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Schizophrenia Epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335457/the-epigenetic-link-between-prenatal-adverse-environments-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Marija Kundakovic, Ivana Jaric
Prenatal adverse environments, such as maternal stress, toxicological exposures, and viral infections, can disrupt normal brain development and contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, and autism. Increasing evidence shows that these short- and long-term effects of prenatal exposures on brain structure and function are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. Animal studies demonstrate that prenatal exposure to stress, toxins, viral mimetics, and drugs induces lasting epigenetic changes in the brain, including genes encoding glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf)...
March 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300292/hdac1-and-hdac3-underlie-dynamic-h3k9-acetylation-during-embryonic-neurogenesis-and-in-schizophrenia-like-animals
#2
Josef Večeřa, Eva Bártová, Jana Krejčí, Soňa Legartová, Denisa Komůrková, Jana Rudá-Kučerová, Tibor Štark, Eva Dražanová, Tomáš Kašpárek, Alexandra Šulcová, Frank J Dekker, Wiktor Szymanski, Christian Seiser, Georg Weitzer, Raphael Mechoulam, Vincenzo Micale, Stanislav Kozubek
Although histone acetylation is one of the most widely studied epigenetic modifications, there is still a lack of information regarding how the acetylome is regulated during brain development and pathophysiological processes. We demonstrate that the embryonic brain (E15) is characterized by an increase in H3K9 acetylation as well as decreases in the levels of HDAC1 and HDAC3. Moreover, experimental induction of H3K9 hyperacetylation led to the overexpression of NCAM in the embryonic cortex and depletion of Sox2 in the subventricular ependyma, which mimicked the differentiation processes...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298276/early-life-nutritional-programming-of-cognition-the-fundamental-role-of-epigenetic-mechanisms-in-mediating-the-relation-between-early-life-environment-and-learning-and-memory-process
#3
REVIEW
Laura Moody, Hong Chen, Yuan-Xiang Pan
The perinatal period is a window of heightened plasticity that lays the groundwork for future anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral outcomes. During this time, maternal diet plays a pivotal role in the maturation of vital organs and the establishment of neuronal connections. However, when perinatal nutrition is either lacking in specific micro- and macronutrients or overloaded with excess calories, the consequences can be devastating and long lasting. The brain is particularly sensitive to perinatal insults, with several neurologic and psychiatric disorders having been linked to a poor in utero environment...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282074/-epigenetics-2-0-the-multiple-faces-of-the-genome
#4
Marcelo Rubinstein
Epigenetics is the branch of genetics that studies the dynamic relationship between stable genotypes and varying phenotypes. To this end, epigenetics aims to discover the molecular mechanisms that explain how different nutrients and hormones, environmental changes, and emotional, social and cognitive experiences modify gene expression and behaviors, even permanently so. Psychiatry has learned that diseases with strong genetic predisposition, such as schizophrenia, show a concordance of around 50% between monozygotic twins, thus evidencing the importance of the genetic background and the presence of environmental variables that stimulate or block phenotypic development...
