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phase response curve

Alessandra Battaglia, Marco Fossati, Alexia Buzzonetti, Giovanni Scambia, Andrea Fattorossi
INTRODUCTION: Despite encouraging phase I and II study results, vaccination of ovarian cancer patients with abagovomab - an anti-idiotypic mAb that mimics the ovarian cancer CA125 protein - failed to demonstrate efficacy in the phase III trial named MIMOSA (NCT00418574). We postulated that in this trial patients with a more robust immune system did respond to abagovomab but went undetected among a larger number of non-responders. We also postulated that assessment of the immune system status ahead of abagovomab administration might predict patients' propensity to respond to abagovomab...
September 14, 2017: Immunology Letters
Rebecca S Hofford, Jonathan J Chow, Joshua S Beckmann, Michael T Bardo
BACKGROUND: Opioid abuse is a major problem around the world. Identifying environmental factors that contribute to opioid abuse and addiction is necessary for decreasing this epidemic. In rodents, environmental enrichment protects against the development of low dose stimulant self-administration, but studies examining the effect of enrichment and isolation (compared to standard housing) on the development of intravenous opioid self-administration have not been conducted. The present study investigated the role of environmental enrichment on self-administration of the short-acting μ-opioid remifentanil...
September 15, 2017: Psychopharmacology
Kaoru Kubota, Hiroshige Yoshioka, Fumihiro Oshita, Toyoaki Hida, Kiyotaka Yoh, Hidetoshi Hayashi, Terufumi Kato, Hiroyasu Kaneda, Kazuhiko Yamada, Hiroshi Tanaka, Yukito Ichinose, Keunchil Park, Eun Kyung Cho, Kyung-Hee Lee, Chih-Bin Lin, James Chih-Hsin Yang, Kaori Hara, Takayuki Asato, Kazuhiko Nakagawa
Purpose This phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study determined whether motesanib improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared with placebo in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin (P/C) in East Asian patients with stage IV/recurrent nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. Patients and Methods Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive oral motesanib 125 mg or placebo once daily plus paclitaxel 200 mg/m(2) IV and carboplatin area under the concentration-time curve 6 mg/mL ⋅ min IV for up to six 3-week cycles...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Sarah E Berry, Joshua Gilchrist, David J Merritt
Glowworms, members of the keroplatid fly genus, Arachnocampa, glow to attract prey. Here we describe substantial differences in the bioluminescence regulatory systems of two species; one is a troglophile with populations both in caves and outside of caves in wet forest (Arachnocampa tasmaniensis) and the other has no known cave populations (Arachnocampa flava). We find that A. tasmaniensis is ready to initiate bioluminescence at any time darkness is encountered. In contrast, A. flava shows a homeostatic control of bioluminescence; it is unlikely to initiate bioluminescence when exposed to dark pulses during the photophase and it does so with a long latency...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Deirdre A Katz, Melissa K Peckins
Intraindividual variability in stress responsivity and the interrelationship of multiple neuroendocrine systems make a multisystem analytic approach to examining the human stress response challenging. The present study makes use of an efficient social-evaluative stress paradigm - the Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) - to examine the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA)-axis and Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) reactivity profiles of 54 adolescents with salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA)...
August 23, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Izabella Surowiec, Sandra Gouveia-Figueira, Judy Orikiiriza, Elisabeth Lindquist, Mari Bonde, Jimmy Magambo, Charles Muhinda, Sven Bergström, Johan Normark, Johan Trygg
BACKGROUND: Oxylipins and endocannabinoids are low molecular weight bioactive lipids that are crucial for initiation and resolution of inflammation during microbial infections. Metabolic complications in malaria are recognized contributors to severe and fatal malaria, but the impact of malaria infection on the production of small lipid derived signalling molecules is unknown. Knowledge of immunoregulatory patterns of these molecules in malaria is of great value for better understanding of the disease and improvement of treatment regimes, since the action of these classes of molecules is directly connected to the inflammatory response of the organism...
September 8, 2017: Malaria Journal
Florian Rückerl, Martin Lenz, Timo Betz, John Manzi, Jean-Louis Martiel, Mahassine Safouane, Rajaa Paterski-Boujemaa, Laurent Blanchoin, Cécile Sykes
Actin is one of the main components of the architecture of cells. Actin filaments form different polymer networks with versatile mechanical properties that depend on their spatial organization and the presence of cross-linkers. Here, we investigate the mechanical properties of actin bundles in the absence of cross-linkers. Bundles are polymerized from the surface of mDia1-coated latex beads, and deformed by manipulating both ends through attached beads held by optical tweezers, allowing us to record the applied force...
