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Schizophrenia Imaging Genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678679/formal-thought-disorders-from-phenomenology-to-neurobiology
#1
REVIEW
Tilo Kircher, Henrike Bröhl, Felicitas Meier, Jennifer Engelen
Formal thought disorder (FTD) is present in most psychiatric disorders and in some healthy individuals. In this Review, we present a comprehensive, integrative, and multilevel account of what is known about FTD, covering genetic, cellular, and neurotransmitter effects, environmental influences, experimental psychology and neuropsychology, brain imaging, phenomenology, linguistics, and treatment. FTD is a dimensional, phenomenologically defined construct, which can be clinically subdivided into positive versus negative and objective versus subjective symptom clusters...
April 17, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626338/imaging-and-genetic-biomarkers-predicting-transition-to-psychosis
#2
Stuart A Hunter, Stephen M Lawrie
The search for diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in schizophrenia care and treatment is the focus of many within the research community. Longitudinal cohorts of patients presenting at elevated genetic and clinical risk have provided a wealth of data that has informed our understanding of the development of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders.Imaging follow-up of high-risk cohorts has demonstrated changes in cerebral grey matter of those that eventually transition to schizophrenia that predate the onset of symptoms and evolve over the course of illness...
April 7, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608775/structural-and-functional-neuroimaging-of-polygenic-risk-for-schizophrenia-a-recall-by-genotype-based-approach
#3
Thomas M Lancaster, Stavros L Dimitriadis, Katherine E Tansey, Gavin Perry, Niklas Ihssen, Derek K Jones, Krish D Singh, Peter Holmans, Andrew Pocklington, George Davey Smith, Stan Zammit, Jeremy Hall, Michael C O'Donovan, Michael J Owen, David E Linden
Risk profile scores (RPS) derived from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) explain a considerable amount of susceptibility for schizophrenia (SCZ). However, little is known about how common genetic risk factors for SCZ influence the structure and function of the human brain, largely due to the constraints of imaging sample sizes. In the current study, we use a novel recall-by-genotype (RbG) methodological approach, where we sample young adults from a population cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: N genotyped = 8365) based on their SCZ-RPS...
March 28, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545739/variability-in-resting-state-network-and-functional-network-connectivity-associated-with-schizophrenia-genetic-risk-a-pilot-study
#4
Jiayu Chen, Barnaly Rashid, Qingbao Yu, Jingyu Liu, Dongdong Lin, Yuhui Du, Jing Sui, Vince D Calhoun
Imaging genetics posits a valuable strategy for elucidating genetic influences on brain abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. However, association analysis between 2D genetic data (subject × genetic variable) and 3D first-level functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data (subject × voxel × time) has been challenging given the asymmetry in data dimension. A summary feature needs to be derived for the imaging modality to compute inter-modality association at subject level. In this work, we propose to use variability in resting state networks (RSNs) and functional network connectivity (FNC) as potential features for purpose of association analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527499/visual-processing-deficits-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#5
Marjan Biria, Miralena I Tomescu, Anna Custo, Lucia M Cantonas, Kun-Wei Song, Maude Schneider, Micah M Murray, Stephan Eliez, Christoph M Michel, Tonia A Rihs
Carriers of the rare 22q11.2 microdeletion present with a high percentage of positive and negative symptoms and a high genetic risk for schizophrenia. Visual processing impairments have been characterized in schizophrenia, but less so in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (DS). Here, we focus on visual processing using high-density EEG and source imaging in 22q11.2DS participants (N = 25) and healthy controls (N = 26) with an illusory contour discrimination task. Significant differences between groups emerged at early and late stages of visual processing...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527495/orbitofrontal-sulcogyral-morphology-is-a-transdiagnostic-indicator-of-brain-dysfunction
#6
Marisa A Patti, Vanessa Troiani
Atypical sulcogyral patterns in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are associated with increased risk for schizophrenia, as well as with quantitative traits associated with schizophrenia, such as anhedonia. Here we conduct a cross-diagnostic comparison to assess whether atypical OFC sulcogyral patterns confer risk for multiple brain disorders. We examined structural images from 4 groups of adult participants (N = 189), including those diagnosed with schizophrenia (SZ; N = 49), bipolar disorder (BP; N = 46), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 41), and controls (N = 53)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496125/reduced-functional-brain-activation-and-connectivity-during-a-working-memory-task-in-childhood-onset-schizophrenia
#7
Frances F Loeb, Xueping Zhou, Kirsten E S Craddock, Lorie Shora, Diane D Broadnax, Peter Gochman, Liv S Clasen, Francois M Lalonde, Rebecca A Berman, Karen F Berman, Judith L Rapoport, Siyuan Liu
OBJECTIVE: Working memory (WM) deficits are consistently reported in schizophrenia and are related to poor functional outcomes. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of adult-onset schizophrenia have reported decreased functional activations and connectivity in the WM network, but no prior functional magnetic resonance imaging study has examined WM in childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS). The aim of this study was to examine the neural correlates of WM in COS. METHOD: Adult patients with COS (n = 32, 21...
