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Schizophrenia Epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439515/endogenous-retroviruses-with-us-and-against-us
#1
REVIEW
Thomas J Meyer, Jimi L Rosenkrantz, Lucia Carbone, Shawn L Chavez
Mammalian genomes are scattered with thousands of copies of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), mobile genetic elements that are relics of ancient retroviral infections. After inserting copies into the germ line of a host, most ERVs accumulate mutations that prevent the normal assembly of infectious viral particles, becoming trapped in host genomes and unable to leave to infect other cells. While most copies of ERVs are inactive, some are transcribed and encode the proteins needed to generate new insertions at novel loci...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406917/methylomic-changes-in-individuals-with-psychosis-prenatally-exposed-to-endocrine-disrupting-compounds-lessons-from-diethylstilbestrol
#2
Fabrice Rivollier, Boris Chaumette, Narjes Bendjemaa, Mélanie Chayet, Bruno Millet, Nematollah Jaafari, Amina Barhdadi, Louis-Philippe Lemieux Perreault, Sylvie Provost, Marie-Pierre Dubé, Raphaël Gaillard, Marie-Odile Krebs, Oussama Kebir
BACKGROUND: In the Western world, between 1940 and 1970, more than 2 million people were exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol (DES). In exposed individuals, and in their descendants, adverse outcomes have been linked to such exposure, including cancers, genital malformations, and less consistently, psychiatric disorders. We aimed to explore whether prenatal DES exposure would be associated with DNA methylation changes, and whether these epigenetic modifications would be associated with increased risk of psychosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387726/rethinking-the-epigenetic-framework-to-unravel-the-molecular-pathology-of-schizophrenia
#3
REVIEW
Ariel Cariaga-Martinez, Raúl Alelú-Paz
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder whose causes are still far from being known. Although researchers have focused on genetic or environmental contributions to the disease, we still lack a scientific framework that joins molecular and clinical findings. Epigenetic can explain how environmental variables may affect gene expression without modifying the DNA sequence. In fact, neuroepigenomics represents an effort to unify the research available on the molecular pathology of mental diseases, which has been carried out through several approaches ranging from interrogating single DNA methylation events and hydroxymethylation patterns, to epigenome-wide association studies, as well as studying post-translational modifications of histones, or nucleosomal positioning...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372995/targeting-aggression-in-severe-mental-illness-the-predictive-role-of-genetic-epigenetic-and-metabolomic-markers
#4
REVIEW
Mirko Manchia, Vassilios Fanos
Human aggression is a complex and widespread social behavior that is overrepresented in individuals affected by severe mental illness (SMI), such as schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A substantial proportion of the liability threshold for aggressive behavior is determined by genetic factors, and environmental moderators might precipitate the manifestation of this behavioral phenotype through modification of gene expression via the epigenetic machinery...
April 2, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359301/bromodomain-protein-4-discriminates-tissue-specific-super-enhancers-containing-disease-specific-susceptibility-loci-in-prostate-and-breast-cancer
#5
Verena Zuber, Francesco Bettella, Aree Witoelar, Ole A Andreassen, Ian G Mills, Alfonso Urbanucci
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic information can be used to identify clinically relevant genomic variants single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of functional importance in cancer development. Super-enhancers are cell-specific DNA elements, acting to determine tissue or cell identity and driving tumor progression. Although previous approaches have been tried to explain risk associated with SNPs in regulatory DNA elements, so far epigenetic readers such as bromodomain containing protein 4 (BRD4) and super-enhancers have not been used to annotate SNPs...
March 31, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358303/a-novel-bio-psychosocial-behavioral-treatment-model-in-schizophrenia
#6
REVIEW
Yong-Ku Kim, Joonho Choi, Seon-Cheol Park
Despite the substantial burden of illness in schizophrenia, there has been a discrepancy between the beneficial effects of an increased use of antipsychotic medications and achieving limited recovery or remission. Because the focus of the most common antipsychotic medications is on dopamine, which is associated with positive symptoms, there is an unmet need for patients with negative symptoms. Since cognitive and negative symptoms rather than positive symptoms are more closely associated with psychosocial impairments in patients with schizophrenia, the non-dopaminergic systems including glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) of the prefrontal cortex should be of concern as well...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335457/the-epigenetic-link-between-prenatal-adverse-environments-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Marija Kundakovic, Ivana Jaric
Prenatal adverse environments, such as maternal stress, toxicological exposures, and viral infections, can disrupt normal brain development and contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, and autism. Increasing evidence shows that these short- and long-term effects of prenatal exposures on brain structure and function are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. Animal studies demonstrate that prenatal exposure to stress, toxins, viral mimetics, and drugs induces lasting epigenetic changes in the brain, including genes encoding glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf)...