September 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Marion Kellermann, Christoph Lutter, Thilo Hotfiel
CONTEXT: Hamstring injuries are frequently observed in various sports disciplines both in elite and recreational sport. OBJECTIVE: To quantify intramuscular tissue perfusion via contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the acute phase and during the healing of a structural muscle injury confirmed by a high-resolution MRI. DESIGN: Case study. SETTING: Laboratory environment. PATIENT: 32-year-old wakeboarder (height 176 cm, body weight 76 kg, BMI 24...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Meiqi Shi, Jing Sun, Jinsong Zhou, Hao Yu, Shaorong Yu, Guohao Xia, Li Wang, Yue Teng, Gangyi Liu, Chen Yu, Yaling Shen, Jifeng Feng
Background Polymeric micellar paclitaxel (PM-paclitaxel) is a novel Cremophor EL-free, nanoparticle-encapsulated paclitaxel formulation administered through intravenous injection. The primary objective of this phase I trial was to determine the first cycle dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of PM-paclitaxel. Secondary objectives included the evaluation of the safety, antitumor activity, and pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of PM-paclitaxel in patients with advanced malignancies. Methods The PM-paclitaxel dose was escalated from 175 mg/m(2) (level 1) to 435 mg/m(2) (level 5)...
September 4, 2017: Investigational New Drugs
Wendy Soria Sotillo, Rodrigo Villagomez, Sandra Smiljanic, Xiaoli Huang, Atena Malakpour, Sebastian Kempengren, Gloria Rodrigo, Giovanna Almanza, Olov Sterner, Stina Oredsson
New regimens are constantly being pursued in cancer treatment, especially in the context of treatment-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are assumed to be involved in cancer recurrence. Here, we investigated the anti-cancer activity of sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) isolated from Ambrosia arborescens and of synthetic derivatives in breast cancer cell lines, with a specific focus on activity against CSCs. The breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, JIMT-1, and HCC1937 and the normal-like breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A were treated with the SLs damsin and coronopilin, isolated from A...
2017: PloS One
Yong-Fa Chen, Wu-Bin Tang, Xin-Xi Pan, Chu-Rong Wu, Yang Cao, Wen Yang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate efficacy and safety of nimotuzumab combined with chemotherapy and radiotherapy in women with locally advanced cervical cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women with locally advanced cervical cancer (stage IIB, III, or IVA) who experienced relapse after first-line chemoradiotherapy and one or more lines of palliative chemotherapy were enrolled. All patients received nimotuzumab weekly at 200 mg/m(2) as single agent for 4 weeks (induction phase), then concurrent with 6 cycles (21-day per cycle) of gemcitabine (800 mg/m(2)) or cisplatin (50 mg/m(2)) for 18 weeks (concurrent phase) and then once every 2 weeks (maintenance phase)...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
Sun Jiapeng, Li Cheng, Jing Han, Aibin Ma, Liang Fang
Silicon has such versatile characteristics that the mechanical behavior and deformation mechanism under contact load are still unclear and hence are interesting and challenging issues. Based on combined study using molecular dynamics simulations and experiments of nanoindentation on Si(100), the versatile deformation modes, including high pressure phase transformation (HPPT), dislocation, median crack and surface crack, were found, and occurrence of multiple pop-in events in the load-indentation strain curves was reported...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Cynthia Richards, Dan V Iosifescu, Rajnish Mago, Elias Sarkis, James Reynolds, Brooke Geibel, Matthew Dauphin
BACKGROUND: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated dose-response relationships of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate when used as augmentation for major depressive disorder in individuals exhibiting inadequate responses to antidepressant monotherapy. METHODS: Eligible adults (18-65 years) were assigned to antidepressant monotherapy (escitalopram or venlafaxine extended-release) plus lisdexamfetamine dimesylate-matching placebo during an eight-week single-blind lead-in phase...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Tanaya Chatterjee, Barun K Chatterjee, Pinak Chakrabarti
Emergence of multiple drug resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria calls for new initiatives to combat infectious diseases. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), because of their non-toxic nature and size/shape dependent optical properties, offer interesting possibility. Here we report the antibacterial efficacy of AuNPs of different size and shape (AuNS10, AuNS100 and AuNR10; the number indicating the diameter in nm; S stands for sphere and R for rod) against the classical (O395) and El Tor (N16961) biotypes of Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent responsible for cholera...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Andrea Mombelli, Adnan Almaghlouth, Norbert Cionca, José Cancela, Delphine S Courvoisier, Catherine Giannopoulou
