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entorhinal stellate cells

Christoph Hönigsperger, Maximiliano J Nigro, Johan F Storm
The medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) is strongly involved in spatial navigation, memory, dementia and epilepsy. Although potassium channels shape neuronal activity, their roles in mEC are largely unknown. We used the new Kv2 blocker Guangxitoxin-1E (GTx, 10-100 nm) in rat brain slices to investigate Kv2 channel functions in mEC layer II stellate cells (SCs). These neurons project to the hippocampus and are thought to be grid cells representing space. Voltage clamp recordings from SCs nucleated patches showed that GTx inhibited a delayed rectifier K(+) current activating beyond -30 mV, but not transient, A-type current...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Christian Laut Ebbesen, Eric Torsten Reifenstein, Qiusong Tang, Andrea Burgalossi, Saikat Ray, Susanne Schreiber, Richard Kempter, Michael Brecht
The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) and the adjacent parasubiculum are known for their elaborate spatial discharges (grid cells, border cells, etc.) and the precessing of spikes relative to the local field potential. We know little, however, about how spatio-temporal firing patterns map onto cell types. We find that cell type is a major determinant of spatio-temporal discharge properties. Parasubicular neurons and MEC layer 2 (L2) pyramids have shorter spikes, discharge spikes in bursts, and are theta-modulated (rhythmic, locking, skipping), but spikes phase-precess only weakly...
July 26, 2016: Cell Reports
Michele Ferrante, Babak Tahvildari, Alvaro Duque, Muhamed Hadzipasic, David Salkoff, Edward William Zagha, Michael E Hasselmo, David A McCormick
Inhibitory interneurons are an important source of synaptic inputs that may contribute to network mechanisms for coding of spatial location by entorhinal cortex (EC). The intrinsic properties of inhibitory interneurons in the EC of the mouse are mostly undescribed. Intrinsic properties were recorded from known cell types, such as, stellate and pyramidal cells and 6 classes of molecularly identified interneurons (regulator of calcineurin 2, somatostatin, serotonin receptor 3a, neuropeptide Y neurogliaform (NGF), neuropeptide Y non-NGF, and vasoactive intestinal protein) in acute brain slices...
June 6, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
James G Heys, Christopher F Shay, Katrina M MacLeod, Menno P Witter, Cynthia F Moss, Michael E Hasselmo
UNLABELLED: Medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) grid cells exhibit firing fields spread across the environment on the vertices of a regular tessellating triangular grid. In rodents, the size of the firing fields and the spacing between the firing fields are topographically organized such that grid cells located more ventrally in MEC exhibit larger grid fields and larger grid-field spacing compared with grid cells located more dorsally. Previous experiments in brain slices from rodents have shown that several intrinsic cellular electrophysiological properties of stellate cells in layer II of MEC change systematically in neurons positioned along the dorsal-ventral axis of MEC, suggesting that these intrinsic cellular properties might control grid-field spacing...
April 20, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Saikat Ray, Michael Brecht
We investigated the structural development of superficial-layers of medial entorhinal cortex and parasubiculum in rats. The grid-layout and cholinergic-innervation of calbindin-positive pyramidal-cells in layer-2 emerged around birth while reelin-positive stellate-cells were scattered throughout development. Layer-3 and parasubiculum neurons had a transient calbindin-expression, which declined with age. Early postnatally, layer-2 pyramidal but not stellate-cells co-localized with doublecortin - a marker of immature neurons - suggesting delayed functional-maturation of pyramidal-cells...
2016: ELife
Xiaojun Li, Ke Pan, Dan Zhu, Yuping Li, Guocai Tao
The entorhinal cortex (EC) provides a majority of the excitatory inputs to the hippocampus and is part of the neural circuitry that is involved in memory formation. Although many studies have investigated the effects of propofol in the hippocampus, the function of propofol in the EC remains unclear. Here, using whole-cell patch clamp recordings, we found that propofol induced a postsynaptic outward current and dramatically suppressed the firing rates in the entorhinal stellate neurons, the axons of which form the perforant pathway and relay the main inputs to hippocampus...
