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Schizophrenia Imaging Genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883405/modeling-a-linkage-between-blood-transcriptional-expression-and-activity-in-brain-regions-to-infer-the-phenotype-of-schizophrenia-patients
#1
El Chérif Ibrahim, Vincent Guillemot, Magali Comte, Arthur Tenenhaus, Xavier Yves Zendjidjian, Aida Cancel, Raoul Belzeaux, Florence Sauvanaud, Olivier Blin, Vincent Frouin, Eric Fakra
Hundreds of genetic loci participate to schizophrenia liability. It is also known that impaired cerebral connectivity is directly related to the cognitive and affective disturbances in schizophrenia. How genetic susceptibility and brain neural networks interact to specify a pathological phenotype in schizophrenia remains elusive. Imaging genetics, highlighting brain variations, has proven effective to establish links between vulnerability loci and associated clinical traits. As previous imaging genetics works in schizophrenia have essentially focused on structural DNA variants, these findings could be blurred by epigenetic mechanisms taking place during gene expression...
September 7, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880187/integrating-imaging-genomic-data-in-the-quest-for-biomarkers-for-schizophrenia-disease
#2
Su-Ping Deng, Wenxing Hu, Vince D Calhoun, Yu-Ping Wang
It's increasingly important but difficult to determine potential biomarkers of schizophrenia disease, owing to the complex pathophysiology of this disease. In this study, a network-fusion based framework was proposed to identify genetic biomarkers of complex diseases. Genomic, epigenomic and neuroimaging data were integrated by network fusion. A three-step feature selection was applied to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), DNA methylation and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to select Important features, which were then used to construct two gene networks in different states for the SNPs and DNA methylation data, respectively...
September 4, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869582/impaired-hippocampal-place-cell-dynamics-in-a-mouse-model-of-the-22q11-2-deletion
#3
Jeffrey D Zaremba, Anastasia Diamantopoulou, Nathan B Danielson, Andres D Grosmark, Patrick W Kaifosh, John C Bowler, Zhenrui Liao, Fraser T Sparks, Joseph A Gogos, Attila Losonczy
Hippocampal place cells represent the cellular substrate of episodic memory. Place cell ensembles reorganize to support learning but must also maintain stable representations to facilitate memory recall. Despite extensive research, the learning-related role of place cell dynamics in health and disease remains elusive. Using chronic two-photon Ca(2+) imaging in hippocampal area CA1 of wild-type and Df(16)A(+/-) mice, an animal model of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, one of the most common genetic risk factors for cognitive dysfunction and schizophrenia, we found that goal-oriented learning in wild-type mice was supported by stable spatial maps and robust remapping of place fields toward the goal location...
September 4, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826413/neuregulin-1-nrg1-polymorphisms-linked-with-psychosis-transition-are-associated-with-enlarged-lateral-ventricles-and-white-matter-disruption-in-schizophrenia
#4
C A Bousman, V Cropley, P Klauser, J L Hess, A Pereira, R Idrizi, J Bruggemann, M S Mostaid, R Lenroot, T W Weickert, S J Glatt, I P Everall, S Sundram, A Zalesky, C S Weickert, C Pantelis
BACKGROUND: Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs4281084 and rs12155594) within the neuregulin-1 (NRG1) gene have been associated with psychosis transition. However, the neurobiological changes associated with these SNPs remain unclear. We aimed to determine what relationship these two SNPs have on lateral ventricular volume and white matter integrity, as abnormalities in these brain structures are some of the most consistent in schizophrenia. METHODS: Structural (n = 370) and diffusion (n = 465) magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained from affected and unaffected individuals predominantly of European descent...
