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Schizophrenia Epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777307/epigenomics-of-major-depressive-disorders-and-schizophrenia-early-life-decides
#1
REVIEW
Anke Hoffmann, Vincenza Sportelli, Michael Ziller, Dietmar Spengler
Brain development is guided by the interactions between the genetic blueprint and the environment. Epigenetic mechanisms, especially DNA methylation, can mediate these interactions and may also trigger long-lasting adaptations in developmental programs that increase the risk of major depressive disorders (MDD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). Early life adversity is a major risk factor for MDD/SCZ and can trigger persistent genome-wide changes in DNA methylation at genes important to early, but also to mature, brain function, including neural proliferation, differentiation, and synaptic plasticity, among others...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746897/parkinsonian-features-in-aging-gfap-hmox1-transgenic-mice-overexpressing-human-ho-1-in-the-astroglial-compartment
#2
Wei Song, Marisa Cressatti, Hillel Zukor, Adrienne Liberman, Carmela Galindez, Hyman M Schipper
Epigenetic influences mediating brain iron deposition, oxidative mitochondrial injury, and macroautophagy in Parkinson disease and related conditions remain enigmatic. Here, we show that selective overexpression of the stress protein, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in astrocytes of GFAP.HMOX1 transgenic mice between 8.5 and 19 months of age results in nigrostriatal hypodopaminergia associated with locomotor incoordination and stereotypy; downregulation of tyrosine hydroxylase, DAT, LMX1B, Nurr1, Pitx3 and DJ-1 mRNA and/or protein; overproduction of α-synuclein and ubiquitin; oxidative stress; basal ganglia siderosis; mitochondrial damage/mitophagy; and augmented GABAergic systems (increased GABA, GAD67 and reelin)...
June 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699694/the-epigenomics-of-schizophrenia-in-the-mouse
#3
REVIEW
Behnam Javidfar, Royce Park, Bibi S Kassim, Lucy K Bicks, Schahram Akbarian
Large-scale consortia including the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, the Common Minds Consortium, BrainSeq and PsychENCODE, and many other studies taken together provide increasingly detailed insights into the genetic and epigenetic risk architectures of schizophrenia (SCZ) and offer vast amounts of molecular information, but with largely unexplored therapeutic potential. Here we discuss how epigenomic studies in human brain could guide animal work to test the impact of disease-associated alterations in chromatin structure and function on cognition and behavior...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696411/combined-study-of-genetic-and-epigenetic-biomarker-risperidone-treatment-efficacy-in-chinese-han-schizophrenia-patients
#4
Y Shi, M Li, C Song, Q Xu, R Huo, L Shen, Q Xing, D Cui, W Li, J Zhao, L He, S Qin
Nowadays, risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic drug that has been increasingly used for treatment and maintenance therapy in schizophrenia. However, partially affected by genetic or environmental factors, there is significant difference in treatment outcomes among patients. In this study, we aimed to interpret the difference between good and poor responders treated with risperidone in both genetic and epigenetic levels in 288 mainland Chinese patients. We recruited a Henan cohort including 98 patients as initial discovery group and then confirmed our results in Shanghai cohort...
July 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691768/microbiome-inflammation-epigenetic-alterations-and-mental-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Reza Alam, Hamid M Abdolmaleky, Jin-Rong Zhou
Major mental diseases such as autism, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder are debilitating illnesses with complex etiologies. Recent findings show that the onset and development of these illnesses cannot be well described by the one-gene; one-disease approach. Instead, their clinical presentation is thought to result from the regulative interplay of a large number of genes. Even though the involvement of many genes are likely, up regulating and activation or down regulation and silencing of these genes by the environmental factors play a crucial role in contributing to their pathogenesis...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689755/accelerated-aging-in-schizophrenia-and-related-disorders-future-research
#6
Brian Kirkpatrick, Brian K Kennedy
Several lines of evidence suggest schizophrenia is a segmental progeria, that is, some but not all aspects of accelerated aging may be present. However, the evidence has not been consistent. Problems with matching and confounding may account for some of these discrepancies. Given the etiopathophysiological heterogeneity of schizophrenia, it is possible that only a specific pathophysiological group within schizophrenia is associated with progeroid features, while others are not, or that one group is associated with a particular segment of aging features, while other progeroid features are found in another pathophysiological subgroup...