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the microbiological effects of a 2-phase antimicrobial periodontal therapy and tested microbiological, clinical, and biological markers as prognostic indicators for clinical success. METHODS: Eighty patients with chronic or aggressive periodontitis received periodontal treatment supplemented with 375 mg amoxicillin plus 500 mg metronidazole, 3/d for 7 days. In group A the antibiotics were given during the first, non-surgical (T1), in group B during the second, surgical, phase (T2)...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
Naoto Morikawa, Akira Inoue, Shunichi Sugawara, Makoto Maemondo, Toshiyuki Harada, Masao Harada, Yuka Fujita, Terufumi Katoh, Hiroshi Yokouchi, Hiroshi Watanabe, Kazuhiro Usui, Toshiro Suzuki, Jun Sakakibara-Konishi, Hiroki Nagai, Mariko Kanbe, Toshihiro Nukiwa
OBJECTIVE: Carboplatin-based regimens are the standard regimens for patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC). However, the efficacies of these regimens are unsatisfactory. We previously identified carboplatin plus irinotecan (CI) and carboplatin plus amrubicin (CA) as promising new carboplatin-based regimens. Accordingly, we conducted a randomized phase II study to identify the appropriate regimen for future phase III trials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chemotherapy-naïve patients with ES-SCLC were randomly assigned to receive 4-6 cycles of carboplatin [area under the curve (AUC) 5...
September 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Shin Nishio, Munetaka Takekuma, Satoshi Takeuchi, Kouichirou Kawano, Naotake Tsuda, Kazuto Tasaki, Nobutaka Takahashi, Masakazu Abe, Aki Tanaka, Takayuki Nagasawa, Tadahiro Shoji, Hao Xiong, Silpa Nuthalapati, Terri Leahy, Hideyuki Hashiba, Tsukasa Kiriyama, Philip Komarnitsky, Yasuyuki Hirashima, Kimio Ushijima
This phase 1, open-label, dose-escalation study was conducted to determine the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary efficacy of veliparib with carboplatin and weekly paclitaxel in Japanese women with newly diagnosed, advanced ovarian cancer. Patients received veliparib at 100 or 150 mg twice daily on days 1-21 with carboplatin (area under the concentration-time curve 6 mg/mL•min) on day 1 and paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 every 3 weeks for up to 6 21-day cycles. Dose escalation followed a 3+3 design to determine dose-limiting toxicities, maximum tolerated dose, and the recommended phase 2 dose...
August 24, 2017: Cancer Science
Mana Hasegawa, Masayuki Kurose, Keiichiro Okamoto, Yoshiaki Yamada, Takanori Tsujimura, Makoto Inoue, Taisuke Sato, Takatsune Narumi, Noritaka Fujii, Kensuke Yamamura
The aim of this study was to determine if bolus and dry swallow showed similar pressure changes in the oropharynx using our newly developed device. A unique character of it includes that baropressure can be measured with the sensor being placed in the balloon and can assess the swallowing mechanics in terms of pressure changes in the oropharynx with less influences of direct contacts of boluses and oropharyngeal structures during swallow indirectly. Fifteen healthy subjects swallowed saliva (dry), 15 ml of water, 45 ml of water, and 15 ml of two different types of food in terms of viscosity (potage soup-type and mayonnaise-type foods)...
August 23, 2017: Dysphagia
Mansour Babaei, Sajedeh Shafiei, Ali Bijani, Behzad Heidari, Seyed Reza Hosseyni, Mohsen Vakili Sadeghi
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency anemia in older subjects improves their quality of life. Serum ferritin as a marker of iron stores is an acute phase protein. In older subjects who usually have many concomitant chronic medical conditions, serum ferritin may increase in response to inflammatory processes irrespective of iron stores. This study was performed to determine the diagnostic properties of serum ferritin in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia in older subjects...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia
Seung Won Oh, Hyo Soon Lim, Sung Min Moon, Jin Woong Kim, Sang Soo Shin, Suk Hee Heo, Ji Shin Lee, Min Ho Park
OBJECTIVES: To describe the MR imaging characteristics of breast cancer diagnosed during lactation and evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging. METHODS: The MR images of 9 patients (age range, 29-37 years) with pathologically confirmed breast carcinoma during lactation were evaluated retrospectively. Background parenchymal enhancement of the lactating mammary tissue was determined. The images were reviewed for evaluation of lesion detection, enhancement type (mass/non-mass), shape, margin, contrast enhancement, and time-intensity curve pattern in the dynamic study...
August 22, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
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