August 22, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812221/multimodal-neuroimaging-in-schizophrenia-description-and-dissemination
#5
C J Aine, H J Bockholt, J R Bustillo, J M Cañive, A Caprihan, C Gasparovic, F M Hanlon, J M Houck, R E Jung, J Lauriello, J Liu, A R Mayer, N I Perrone-Bizzozero, S Posse, J M Stephen, J A Turner, V P Clark, Vince D Calhoun
In this paper we describe an open-access collection of multimodal neuroimaging data in schizophrenia for release to the community. Data were acquired from approximately 100 patients with schizophrenia and 100 age-matched controls during rest as well as several task activation paradigms targeting a hierarchy of cognitive constructs. Neuroimaging data include structural MRI, functional MRI, diffusion MRI, MR spectroscopic imaging, and magnetoencephalography. For three of the hypothesis-driven projects, task activation paradigms were acquired on subsets of ~200 volunteers which examined a range of sensory and cognitive processes (e...
August 15, 2017: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734460/affected-anatomical-rich-club-and-structural-functional-coupling-in-young-offspring-of-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-patients
#6
Guusje Collin, Lianne H Scholtens, René S Kahn, Manon H J Hillegers, Martijn P van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests disruptions in the wiring organization of the brain's network in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). As the importance of genetic predisposition has been firmly established in these illnesses, children (offspring) of patients constitute an at-risk population. This study examines connectome organization in children at familial high risk for psychosis. METHODS: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were collected from 127 nonpsychotic offspring 8 to 18 years of age (average age = 13...
June 21, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730732/shared-atypical-default-mode-and-salience-network-functional-connectivity-between-autism-and-schizophrenia
#7
Heng Chen, Lucina Q Uddin, Xujun Duan, Junjie Zheng, Zhiliang Long, Youxue Zhang, Xiaonan Guo, Yan Zhang, Jingping Zhao, Huafu Chen
Schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are two prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders sharing some similar genetic basis and clinical features. The extent to which they share common neural substrates remains unclear. Resting-state fMRI data were collected from 35 drug-naïve adolescent participants with first-episode schizophrenia (15.6 ± 1.8 years old) and 31 healthy controls (15.4 ± 1.6 years old). Data from 22 participants with ASD (13.1 ± 3.1 years old) and 21 healthy controls (12...
July 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702349/distinct-multivariate-brain-morphological-patterns-and-their-added-predictive-value-with-cognitive-and-polygenic-risk-scores-in-mental-disorders
#8
Nhat Trung Doan, Tobias Kaufmann, Francesco Bettella, Kjetil Nordbø Jørgensen, Christine Lycke Brandt, Torgeir Moberget, Dag Alnæs, Gwenaëlle Douaud, Eugene Duff, Srdjan Djurovic, Ingrid Melle, Torill Ueland, Ingrid Agartz, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye
The brain underpinnings of schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are multidimensional, reflecting complex pathological processes and causal pathways, requiring multivariate techniques to disentangle. Furthermore, little is known about the complementary clinical value of brain structural phenotypes when combined with data on cognitive performance and genetic risk. Using data-driven fusion of cortical thickness, surface area, and gray matter density maps (GMD), we found six biologically meaningful patterns showing strong group effects, including four statistically independent multimodal patterns reflecting co-occurring alterations in thickness and GMD in patients, over and above two other independent patterns of widespread thickness and area reduction...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676298/joint-prediction-of-multiple-scores-captures-better-individual-traits-from-brain-images
#9
Mehdi Rahim, Bertrand Thirion, Danilo Bzdok, Irène Buvat, Gaël Varoquaux
To probe individual variations in brain organization, population imaging relates features of brain images to rich descriptions of the subjects such as genetic information or behavioral and clinical assessments. Capturing common trends across these measurements is important: they jointly characterize the disease status of patient groups. In particular, mapping imaging features to behavioral scores with predictive models opens the way toward more precise diagnosis. Here we propose to jointly predict all the dimensions (behavioral scores) that make up the individual profiles, using so-called multi-output models...