March 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485852/functionally-biased-d2r-antagonists-targeting-the-%C3%AE-arrestin-pathway-to-improve-antipsychotic-treatment
#8
Michel Weïwer, Qihong Xu, Jennifer P Gale, Michael Lewis, Arthur J Campbell, Frederick A Schroeder, Genevieve C Van de Bittner, Michelle Walk, Aldo Amaya, Ping Su, Luka D Ordevic, Joshua R Sacher, Adam Skepner, David Fei, Kelly Dennehy, Shannon Nguyen, Patrick W Faloon, Jose Perez, Jeffrey R Cottrell, Fang Liu, Michelle Palmer, Jen Q Pan, Jacob M Hooker, Yan-Ling Zhang, Edward Scolnick, Florence F Wagner, Edward B Holson
Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disease that lacks completely effective and safe therapies. As a polygenic disorder, genetic studies have only started to shed light on its complex etiology. To date, the positive symptoms of schizophrenia are well-managed by antipsychotic drugs, which primarily target the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R). However, these antipsychotics are often accompanied by severe side effects, including motoric symptoms. At D2R, antipsychotic drugs antagonize both G-protein dependent (Gαi/o ) signaling and G-protein independent (β-arrestin) signaling...
March 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474680/shared-genetic-risk-of-schizophrenia-and-gray-matter-reduction-in-6p22-1
#9
Jiayu Chen, Vince D Calhoun, Dongdong Lin, Nora I Perrone-Bizzozero, Juan R Bustillo, Godfrey D Pearlson, Steven G Potkin, Theo G M van Erp, Fabio Macciardi, Stefan Ehrlich, Beng-Choon Ho, Scott R Sponheim, Lei Wang, Julia M Stephen, Andrew R Mayer, Faith M Hanlon, Rex E Jung, Brett A Clementz, Matcheri S Keshavan, Elliot S Gershon, John A Sweeney, Carol A Tamminga, Ole A Andreassen, Ingrid Agartz, Lars T Westlye, Jing Sui, Yuhui Du, Jessica A Turner, Jingyu Liu
Genetic factors are known to influence both risk for schizophrenia (SZ) and variation in brain structure. A pressing question is whether the genetic underpinnings of brain phenotype and the disorder overlap. Using multivariate analytic methods and focusing on 1,402 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapped from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) 108 regions, in 777 discovery samples, we identified 39 SNPs to be significantly associated with SZ-discriminating gray matter volume (GMV) reduction in inferior parietal and superior temporal regions...
February 21, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449712/imaging-structural-and-functional-brain-development-in-early-childhood
#10
REVIEW
John H Gilmore, Rebecca C Knickmeyer, Wei Gao
In humans, the period from term birth to ∼2 years of age is characterized by rapid and dynamic brain development and plays an important role in cognitive development and risk of disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. Recent imaging studies have begun to delineate the growth trajectories of brain structure and function in the first years after birth and their relationship to cognition and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. This Review discusses the development of grey and white matter and structural and functional networks, as well as genetic and environmental influences on early-childhood brain development...