April 21, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Michele Ferrante, Christopher F Shay, Yusuke Tsuno, G William Chapman, Michael E Hasselmo
Medial entorhinal cortex Layer-II stellate cells (mEC-LII-SCs) primarily interact via inhibitory interneurons. This suggests the presence of alternative mechanisms other than excitatory synaptic inputs for triggering action potentials (APs) in stellate cells during spatial navigation. Our intracellular recordings show that the hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) allows post-inhibitory-rebound spikes (PIRS) in mEC-LII-SCs. In vivo, strong inhibitory-post-synaptic potentials immediately preceded most APs shortening their delay and enhancing excitability...
March 10, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Eric T Reifenstein, Christian L Ebbesen, Qiusong Tang, Michael Brecht, Susanne Schreiber, Richard Kempter
UNLABELLED: The identity of phase-precessing cells in the entorhinal cortex is unknown. Here, we used a classifier derived from cell-attached recordings to separate putative pyramidal cells and putative stellate cells recorded extracellularly in layer II of the medial entorhinal cortex in rats. Using a novel method to identify single runs as temporal periods of elevated spiking activity, we find that both cell types show phase precession but putative stellate cells show steeper slopes of phase precession and larger phase ranges...
February 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Gülşen Sürmeli, Daniel Cosmin Marcu, Christina McClure, Derek L F Garden, Hugh Pastoll, Matthew F Nolan
Deep layers of the medial entorhinal cortex are considered to relay signals from the hippocampus to other brain structures, but pathways for routing of signals to and from the deep layers are not well established. Delineating these pathways is important for a circuit level understanding of spatial cognition and memory. We find that neurons in layers 5a and 5b have distinct molecular identities, defined by the transcription factors Etv1 and Ctip2, and divergent targets, with extensive intratelencephalic projections originating in layer 5a, but not 5b...
December 2, 2015: Neuron
Christopher F Shay, Michele Ferrante, G William Chapman, Michael E Hasselmo
Rebound spiking properties of medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) stellate cells induced by inhibition may underlie their functional properties in awake behaving rats, including the temporal phase separation of distinct grid cells and differences in grid cell firing properties. We investigated rebound spiking properties using whole cell patch recording in entorhinal slices, holding cells near spiking threshold and delivering sinusoidal inputs, superimposed with realistic inhibitory synaptic inputs to test the capacity of cells to selectively respond to specific phases of inhibitory input...
March 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Saad Abbasi, Sanjay S Kumar
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of epilepsy in adults and is often refractory to antiepileptic medications. The medial entorhinal area (MEA) is affected in TLE but mechanisms underlying hyperexcitability of MEA neurons require further elucidation. Previous studies suggest that inputs from the presubiculum (PrS) contribute to MEA pathophysiology. We assessed electrophysiologically how PrS influences MEA excitability using the rat pilocarpine model of TLE. PrS-MEA connectivity was confirmed by electrically stimulating PrS afferents while recording from neurons within superficial layers of MEA...
November 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
Camilla Alessi, Alessandra Raspanti, Jacopo Magistretti
Two types of principal neurons, stellate cells and pyramidal-like cells, are found in medial entorhinal-cortex (mEC) layer II, and are believed to represent two distinct channels of information processing and transmission in the entorhinal cortex-hippocampus network. In this study, we found that depolarizing afterpotentials (DAPs) that follow single action potentials (APs) evoked from various levels of holding membrane voltage (Vh ) show distinct properties in the two cells types. In both, an evident DAP followed the AP at near-threshold Vh levels, and was accompanied by an enhancement of excitability and spike-timing precision...
March 2016: Hippocampus
Robert K Naumann, Saikat Ray, Stefan Prokop, Liora Las, Frank L Heppner, Michael Brecht
To understand the structural basis of grid cell activity, we compare medial entorhinal cortex architecture in layer 2 across five mammalian species (Etruscan shrews, mice, rats, Egyptian fruit bats, and humans), bridging ∼100 million years of evolutionary diversity. Principal neurons in layer 2 are divided into two distinct cell types, pyramidal and stellate, based on morphology, immunoreactivity, and functional properties. We confirm the existence of patches of calbindin-positive pyramidal cells across these species, arranged periodically according to analyses techniques like spatial autocorrelation, grid scores, and modifiable areal unit analysis...