March 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300292/hdac1-and-hdac3-underlie-dynamic-h3k9-acetylation-during-embryonic-neurogenesis-and-in-schizophrenia-like-animals
#8
Josef Večeřa, Eva Bártová, Jana Krejčí, Soňa Legartová, Denisa Komůrková, Jana Rudá-Kučerová, Tibor Štark, Eva Dražanová, Tomáš Kašpárek, Alexandra Šulcová, Frank J Dekker, Wiktor Szymanski, Christian Seiser, Georg Weitzer, Raphael Mechoulam, Vincenzo Micale, Stanislav Kozubek
Although histone acetylation is one of the most widely studied epigenetic modifications, there is still a lack of information regarding how the acetylome is regulated during brain development and pathophysiological processes. We demonstrate that the embryonic brain (E15) is characterized by an increase in H3K9 acetylation as well as decreases in the levels of HDAC1 and HDAC3. Moreover, experimental induction of H3K9 hyperacetylation led to the overexpression of NCAM in the embryonic cortex and depletion of Sox2 in the subventricular ependyma, which mimicked the differentiation processes...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298276/early-life-nutritional-programming-of-cognition-the-fundamental-role-of-epigenetic-mechanisms-in-mediating-the-relation-between-early-life-environment-and-learning-and-memory-process
#9
REVIEW
Laura Moody, Hong Chen, Yuan-Xiang Pan
The perinatal period is a window of heightened plasticity that lays the groundwork for future anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral outcomes. During this time, maternal diet plays a pivotal role in the maturation of vital organs and the establishment of neuronal connections. However, when perinatal nutrition is either lacking in specific micro- and macronutrients or overloaded with excess calories, the consequences can be devastating and long lasting. The brain is particularly sensitive to perinatal insults, with several neurologic and psychiatric disorders having been linked to a poor in utero environment...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282074/-epigenetics-2-0-the-multiple-faces-of-the-genome
#10
Marcelo Rubinstein
Epigenetics is the branch of genetics that studies the dynamic relationship between stable genotypes and varying phenotypes. To this end, epigenetics aims to discover the molecular mechanisms that explain how different nutrients and hormones, environmental changes, and emotional, social and cognitive experiences modify gene expression and behaviors, even permanently so. Psychiatry has learned that diseases with strong genetic predisposition, such as schizophrenia, show a concordance of around 50% between monozygotic twins, thus evidencing the importance of the genetic background and the presence of environmental variables that stimulate or block phenotypic development...
September 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269013/integration-of-snps-fmri-methylation-data-with-sparse-multi-cca-for-schizophrenia-study
#11
Wenxing Hu, Dongdong Lin, Vince D Calhoun, Yu-Ping Wang
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex mental disorder associated with genetic variations, brain development and activities, and environmental factors. There is an increasing interest in combining genetic, epigenetic and neuroimaging datasets to explore different level of biomarkers for the correlation and interaction between these diverse factors. Sparse Multi-Canonical Correlation Analysis (sMCCA) is a powerful tool that can analyze the correlation of three or more datasets. In this paper, we propose the sMCCA model for imaging genomics study...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268598/predicting-schizophrenia-by-fusing-networks-from-snps-dna-methylation-and-fmri-data
#12
Su-Ping Deng, Dongdong Lin, Vince D Calhoun, Yu-Ping Wang
In order to comprehensively utilize complementary information from multiple types of data for better disease diagnosis, in this study, we applied a network fusion based approach to integrating three types of data including genetic, epigenetic and neuroimaging data from a study of schizophrenia patients (SCZ). A network is a map of interactions, which contributes to investigating the connectivity of components or links between sub-units. We exploited the potential of using networks as features for discriminating SCZ from healthy controls...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265857/differences-in-5-ht2a-and-mglu2-receptor-expression-levels-and-repressive-epigenetic-modifications-at-the-5-ht2a-promoter-region-in-the-roman-low-rla-i-and-high-rha-i-avoidance-rat-strains
#13
Luna Fomsgaard, Jose L Moreno, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Tomasz Brudek, Dea Adamsen, Cristobal Rio-Alamos, Justin Saunders, Anders Bue Klein, Ignasi Oliveras, Toni Cañete, Gloria Blazquez, Adolf Tobeña, Albert Fernandez-Teruel, Javier Gonzalez-Maeso, Susana Aznar
The serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) and metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptors regulate each other and are associated with schizophrenia. The Roman high- (RHA-I) and the Roman low- (RLA-I) avoidance rat strains present well-differentiated behavioral profiles, with the RHA-I strain emerging as a putative genetic rat model of schizophrenia-related features. The RHA-I strain shows increased 5-HT2A and decreased mGlu2 receptor binding levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here, we looked for differences in gene expression and transcriptional regulation of these receptors...