July 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659829/risk-conferring-glutamatergic-genes-and-brain-glutamate-plus-glutamine-in-schizophrenia
#10
Juan R Bustillo, Veena Patel, Thomas Jones, Rex Jung, Nattida Payaknait, Clifford Qualls, Jose M Canive, Jingyu Liu, Nora Irma Perrone-Bizzozero, Vince D Calhoun, Jessica A Turner, Charles Gasparovic
BACKGROUND: The proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) signals from glutamate (or the combined glutamate and glutamine signal-Glx) have been found to be greater in various brain regions in people with schizophrenia. Recently, the Psychiatric Genetics Consortium reported that several common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in glutamate-related genes confer increased risk of schizophrenia. Here, we examined the relationship between presence of these risk polymorphisms and brain Glx levels in schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654095/polygenic-risk-has-an-impact-on-the-structural-plasticity-of-hippocampal-subfields-during-aerobic-exercise-combined-with-cognitive-remediation-in-multi-episode-schizophrenia
#11
S Papiol, D Popovic, D Keeser, A Hasan, T Schneider-Axmann, F Degenhardt, M J Rossner, H Bickeböller, A Schmitt, P Falkai, B Malchow
Preliminary studies suggest that, besides improving cognition, aerobic exercise might increase hippocampal volume in schizophrenia patients; however, results are not consistent. Individual mechanisms of volume changes are unknown but might be connected to the load of risk genes. Genome-wide association studies have uncovered the polygenic architecture of schizophrenia. The secondary analysis presented here aimed to determine the modulatory role of schizophrenia polygenic risk scores (PRSs) on volume changes in the total hippocampus and cornu ammonis (CA) 1, CA2/3, CA4/dentate gyrus (DG) and subiculum over time...
June 27, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646350/abnormal-rich-club-organization-associated-with-compromised-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-their-unaffected-parents
#12
Xin Zhao, Lin Tian, Jun Yan, Weihua Yue, Hao Yan, Dai Zhang
Schizophrenia is considered to be a disorder of brain connectivity, which might result from a disproportionally impaired rich-club organization. The rich-club is composed of highly interconnected hub regions that play crucial roles in integrating information between different brain regions. Few studies have yet investigated whether the structural rich-club organization is impaired in patients and their first-degree relatives. In this study, we established a weighted network model of white matter connections using diffusion tensor imaging of 19 patients and 39 unaffected parents, 22 young healthy controls for the patients, and 25 old healthy controls for the parents...
August 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645536/imaging-genetics-of-schizophrenia-in-the-post-gwas-era
#13
REVIEW
Ayla Arslan
Imaging genetics is a research methodology studying the effect of genetic variation on brain structure, function, behavior, and risk for psychopathology. Since the early 2000s, imaging genetics has been increasingly used in the research of schizophrenia (SZ). SZ is a severe mental disorder with no precise knowledge of its underlying neurobiology, however, new genetic and neurobiological data generate a climate for new avenues. The accumulating data of genome wide association studies (GWAS) continuously decode SZ risk genes...
June 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634109/cannabis-associated-psychosis-neural-substrate-and-clinical-impact
#14
REVIEW
R M Murray, A Englund, A Abi-Dargham, D A Lewis, M Di Forti, C Davies, M Sherif, P McGuire, D C D'Souza
Prospective epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that cannabis use is associated with an increased subsequent risk of both psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia-like psychoses. Early onset of use, daily use of high-potency cannabis, and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. The risk-increasing effects are not explained by shared genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and cannabis use. Experimental studies in healthy humans show that cannabis and its active ingredient, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can produce transient, dose-dependent, psychotic symptoms, as well as an array of psychosis-relevant behavioral, cognitive and psychophysiological effects; the psychotogenic effects can be ameliorated by cannabidiol (CBD)...