September 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269013/integration-of-snps-fmri-methylation-data-with-sparse-multi-cca-for-schizophrenia-study
#5
Wenxing Hu, Dongdong Lin, Vince D Calhoun, Yu-Ping Wang
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex mental disorder associated with genetic variations, brain development and activities, and environmental factors. There is an increasing interest in combining genetic, epigenetic and neuroimaging datasets to explore different level of biomarkers for the correlation and interaction between these diverse factors. Sparse Multi-Canonical Correlation Analysis (sMCCA) is a powerful tool that can analyze the correlation of three or more datasets. In this paper, we propose the sMCCA model for imaging genomics study...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268598/predicting-schizophrenia-by-fusing-networks-from-snps-dna-methylation-and-fmri-data
#6
Su-Ping Deng, Dongdong Lin, Vince D Calhoun, Yu-Ping Wang
In order to comprehensively utilize complementary information from multiple types of data for better disease diagnosis, in this study, we applied a network fusion based approach to integrating three types of data including genetic, epigenetic and neuroimaging data from a study of schizophrenia patients (SCZ). A network is a map of interactions, which contributes to investigating the connectivity of components or links between sub-units. We exploited the potential of using networks as features for discriminating SCZ from healthy controls...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265857/differences-in-5-ht2a-and-mglu2-receptor-expression-levels-and-repressive-epigenetic-modifications-at-the-5-ht2a-promoter-region-in-the-roman-low-rla-i-and-high-rha-i-avoidance-rat-strains
#7
Luna Fomsgaard, Jose L Moreno, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Tomasz Brudek, Dea Adamsen, Cristobal Rio-Alamos, Justin Saunders, Anders Bue Klein, Ignasi Oliveras, Toni Cañete, Gloria Blazquez, Adolf Tobeña, Albert Fernandez-Teruel, Javier Gonzalez-Maeso, Susana Aznar
The serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) and metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptors regulate each other and are associated with schizophrenia. The Roman high- (RHA-I) and the Roman low- (RLA-I) avoidance rat strains present well-differentiated behavioral profiles, with the RHA-I strain emerging as a putative genetic rat model of schizophrenia-related features. The RHA-I strain shows increased 5-HT2A and decreased mGlu2 receptor binding levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here, we looked for differences in gene expression and transcriptional regulation of these receptors...
March 6, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227225/integration-of-snps-fmri-methylation-data-with-sparse-multi-cca-for-schizophrenia-study
#8
Wenxing Hu, Dongdong Lin, Vince D Calhoun, Yu-Ping Wang, Wenxing Hu, Dongdong Lin, Vince D Calhoun, Yu-Ping Wang, Vince D Calhoun, Yu-Ping Wang, Wenxing Hu, Dongdong Lin
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex mental disorder associated with genetic variations, brain development and activities, and environmental factors. There is an increasing interest in combining genetic, epigenetic and neuroimaging datasets to explore different level of biomarkers for the correlation and interaction between these diverse factors. Sparse Multi-Canonical Correlation Analysis (sMCCA) is a powerful tool that can analyze the correlation of three or more datasets. In this paper, we propose the sMCCA model for imaging genomics study...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226777/predicting-schizophrenia-by-fusing-networks-from-snps-dna-methylation-and-fmri-data
#9
Su-Ping Deng, Dongdong Lin, Vince D Calhoun, Yu-Ping Wang, Su-Ping Deng, Dongdong Lin, Vince D Calhoun, Yu-Ping Wang, Vince D Calhoun, Su-Ping Deng, Yu-Ping Wang, Dongdong Lin
In order to comprehensively utilize complementary information from multiple types of data for better disease diagnosis, in this study, we applied a network fusion based approach to integrating three types of data including genetic, epigenetic and neuroimaging data from a study of schizophrenia patients (SCZ). A network is a map of interactions, which contributes to investigating the connectivity of components or links between sub-units. We exploited the potential of using networks as features for discriminating SCZ from healthy controls...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220356/overexpression-of-line-1-retrotransposons-in-autism-brain
#10
Svitlana Shpyleva, Stepan Melnyk, Oleksandra Pavliv, Igor Pogribny, S Jill James
Long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (LINE-1 or L1) are mobile DNA sequences that are capable of duplication and insertion (retrotransposition) within the genome. Recently, retrotransposition of L1 was shown to occur within human brain leading to somatic mosaicism in hippocampus and cerebellum. Because unregulated L1 activity can promote genomic instability and mutagenesis, multiple mechanisms including epigenetic chromatin condensation have evolved to effectively repress L1 expression. Nonetheless, L1 expression has been shown to be increased in patients with Rett syndrome and schizophrenia...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192769/disorganization-at-the-stage-of-schizophrenia-clinical-outcome-clinical-biological-study
#11
A Nestsiarovich, V Obyedkov, H Kandratsenka, M Siniauskaya, I Goloenko, N Waszkiewicz
BACKGROUND: According to the multidimensional model of schizophrenia, three basic psychopathological dimensions constitute its clinical structure: positive symptoms, negative symptoms and disorganization. The latter one is the newest and the least studied. Our aim was to discriminate disorganization in schizophrenia clinical picture and to identify its distinctive biological and socio-psychological particularities and associated genetic and environmental factors. METHODS: We used SAPS/SANS psychometrical scales, scales for the assessment of patient's compliance, insight, social functioning, life quality...