February 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398207/effective-connectivity-within-a-triple-network-brain-system-discriminates-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-from-psychotic-bipolar-disorder-at-the-single-subject-level
#11
Lena Palaniyappan, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Pradyumna Lanka, D Rangaprakash, Sarina Iwabuchi, Susan Francis, Peter F Liddle
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and psychotic bipolar disorder share a number of genetic and neurobiological features, despite a divergence in clinical course and outcome trajectories. We studied the diagnostic classification potential that can be achieved on the basis of the structure and connectivity within a triple network system (the default mode, salience and central executive network) in patients with SSD and psychotic bipolar disorder. METHODS: Directed static connectivity and its dynamic variance was estimated among 8 nodes of the three large-scale networks...
February 2, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385621/outgroup-emotion-processing-in-the-vacc-is-modulated-by-childhood-trauma-and-cacna1c-risk-variant
#12
Johannes T Krautheim, Benjamin Straube, Udo Dannlowski, Martin Pyka, Henriette Schneider-Hassloff, Rebecca Drexler, Axel Krug, Jens Sommer, Marcella Rietschel, Stephanie H Witt, Tilo Kircher
A high frequency of outgroup contact-as experienced by urban dwellers and migrants-possibly increases schizophrenia risk. This risk might be further amplified by genetic and environmental risk factors, such as the A-allele of rs1006737 within the calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 C gene and childhood interpersonal trauma (CIT). Both have been related to ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) functioning. We investigated vACC functioning, during ingroup and outgroup emotion perception in relation to rs1006737 and CIT...
March 1, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385549/the-circuitry-of-dopamine-system-regulation-and-its-disruption-in-schizophrenia-insights-into-treatment-and-prevention
#13
Anthony A Grace, Felipe V Gomes
Despite evidence for a role of the dopamine system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, there has not been substantial evidence that this disorder originates from a pathological change within the dopamine system itself. Current data from human imaging studies and preclinical investigations instead point to a disruption in afferent regulation of the dopamine system, with a focus on the hippocampus. We found that the hippocampus in the methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) rodent developmental disruption model of schizophrenia is hyperactive and dysrhythmic, possibly due to loss of parvalbumin interneurons, leading to a hyperresponsive dopamine system...
January 29, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364120/adaptive-sparse-multiple-canonical-correlation-analysis-with-application-to-imaging-epi-genomics-study-of-schizophrenia
#14
Wenxing Hu, Dongdong Lin, Shaolong Cao, Jingyu Liu, Jiayu Chen, Vince D Calhoun, Yu-Ping Wang
Finding correlations across multiple data sets in imaging and (epi)genomics is a common challenge. Sparse multiple canonical correlation analysis (SMCCA) is a multivariate model widely used to extract contributing features from each data while maximizing the cross-modality correlation. The model is achieved by using the combination of pairwise covariances between any two data sets. However, the scales of different pairwise covariances could be quite different and the direct combination of pairwise covariances in SMCCA is unfair...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353880/differential-effect-of-disease-associated-st8sia2-haplotype-on-cerebral-white-matter-diffusion-properties-in-schizophrenia-and-healthy-controls
#15
REVIEW
Janice M Fullerton, Paul Klauser, Rhoshel K Lenroot, Alex D Shaw, Bronwyn Overs, Anna Heath, Murray J Cairns, Joshua Atkins, Rodney Scott, Peter R Schofield, Cyndi Shannon Weickert, Christos Pantelis, Alex Fornito, Thomas J Whitford, Thomas W Weickert, Andrew Zalesky
Brain white matter abnormalities are evident in individuals with schizophrenia, and also their first-degree relatives, suggesting that some alterations may relate to underlying genetic risk. The ST8 alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminide alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 2 (ST8SIA2) gene, which encodes the alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 8B enzyme that aids neuronal migration and synaptic plasticity, was previously implicated as a schizophrenia susceptibility gene. This study examined the extent to which specific haplotypes in ST8SIA2 influence white matter microstructure using diffusion-weighted imaging of individuals with schizophrenia (n = 281) and healthy controls (n = 172), recruited across five Australian sites...