June 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560261/brain-structure-function-and-neurochemistry-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review-of-the-magnetic-resonance-neuroimaging-literature
#15
Badari Birur, Nina Vanessa Kraguljac, Richard C Shelton, Adrienne Carol Lahti
Since Emil Kraepelin's conceptualization of endogenous psychoses as dementia praecox and manic depression, the separation between primary psychotic disorders and primary affective disorders has been much debated. We conducted a systematic review of case-control studies contrasting magnetic resonance imaging studies in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A literature search in PubMed of studies published between January 2005 and December 2016 was conducted, and 50 structural, 29 functional, 7 magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and 8 combined imaging and genetic studies were deemed eligible for systematic review...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507321/pet-imaging-of-dopamine-d2-receptor-internalization-in-schizophrenia
#16
J J Weinstein, E van de Giessen, R J Rosengard, X Xu, N Ojeil, G Brucato, R B Gil, L S Kegeles, M Laruelle, M Slifstein, A Abi-Dargham
Recent genetic, molecular and post-mortem studies suggest impaired dopamine (DA)-D2 receptor (D2R) trafficking in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). Imaging and preclinical studies have shown agonist-induced D2R internalization can be imaged with positron emission tomography (PET) using D2R radiotracers combined with psychostimulant challenge. This is feasible if radiotracer binding is measured when postchallenge DA levels have returned to baseline, following the initial competition phase between DA and radiotracer for binding to D2R...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416205/the-link-between-schizophrenia-and-substance-use-disorder-a-unifying-hypothesis
#17
REVIEW
Jibran Y Khokhar, Lucas L Dwiel, Angela M Henricks, Wilder T Doucette, Alan I Green
Substance use disorders occur commonly in patients with schizophrenia and dramatically worsen their overall clinical course. While the exact mechanisms contributing to substance use in schizophrenia are not known, a number of theories have been put forward to explain the basis of the co-occurrence of these disorders. We propose here a unifying hypothesis that combines recent evidence from epidemiological and genetic association studies with brain imaging and pre-clinical studies to provide an updated formulation regarding the basis of substance use in patients with schizophrenia...
April 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401151/white-matter-integrity-in-genetic-high-risk-individuals-and-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients-similarities-and-disassociations
#18
Yifang Zhou, Jie Liu, Naomi Driesen, Fay Womer, Kaiyuan Chen, Ye Wang, Xiaowei Jiang, Qian Zhou, Chuan Bai, Dahai Wang, Yanqing Tang, Fei Wang
White matter (WM) neuroimaging studies have shown varied findings at different stages of schizophrenia (SZ). Understanding these variations may elucidate distinct markers of genetic vulnerability and conversion to psychosis. To examine the similarities and differences in WM connectivity between those at-risk for and in early stages of SZ, a cross-sectional diffusion tensor imaging study of 48 individuals diagnosed with first-episode SZ (FE-SZ), 37 nonpsychotic individuals at a high genetic risk of SZ (GHR-SZ), and 67 healthy controls (HC) was conducted...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384469/altered-cortical-ensembles-in-mouse-models-of-schizophrenia
#19
Jordan P Hamm, Darcy S Peterka, Joseph A Gogos, Rafael Yuste
In schizophrenia, brain-wide alterations have been identified at the molecular and cellular levels, yet how these phenomena affect cortical circuit activity remains unclear. We studied two mouse models of schizophrenia-relevant disease processes: chronic ketamine (KET) administration and Df(16)A(+/-), modeling 22q11.2 microdeletions, a genetic variant highly penetrant for schizophrenia. Local field potential recordings in visual cortex confirmed gamma-band abnormalities similar to patient studies. Two-photon calcium imaging of local cortical populations revealed in both models a deficit in the reliability of neuronal coactivity patterns (ensembles), which was not a simple consequence of altered single-neuron activity...
April 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369257/neuroimaging-and-clinical-features-in-adults-with-a-22q11-2-deletion-at-risk-of-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Nancy J Butcher, Connie Marras, Margarita Pondal, Pablo Rusjan, Erik Boot, Leigh Christopher, Gabriela M Repetto, Rosemarie Fritsch, Eva W C Chow, Mario Masellis, Antonio P Strafella, Anthony E Lang, Anne S Bassett
The recurrent 22q11.2 deletion is a genetic risk factor for early-onset Parkinson's disease. Adults with the associated 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) may exhibit phenotypes that could help identify those at highest risk and reveal disease trajectories. We investigated clinical and neuroimaging features relevant to Parkinson's disease in 26 adults: 13 with 22q11.2DS at genetic risk of Parkinson's disease (mean age = 41.5 years, standard deviation = 9.7), 12 healthy age and sex-matched controls, and a 22q11...
March 24, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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