December 30, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152499/contributions-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-pufa-on-cerebral-neurobiology-an-integrated-omics-approach-with-epigenomic-focus
#12
Nabarun Chakraborty, Seid Muhie, Raina Kumar, Aarti Gautam, Seshamalini Srinivasan, Bintu Sowe, George Dimitrov, Stacy-Ann Miller, Marti Jett, Rasha Hammamieh
The epigenetic landscape is vulnerable to diets. Here, we investigated the influence of different polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) dietary supplements on rodents' nervous system development and functions and potential consequences to neurodegenerative disorders. Our previous nutrigenomics study showed significant impact of high n-3 PUFA-enriched diet (ERD) on synaptogenesis and various neuromodulators. The present study introduced a second equicaloric diet with n-6 PUFA balanced by n-3 PUFA (BLD). The typical lab diet with high n-6 PUFA was the baseline...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140401/advanced-paternal-age-effects-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders-review-of-potential-underlying-mechanisms
#13
REVIEW
M Janecka, J Mill, M A Basson, A Goriely, H Spiers, A Reichenberg, L Schalkwyk, C Fernandes
Multiple epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between advanced paternal age (APA) at conception and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in offspring, particularly with regard to increased risk for autism and schizophrenia. Conclusive evidence about how age-related changes in paternal gametes, or age-independent behavioral traits affect neural development is still lacking. Recent evidence suggests that the origins of APA effects are likely to be multidimensional, involving both inherited predisposition and de novo events...
January 31, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117656/epigenetic-profiling-of-human-brain-differential-dna-methylation-networks-in-schizophrenia
#14
Sheng-An Lee, Kuo-Chuan Huang
BACKGROUND: Epigenetics of schizophrenia provides important information on how the environmental factors affect the genetic architecture of the disease. DNA methylation plays a pivotal role in etiology for schizophrenia. Previous studies have focused mostly on the discovery of schizophrenia-associated SNPs or genetic variants. As postmortem brain samples became available, more and more recent studies surveyed transcriptomics of the diseases. In this study, we constructed protein-protein interaction (PPI) network using the disease associated SNP (or genetic variants), differentially expressed disease genes and differentially methylated disease genes (or promoters)...
December 5, 2016: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115742/mef2c-transcription-factor-is-associated-with-the-genetic-and-epigenetic-risk-architecture-of-schizophrenia-and-improves-cognition-in-mice
#15
A C Mitchell, B Javidfar, V Pothula, D Ibi, E Y Shen, C J Peter, L K Bicks, T Fehr, Y Jiang, K J Brennand, R L Neve, J Gonzalez-Maeso, S Akbarian
Large-scale consortia mapping the genomic risk architectures of schizophrenia provide vast amounts of molecular information, with largely unexplored therapeutic potential. We harnessed publically available information from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, and report myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) motif enrichment in sequences surrounding the top scoring single-nucleotide polymorphisms within risk loci contributing by individual small effect to disease heritability. Chromatin profiling at base-pair resolution in neuronal nucleosomes extracted from prefrontal cortex of 34 subjects, including 17 cases diagnosed with schizophrenia, revealed MEF2C motif enrichment within cis-regulatory sequences, including neuron-specific promoters and superenhancers, affected by histone H3K4 hypermethylation in disease cases...