July 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682228/-genetics-and-epigenetics-of-schizophrenia-and-other-psychoses
#7
Boris Chaumette, Oussama Kebir, Marie-Odile Krebs
Schizophrenia and other psychoses are categorical psychiatric diagnoses corresponding to frequent and heterogeneous disorders. Their physiopathology still remains largely unknown despite numerous recent advances. In particular, the last decade has identified different types of genetic variants, thanks to emergence of high-throughput methods. These methods allow both the identification of rare variants with a large effect such as punctual mutations or copy-number variants and the identification of frequent variants with a limited effect such as polymorphisms...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670349/epigenetic-mechanisms-during-ageing-and-neurogenesis-as-novel-therapeutic-avenues-in-human-brain-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Raúl Delgado-Morales, Roberto Carlos Agís-Balboa, Manel Esteller, María Berdasco
Ageing is the main risk factor for human neurological disorders. Among the diverse molecular pathways that govern ageing, epigenetics can guide age-associated decline in part by regulating gene expression and also through the modulation of genomic instability and high-order chromatin architecture. Epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of neural differentiation as well as in functional processes related to memory consolidation, learning or cognition during healthy lifespan. On the other side of the coin, many neurodegenerative diseases are associated with epigenetic dysregulation...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645536/imaging-genetics-of-schizophrenia-in-the-post-gwas-era
#9
REVIEW
Ayla Arslan
Imaging genetics is a research methodology studying the effect of genetic variation on brain structure, function, behavior, and risk for psychopathology. Since the early 2000s, imaging genetics has been increasingly used in the research of schizophrenia (SZ). SZ is a severe mental disorder with no precise knowledge of its underlying neurobiology, however, new genetic and neurobiological data generate a climate for new avenues. The accumulating data of genome wide association studies (GWAS) continuously decode SZ risk genes...
June 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628228/epigenetic-mechanisms-underlying-nmda-receptor-hypofunction-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-juvenile-animals-in-the-mam-model-for-schizophrenia
#10
Yelena Gulchina, Song-Jun Xu, Melissa A Snyder, Felice Elefant, Wen-Jun Gao
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is characterized not only by psychosis, but also by working memory and executive functioning deficiencies, processes that rely on the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Because these cognitive impairments emerge prior to psychosis onset, we investigated synaptic function during development in the neurodevelopmental methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) model for SCZ. Specifically, we hypothesize that NMDAR hypofunction is attributable to reductions in the NR2B subunit through aberrant epigenetic regulation of gene expression, resulting in deficient synaptic physiology and PFC-dependent cognitive dysfunction, a hallmark of SCZ...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621701/epigenetics-insights-into-chronic-pain-dna-hypomethylation-in-fibromyalgia-a-controlled-pilot-study
#11
Daniel Ciampi de Andrade, Mariana Maschietto, Ricardo Galhardoni, Gisele Gouveia, Thais Chile, Ana C Victorino Krepischi, Camila S Dale, André R Brunoni, Daniella C Parravano, Ana S Cueva Moscoso, Irina Raicher, Helena H S Kaziyama, Manoel J Teixeira, Helena P Brentani
To evaluate changes in DNA methylation profiles in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) compared to matched healthy controls (HCs). All individuals underwent full clinical and neurophysiological assessment by cortical excitability (CE) parameters measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation. DNA from the peripheral blood of patients with FM (n = 24) and HC (n = 24) were assessed using the Illumina-HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. We identified 1610 differentially methylated positions (DMPs) in patients with FM displaying a nonrandom distribution in regions of the genome...
June 15, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578413/dna-methylation-in-schizophrenia-in-different-patient-derived-cell-types
#12
Alejandra M Vitale, Nicholas A Matigian, Alexandre S Cristino, Katia Nones, Sugandha Ravishankar, Bernadette Bellette, Yongjun Fan, Stephen A Wood, Ernst Wolvetang, Alan Mackay-Sim
DNA methylation of gene promoter regions represses transcription and is a mechanism via which environmental risk factors could affect cells during development in individuals at risk for schizophrenia. We investigated DNA methylation in patient-derived cells that might shed light on early development in schizophrenia. Induced pluripotent stem cells may reflect a "ground state" upon which developmental and environmental influences would be minimal. Olfactory neurosphere-derived cells are an adult-derived neuro-ectodermal stem cell modified by developmental and environmental influences...
January 23, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560252/dna-methylation-in-schizophrenia-in-different-patient-derived-cell-types
#13
Alejandra M Vitale, Nicholas A Matigian, Alexandre S Cristino, Katia Nones, Sugandha Ravishankar, Bernadette Bellette, Yongjun Fan, Stephen A Wood, Ernst Wolvetang, Alan Mackay-Sim
DNA methylation of gene promoter regions represses transcription and is a mechanism via which environmental risk factors could affect cells during development in individuals at risk for schizophrenia. We investigated DNA methylation in patient-derived cells that might shed light on early development in schizophrenia. Induced pluripotent stem cells may reflect a "ground state" upon which developmental and environmental influences would be minimal. Olfactory neurosphere-derived cells are an adult-derived neuro-ectodermal stem cell modified by developmental and environmental influences...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557385/-telomere-telomerase-system-in-aging-norm-and-pathology-literature-review
#14
K I Pavlov, V N Mukhin, V M Klimenko, V N Anisimov
This literature review presents results of research showing association between functional activity of the telomere-telomerase system and mental cognitive and emotional processes in normal and various pathological states: chronic stress, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, mild cognitive impairment and dementia in aging. It also refers to age-specific, psycho-social, economic, immunological, genetic and epigenetic factors that influence these relationships.