March 6, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227225/integration-of-snps-fmri-methylation-data-with-sparse-multi-cca-for-schizophrenia-study
#14
Wenxing Hu, Dongdong Lin, Vince D Calhoun, Yu-Ping Wang, Wenxing Hu, Dongdong Lin, Vince D Calhoun, Yu-Ping Wang, Vince D Calhoun, Yu-Ping Wang, Wenxing Hu, Dongdong Lin
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex mental disorder associated with genetic variations, brain development and activities, and environmental factors. There is an increasing interest in combining genetic, epigenetic and neuroimaging datasets to explore different level of biomarkers for the correlation and interaction between these diverse factors. Sparse Multi-Canonical Correlation Analysis (sMCCA) is a powerful tool that can analyze the correlation of three or more datasets. In this paper, we propose the sMCCA model for imaging genomics study...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226777/predicting-schizophrenia-by-fusing-networks-from-snps-dna-methylation-and-fmri-data
#15
Su-Ping Deng, Dongdong Lin, Vince D Calhoun, Yu-Ping Wang, Su-Ping Deng, Dongdong Lin, Vince D Calhoun, Yu-Ping Wang, Vince D Calhoun, Su-Ping Deng, Yu-Ping Wang, Dongdong Lin
In order to comprehensively utilize complementary information from multiple types of data for better disease diagnosis, in this study, we applied a network fusion based approach to integrating three types of data including genetic, epigenetic and neuroimaging data from a study of schizophrenia patients (SCZ). A network is a map of interactions, which contributes to investigating the connectivity of components or links between sub-units. We exploited the potential of using networks as features for discriminating SCZ from healthy controls...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220356/overexpression-of-line-1-retrotransposons-in-autism-brain
#16
Svitlana Shpyleva, Stepan Melnyk, Oleksandra Pavliv, Igor Pogribny, S Jill James
Long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (LINE-1 or L1) are mobile DNA sequences that are capable of duplication and insertion (retrotransposition) within the genome. Recently, retrotransposition of L1 was shown to occur within human brain leading to somatic mosaicism in hippocampus and cerebellum. Because unregulated L1 activity can promote genomic instability and mutagenesis, multiple mechanisms including epigenetic chromatin condensation have evolved to effectively repress L1 expression. Nonetheless, L1 expression has been shown to be increased in patients with Rett syndrome and schizophrenia...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192769/disorganization-at-the-stage-of-schizophrenia-clinical-outcome-clinical-biological-study
#17
A Nestsiarovich, V Obyedkov, H Kandratsenka, M Siniauskaya, I Goloenko, N Waszkiewicz
BACKGROUND: According to the multidimensional model of schizophrenia, three basic psychopathological dimensions constitute its clinical structure: positive symptoms, negative symptoms and disorganization. The latter one is the newest and the least studied. Our aim was to discriminate disorganization in schizophrenia clinical picture and to identify its distinctive biological and socio-psychological particularities and associated genetic and environmental factors. METHODS: We used SAPS/SANS psychometrical scales, scales for the assessment of patient's compliance, insight, social functioning, life quality...
May 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152499/contributions-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-pufa-on-cerebral-neurobiology-an-integrated-omics-approach-with-epigenomic-focus
#18
Nabarun Chakraborty, Seid Muhie, Raina Kumar, Aarti Gautam, Seshamalini Srinivasan, Bintu Sowe, George Dimitrov, Stacy-Ann Miller, Marti Jett, Rasha Hammamieh
The epigenetic landscape is vulnerable to diets. Here, we investigated the influence of different polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) dietary supplements on rodents' nervous system development and functions and potential consequences to neurodegenerative disorders. Our previous nutrigenomics study showed significant impact of high n-3 PUFA-enriched diet (ERD) on synaptogenesis and various neuromodulators. The present study introduced a second equicaloric diet with n-6 PUFA balanced by n-3 PUFA (BLD). The typical lab diet with high n-6 PUFA was the baseline...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140401/advanced-paternal-age-effects-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders-review-of-potential-underlying-mechanisms
#19
REVIEW
M Janecka, J Mill, M A Basson, A Goriely, H Spiers, A Reichenberg, L Schalkwyk, C Fernandes
Multiple epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between advanced paternal age (APA) at conception and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in offspring, particularly with regard to increased risk for autism and schizophrenia. Conclusive evidence about how age-related changes in paternal gametes, or age-independent behavioral traits affect neural development is still lacking. Recent evidence suggests that the origins of APA effects are likely to be multidimensional, involving both inherited predisposition and de novo events...
January 31, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117656/epigenetic-profiling-of-human-brain-differential-dna-methylation-networks-in-schizophrenia
#20
Sheng-An Lee, Kuo-Chuan Huang
BACKGROUND: Epigenetics of schizophrenia provides important information on how the environmental factors affect the genetic architecture of the disease. DNA methylation plays a pivotal role in etiology for schizophrenia. Previous studies have focused mostly on the discovery of schizophrenia-associated SNPs or genetic variants. As postmortem brain samples became available, more and more recent studies surveyed transcriptomics of the diseases. In this study, we constructed protein-protein interaction (PPI) network using the disease associated SNP (or genetic variants), differentially expressed disease genes and differentially methylated disease genes (or promoters)...
December 5, 2016: BMC Medical Genomics
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