverse effects, including antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) and related complications. Genetic studies have been exploring the appetite regulation and energy homeostasis pathways in AIWG with some promising leads. The serotonin system has been shown to participate in these pathways. METHODS: In the current study, we examined single nucleotide polymorphisms across the serotonin receptor genes HTR3A and HTR3B...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507773/rapid-onset-clozapine-induced-loss-of-glycaemic-control-case-report
#14
Alejandro Porras-Segovia, Amir Krivoy, Mark Horowitz, George Thomas, Mark Bolstridge, Dragos Ion, Sukhwinder S Shergill
Clozapine has proved to be an effective antipsychotic for the treatment of refractory schizophrenia - characterised by the persistence of symptoms despite optimal treatment trials with at least two different antipsychotics at adequate dose and duration - but its use is hampered by adverse effects. The development of clozapine-induced diabetes is commonly considered to arise as part of a metabolic syndrome, associated with weight gain, and thus evolves slowly. We present the case of an individual with refractory schizophrenia and metformin-controlled diabetes who developed rapid-onset insulin-dependent hyperglycaemia immediately after starting clozapine...
May 2017: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498089/changes-in-bmi-in-hospitalized-patients-during-treatment-with-antipsychotics-depending-on-gender-and-other-factors
#15
Lenka Sušilová, Eva Češková, David Hampel, Aleš Sušil, Jan Šimůnek
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differences in body mass index (BMI) changes between men and women during hospitalization. METHODS: The retrospective study monitored demographic and clinical data of 462 schizophrenic patients hospitalized 737 times between 2006 and 2011. BMI analysis was performed on patients on antipsychotic medication hospitalized longer than four days. RESULTS: Patients with an initial BMI < 25 gained more weight than patients with a BMI > 25 (3...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478771/evaluation-of-the-long-term-safety-and-tolerability-of-cariprazine-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-results-from-a-1-year-open-label-study
#16
Andrew J Cutler, Suresh Durgam, Yao Wang, Raffaele Migliore, Kaifeng Lu, István Laszlovszky, György Németh
OBJECTIVE: Cariprazine, a dopamine D3/D2 partial agonist atypical antipsychotic with preferential binding to D3 receptors, is approved for the treatment of schizophrenia and manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. The efficacy and safety of cariprazine was established in three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week trials in patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. This 53-week study evaluated the long-term safety and tolerability of cariprazine in patients with schizophrenia...
May 8, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469583/commentary-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-metformin-treatment-of-weight-gain-associated-with-initiation-of-atypical-antipsychotic-therapy-in-children-and-adolescents
#17
COMMENT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463344/minimizing-weight-gain-for-patients-taking-antipsychotic-medications-the-potential-role-for-early-use-of-metformin
#18
Victoria Hendrick, Robert Dasher, Michael Gitlin, Mehrban Parsi
BACKGROUND: Patients taking antipsychotic medications are at high risk for weight gain, which in turn leads to poor health outcomes, nonadherence with treatment, and low self-esteem. METHODS: We reviewed published studies of pharmacologic interventions aimed at minimizing antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Treatments initiated prior to onset of weight gain were compared with those that started once weight gain already had occurred. RESULTS: Although data are limited, adjunctive medications for weight management appear to be more effective when initiated at or near the time when patients are first exposed to antipsychotic medications...
May 2017: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455891/paliperidone-palmitate-effectiveness-safety-and-the-use-for-treatment-of-schizophrenia
#19
REVIEW
Marek Jarema, Przemysław Bieńkowski, Janusz Heitzman, Tadeusz Parnowski, Janusz Rybakowski
The aim of the study was to summarize the efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone palmitate, an atypical long-acting antipsychotic drug. Paliperidone is a 9-hydroxy metabolite of risperidone with a slightly different receptor profile and significantly different pharmacokinetic profile. After the short review of its pharmacological properties, the efficacy of the drug in comparison to placebo or to an active comparator was described. The studies revealed the effectiveness of paliperidone palmitate in the treatment of psychotic symptoms, mainly schizophrenia...
February 26, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453334/different-immune-signature-in-youths-experiencing-antipsychotic-induced-weight-gain-compared-to-untreated-obese-patients
#20
Simone Pisano, Gennaro Catone, Giangennaro Coppola, Marco Carotenuto, Raffaella Iuliano, Claudia Tiano, Anna Rita Montesanto, Vittoria D'Esposito, Emanuele Del Giudice Miraglia, Pietro Formisano, Carmela Bravaccio
OBJECTIVES: To assess cytokine and chemokine levels in youth experiencing antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) compared to obese patients, hypothesizing a different "immune signature" between the two kinds of obesity. METHODS: We compared a group of youth experiencing AIWG (N 19, mean age 159 months, mean body mass index [BMI] z-score 1.81) and an age-, gender-, and BMI-matched group of untreated obese patients (N 19, mean age 147 months, mean BMI z-score 2) for a wide range of cytokines and chemokines by using a multiplex ELISA test...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
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