January 24, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095495/dna-methylation-analysis-of-brd1-promoter-regions-and-the-schizophrenia-rs138880-risk-allele
#16
Mads Dyrvig, Per Qvist, Jacek Lichota, Knud Larsen, Mette Nyegaard, Anders D Børglum, Jane H Christensen
The bromodomain containing 1 gene, BRD1 is essential for embryogenesis and CNS development. It encodes a protein that participates in histone modifying complexes and thereby regulates the expression of a large number of genes. Genetic variants in the BRD1 locus show association with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and risk alleles in the promoter region correlate with reduced BRD1 expression. Insights into the transcriptional regulation of BRD1 and the pathogenic mechanisms associated with BRD1 risk variants, however, remain sparse...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063323/genetic-and-epigenetic-regulation-on-the-transcription-of-gabrb2-genotype-dependent-hydroxymethylation-and-methylation-alterations-in-schizophrenia
#17
Lu Zong, Lin Zhou, Yu Hou, Lulu Zhang, Wei Jiang, Wenwei Zhang, Lijuan Wang, Xia Luo, Shiqing Wang, Cong Deng, Zhizhen Peng, Shufen Li, Jiming Hu, Hu Zhao, Cunyou Zhao
To improve our understanding of the abnormalities and non-Mendelian inheritance characteristics of schizophrenia, this study examined DNA methylation (5mC) and hydroxymethylation (5hmC) in the schizophrenia-associated GABRB2 gene encoding the type A γ-aminobutyric acid receptor β2 subunit. DNAs from the peripheral white blood cells of 279 schizophrenic patients and 256 controls from the Chinese Han population were examined to reveal that the GABRB2 promoter P1-5mC level which was correlated with olanzapine administration, P2-5mC/5hmC level, and Alu-5mC level which was correlated with administration of ziprasidone or oxcarbazepine, were increased in schizophrenic patients...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054990/mrna-expression-and-dna-methylation-analysis-of-serotonin-receptor-2a-htr2a-in-the-human-schizophrenic-brain
#18
Sern-Yih Cheah, Bruce R Lawford, Ross McD Young, Charles P Morris, Joanne Voisey
Serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A) is an important signalling factor implicated in cognitive functions and known to be associated with schizophrenia. The biological significance of HTR2A in schizophrenia remains unclear as molecular analyses including genetic association, mRNA expression and methylation studies have reported inconsistent results. In this study, we examine HTR2A expression and methylation and the interaction with HTR2A polymorphisms to identify their biological significance in schizophrenia. Subjects included 25 schizophrenia and 25 control post-mortem brain samples...
January 4, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042663/all-our-sons-the-developmental-neurobiology-and-neuroendocrinology-of-boys-at-risk
#19
Allan N Schore
Why are boys at risk? To address this question, I use the perspective of regulation theory to offer a model of the deeper psychoneurobiological mechanisms that underlie the vulnerability of the developing male. The central thesis of this work dictates that significant gender differences are seen between male and female social and emotional functions in the earliest stages of development, and that these result from not only differences in sex hormones and social experiences but also in rates of male and female brain maturation, specifically in the early developing right brain...
January 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011714/schizophrenia-associated-methylomic-variation-molecular-signatures-of-disease-and-polygenic-risk-burden-across-multiple-brain-regions
#20
Joana Viana, Eilis Hannon, Emma Dempster, Ruth Pidsley, Ruby Macdonald, Olivia Knox, Helen Spiers, Claire Troakes, Safa Al-Saraj, Gustavo Turecki, Leonard C Schalkwyk, Jonathan Mill
Genetic association studies provide evidence for a substantial polygenic component to schizophrenia, although the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the disorder remain largely undefined. Building on recent studies supporting a role for developmentally regulated epigenetic variation in the molecular aetiology of schizophrenia, this study aimed to identify epigenetic variation associated with both a diagnosis of schizophrenia and elevated polygenic risk burden for the disease across multiple brain regions...
December 22, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
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