January 22, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324666/mapping-the-schizophrenia-genes-by-neuroimaging-the-opportunities-and-the-challenges
#16
REVIEW
Ayla Arslan
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a heritable brain disease originating from a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The genes underpinning the neurobiology of SZ are largely unknown but recent data suggest strong evidence for genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, making the brain vulnerable to the risk of SZ. Structural and functional brain mapping of these genetic variations are essential for the development of agents and tools for better diagnosis, treatment and prevention of SZ...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302076/candidate-cspg4-mutations-and-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-modeling-implicate-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cell-dysfunction-in-familial-schizophrenia
#17
Femke M de Vrij, Christian G Bouwkamp, Nilhan Gunhanlar, Guy Shpak, Bas Lendemeijer, Maarouf Baghdadi, Shreekara Gopalakrishna, Mehrnaz Ghazvini, Tracy M Li, Marialuisa Quadri, Simone Olgiati, Guido J Breedveld, Michiel Coesmans, Edwin Mientjes, Ton de Wit, Frans W Verheijen, H Berna Beverloo, Dan Cohen, Rob M Kok, P Roberto Bakker, Aviva Nijburg, Annet T Spijker, P M Judith Haffmans, Erik Hoencamp, Veerle Bergink, Jacob A Vorstman, Timothy Wu, Loes M Olde Loohuis, Najaf Amin, Carolyn D Langen, Albert Hofman, Witte J Hoogendijk, Cornelia M van Duijn, M Arfan Ikram, Meike W Vernooij, Henning Tiemeier, André G Uitterlinden, Ype Elgersma, Ben Distel, Joost Gribnau, Tonya White, Vincenzo Bonifati, Steven A Kushner
Schizophrenia is highly heritable, yet its underlying pathophysiology remains largely unknown. Among the most well-replicated findings in neurobiological studies of schizophrenia are deficits in myelination and white matter integrity; however, direct etiological genetic and cellular evidence has thus far been lacking. Here, we implement a family-based approach for genetic discovery in schizophrenia combined with functional analysis using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We observed familial segregation of two rare missense mutations in Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) (c...
January 4, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181875/integration-of-routine-qa-data-into-mega-analysis-may-improve-quality-and-sensitivity-of-multisite-diffusion-tensor-imaging-studies
#18
Peter Kochunov, Erin W Dickie, Joseph D Viviano, Jessica Turner, Peter B Kingsley, Neda Jahanshad, Paul M Thompson, Meghann C Ryan, Els Fieremans, Dmitry Novikov, Jelle Veraart, Elliot L Hong, Anil K Malhotra, Robert W Buchanan, Sofia Chavez, Aristotle N Voineskos
A novel mega-analytical approach that reduced methodological variance was evaluated using a multisite diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fractional anisotropy (FA) data by comparing white matter integrity in people with schizophrenia to controls. Methodological variance was reduced through regression of variance captured from quality assurance (QA) and by using Marchenko-Pastur Principal Component Analysis (MP-PCA) denoising. N = 192 (119 patients/73 controls) data sets were collected at three sites equipped with 3T MRI systems: GE MR750, GE HDx, and Siemens Trio...
February 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170485/aberrant-perfusion-and-its-connectivity-within-default-mode-network-of-first-episode-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-schizophrenia-patients-and-their-unaffected-first-degree-relatives
#19
Long-Biao Cui, Liu-Xian Wang, Ping Tian, Hua-Ning Wang, Min Cai, Fan Guo, Chen Li, Yu-Jing Wu, Peng-Gang Qiao, Zi-Liang Xu, Lin Liu, Hong He, Wen-Jun Wu, Yi-Bin Xi, Hong Yin
Neural substrates behind schizophrenia (SZ) and its heritability mediated by brain function are largely unknown. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), as a biomarker of activation in the brain, reflects the neuronal metabolism, and is promisingly used to detect cerebral alteration thereby shedding light on the features of individuals at high genetic risk. We performed a cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study enrolling 45 first-episode drug-naïve patients with SZ, 32 unaffected first-degree relatives of these patients, and 51 healthy controls (HCs)...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146193/detection-of-relationships-among-multi-modal-brain-imaging-meta-features-via-information-flow
#20
Robyn L Miller, Victor M Vergara, Vince D Calhoun
BACKGROUND: Neuroscientists and clinical researchers are awash in data from an ever-growing number of imaging and other bio-behavioral modalities. This flow of brain imaging data, taken under resting and various task conditions, combines with available cognitive measures, behavioral information, genetic data plus other potentially salient biomedical and environmental information to create a rich but diffuse data landscape. The conditions being studied with brain imaging data are often extremely complex and it is common for researchers to employ more than one imaging, behavioral or biological data modality (e...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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