March 1, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Chen Sun, Takashi Kitamura, Jun Yamamoto, Jared Martin, Michele Pignatelli, Lacey J Kitch, Mark J Schnitzer, Susumu Tonegawa
Entorhinal-hippocampal circuits in the mammalian brain are crucial for an animal's spatial and episodic experience, but the neural basis for different spatial computations remain unknown. Medial entorhinal cortex layer II contains pyramidal island and stellate ocean cells. Here, we performed cell type-specific Ca(2+) imaging in freely exploring mice using cellular markers and a miniature head-mounted fluorescence microscope. We found that both oceans and islands contain grid cells in similar proportions, but island cell activity, including activity in a proportion of grid cells, is significantly more speed modulated than ocean cell activity...
July 28, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Fernando R Fernandez, Paola Malerba, John A White
The presence of voltage fluctuations arising from synaptic activity is a critical component in models of gain control, neuronal output gating, and spike rate coding. The degree to which individual neuronal input-output functions are modulated by voltage fluctuations, however, is not well established across different cortical areas. Additionally, the extent and mechanisms of input-output modulation through fluctuations have been explored largely in simplified models of spike generation, and with limited consideration for the role of non-linear and voltage-dependent membrane properties...
April 2015: PLoS Computational Biology
Michael T Craig, Chris J McBain
The discovery of the brain's navigation system creates a compelling challenge for neurophysiologists: how do we map the circuitry of a system that can only be definitively identified in awake, behaving animals? Do grid and border cells in the entorhinal cortex correspond to the two classes of principal cell found there, stellate and pyramidal cells? In the hippocampus, does the diversity seen in pyramidal cell subtypes have functional correlates in the place cell system? How do interneurons regulate the activity of spatially tuned principal cells in the hippocampal and entorhinal circuits? Here, we discuss recent literature relating the cellular circuitry of these circuits to in vivo studies of the brain's navigation system, and the role that interneurons have in regulating the activity of principal cells in these circuits...
June 2015: Hippocampus
Horacio G Rotstein
We investigate the biophysical and dynamic mechanisms of generation of subthreshold amplitude and phase resonance in response to sinusoidal input currents in two-dimensional models of quadratic type. These models feature a parabolic voltage nullcline and a linear nullcline for the recovery gating variable, capturing the interplay of the so-called resonant currents (e.g., hyperpolarization-activated mixed-cation inward and slow potassium) and amplifying currents (e.g., persistent sodium) in biophysically realistic parameter regimes...
April 2015: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
Alfredo Gonzalez-Sulser, Daniel Parthier, Antonio Candela, Christina McClure, Hugh Pastoll, Derek Garden, Gülşen Sürmeli, Matthew F Nolan
The medial septum (MS) is required for theta rhythmic oscillations and grid cell firing in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). While GABAergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic neurons project from the MS to the MEC, their synaptic targets are unknown. To investigate whether MS neurons innervate specific layers and cell types in the MEC, we expressed channelrhodopsin-2 in mouse MS neurons and used patch-clamp recording in brain slices to determine the response to light activation of identified cells in the MEC...
December 10, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Qiusong Tang, Andrea Burgalossi, Christian Laut Ebbesen, Saikat Ray, Robert Naumann, Helene Schmidt, Dominik Spicher, Michael Brecht
In medial entorhinal cortex, layer 2 principal cells divide into pyramidal neurons (mostly calbindin positive) and dentate gyrus-projecting stellate cells (mostly calbindin negative). We juxtacellularly labeled layer 2 neurons in freely moving animals, but small sample size prevented establishing unequivocal structure-function relationships. We show, however, that spike locking to theta oscillations allows assigning unidentified extracellular recordings to pyramidal and stellate cells with ∼83% and ∼89% specificity, respectively...
December 17, 2014: Neuron
Michael E Hasselmo, Christopher F Shay
This article presents a model using cellular resonance and rebound properties to model grid cells in medial entorhinal cortex. The model simulates the intrinsic resonance properties of single layer II stellate cells with different frequencies due to the hyperpolarization activated cation current (h current). The stellate cells generate rebound spikes after a delay interval that differs for neurons with different resonance frequency. Stellate cells drive inhibitory interneurons to cause rebound from inhibition in an alternate set of stellate cells that drive interneurons to activate the first set of cells...
2014: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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