2017: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545944/deviation-from-expected-cognitive-ability-across-psychotic-disorders
#15
W C Hochberger, T Combs, J L Reilly, J R Bishop, R S E Keefe, B A Clementz, M S Keshavan, G D Pearlson, C A Tamminga, S K Hill, J A Sweeney
Patients with schizophrenia show a deficit in cognitive ability compared to estimated premorbid and familial intellectual abilities. However, the degree to which this pattern holds across psychotic disorders and is familial is unclear. The present study examined deviation from expected cognitive level in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and psychotic bipolar disorder probands and their first-degree relatives. Using a norm-based regression approach, parental education and WRAT-IV Reading scores (both significant predictors of cognitive level in the healthy control group) were used to predict global neuropsychological function as measured by the composite score from the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) test in probands and relatives...
May 22, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545007/catechol-o-methyltransferase-gene-promoter-methylation-as-a-peripheral-biomarker-in-male-schizophrenia
#16
S Gao, J Cheng, G Li, T Sun, Y Xu, Y Wang, X Du, G Xu, S Duan
As an epigenetic modification, DNA methylation may reflect the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the development of schizophrenia (SCZ). Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is a promising candidate gene of SCZ. In the present study, we investigate the association of COMT methylation with the risk of SCZ using bisulfite pyrosequencing technology. Significant association between DNA methylation of COMT and the risk of SCZ is identified (P=1.618e-007). A breakdown analysis by gender shows that the significance is driven by males (P=3...
March 30, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523550/histone-posttranslational-modifications-in-schizophrenia
#17
Elizabeth A Thomas
Schizophrenia is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder with high heritability; however, family and twin studies have indicated that environmental factors also play important roles in the etiology of disease. Environmental triggers exert their influence on behavior via epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetic modifications, such as histone acetylation and methylation, as well as DNA methylation, can induce lasting changes in gene expression and have therefore been implicated in promoting the behavioral and neuronal behaviors that characterize this disorder...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523549/dna-methylation-in-schizophrenia
#18
Lotta-Katrin Pries, Sinan Gülöksüz, Gunter Kenis
Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychiatric condition that displays a complex phenotype. A multitude of genetic susceptibility loci have now been identified, but these fail to explain the high heritability estimates of schizophrenia. In addition, epidemiologically relevant environmental risk factors for schizophrenia may lead to permanent changes in brain function. In conjunction with genetic liability, these environmental risk factors-likely through epigenetic mechanisms-may give rise to schizophrenia, a clinical syndrome characterized by florid psychotic symptoms and moderate to severe cognitive impairment...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521044/cross-tissue-exploration-of-genetic-and-epigenetic-effects-on-brain-gray-matter-in-schizophrenia
#19
Dongdong Lin, Jiayu Chen, Stefan Ehrlich, Juan R Bustillo, Nora Perrone-Bizzozero, Esther Walton, Vincent P Clark, Yu-Ping Wang, Jing Sui, Yuhui Du, Beng C Ho, Charles S Schulz, Vince D Calhoun, Jingyu Liu
Closely linking genetics and environment factors, epigenetics has been of increasing interest in psychiatric disease studies. In this work, we integrated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), DNA methylation of blood and saliva, and brain gray matter (GM) measures to explore the role of genetic and epigenetic variation to the brain structure changes in schizophrenia (SZ). By focusing on the reported SZ genetic risk regions, we applied a multi-stage multivariate analysis to a discovery dataset (92 SZ patients and 110 controls, blood) and an independent replication dataset (93 SZ patients and 99 controls, saliva)...
May 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516910/genetic-architecture-of-epigenetic-and-neuronal-ageing-rates-in-human-brain-regions
#20
Ake T Lu, Eilis Hannon, Morgan E Levine, Eileen M Crimmins, Katie Lunnon, Jonathan Mill, Daniel H Geschwind, Steve Horvath
Identifying genes regulating the pace of epigenetic ageing represents a new frontier in genome-wide association studies (GWASs). Here using 1,796 brain samples from 1,163 individuals, we carry out a GWAS of two DNA methylation-based biomarkers of brain age: the epigenetic ageing rate and estimated proportion of neurons. Locus 17q11.2 is significantly associated (P=4.5 × 10(-9)) with the ageing rate across five brain regions and harbours a cis-expression quantitative trait locus for EFCAB5 (P=3.4 × 10(-20))...
May 18, 2017: Nature Communications
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