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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817755/measuring-toxic-effects-and-time-to-treatment-failure-for-nivolumab-plus-ipilimumab-in-melanoma
#1
Alexander N Shoushtari, Claire F Friedman, Pedram Navid-Azarbaijani, Michael A Postow, Margaret K Callahan, Parisa Momtaz, Katherine S Panageas, Jedd D Wolchok, Paul B Chapman
Importance: Nivolumab plus ipilimumab (nivo + ipi) is a standard treatment of advanced melanoma. Two randomized trials describe high objective response rates by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. The trials assessed toxic effects using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), which may underestimate incidence of clinically significant immune-related adverse events (AEs). Objective: To describe detailed toxic effects and time to treatment failure of patients with melanoma treated with nivo + ipi in a prospective cohort...
August 17, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817693/clinical-signs-profound-acidemia-hypoglycemia-and-hypernatremia-are-predictive-of-mortality-in-1-400-critically-ill-neonatal-calves-with-diarrhea
#2
Florian M Trefz, Ingrid Lorenz, Annette Lorch, Peter D Constable
Profound acidemia impairs cellular and organ function and consequently should be associated with an increased risk of mortality in critically ill humans and animals. Neonatal diarrhea in calves can result in potentially serious metabolic derangements including profound acidemia due to strong ion (metabolic) acidosis, hyper-D-lactatemia, hyper-L-lactatemia, azotemia, hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia and hyponatremia. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the prognostic relevance of clinical and laboratory findings in 1,400 critically ill neonatal calves with diarrhea admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817687/morphologic-phenotypic-and-transcriptomic-characterization-of-classically-and-alternatively-activated-canine-blood-derived-macrophages-in-vitro
#3
Franziska Heinrich, Annika Lehmbecker, Barbara B Raddatz, Kristel Kegler, Andrea Tipold, Veronika M Stein, Arno Kalkuhl, Ulrich Deschl, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Reiner Ulrich, Ingo Spitzbarth
Macrophages are a heterogeneous cell population playing a pivotal role in tissue homeostasis and inflammation, and their phenotype strongly depends on the micromilieu. Despite its increasing importance as a translational animal model for human diseases, there is a considerable gap of knowledge with respect to macrophage polarization in dogs. The present study comprehensively investigated the morphologic, phenotypic, and transcriptomic characteristics of unstimulated (M0), M1- (GM-CSF, LPS, IFNγ-stimulated) and M2- (M-CSF, IL-4-stimulated)-polarized canine blood-derived macrophages in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817629/maldi-tof-ms-identification-of-anopheles-gambiae-giles-blood-meal-crushed-on-whatman-filter-papers
#4
Sirama Niare, Lionel Almeras, Fatalmoudou Tandina, Amina Yssouf, Affane Bacar, Ali Toilibou, Ogobara Doumbo, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola
BACKGROUND: Identification of the source of mosquito blood meals is an important component for disease control and surveillance. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling has emerged as an effective tool for mosquito blood meal identification, using the abdomens of freshly engorged mosquitoes. In the field, mosquito abdomens are crushed on Whatman filter papers to determine the host feeding patterns by identifying the origin of their blood meals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817563/assessment-of-risk-of-dengue-and-yellow-fever-virus-transmission-in-three-major-kenyan-cities-based-on-stegomyia-indices
#5
Sheila B Agha, David P Tchouassi, Armanda D S Bastos, Rosemary Sang
Dengue (DEN) and yellow fever (YF) are re-emerging in East Africa, with contributing drivers to this trend being unplanned urbanization and increasingly adaptable anthropophilic Aedes (Stegomyia) vectors. Entomological risk assessment of these diseases remains scarce for much of East Africa and Kenya even in the dengue fever-prone urban coastal areas. Focusing on major urban cities of Kenya, we compared DEN and YF risk in Kilifi County (DEN-outbreak-prone), and Kisumu and Nairobi Counties (no documented DEN outbreaks)...
August 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817462/fecal-calprotectin-more-accurately-predicts-endoscopic-remission-of-crohn-s-disease-than-serological-biomarkers-evaluated-using-balloon-assisted-enteroscopy
#6
Kousaku Kawashima, Shunji Ishihara, Takafumi Yuki, Nobuhiko Fukuba, Hiroki Sonoyama, Hideaki Kazumori, Noritsugu Yamashita, Yasumasa Tada, Ryusaku Kusunoki, Akihiko Oka, Naoki Oshima, Yoshiyuki Mishima, Ichiro Moriyama, Yoshikazu Kinoshita
BACKGROUND: Fecal calprotectin (FC) has emerged as a reliable surrogate marker of endoscopic remission in Crohn's disease (CD), which has been mainly evaluated using ileocolonoscopy. We conducted this study to clarify the predictability of FC level for predicting endoscopic remission using balloon-assisted enteroscopy (BAE) findings in patients with CD and compare with that of conventional serological biomarkers. METHODS: Patients with CD scheduled to undergo BAE were prospectively enrolled, and fecal and blood samples collected before the procedures...
August 16, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817399/chemotherapy-for-oligometastatic-prostate-cancer
#7
Tanya B Dorff, Christopher J Sweeney
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To analyze recent trials of upfront chemotherapy to determine how this paradigm can be applied to oligometastatic prostate cancer patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Upfront chemotherapy prolongs survival in metastatic prostate cancer, according to the ChemoHormonal Therapy versus Androgen Ablation Randomized Trial for Extensive Disease in Prostate Cancer and STAMPEDE docetaxel trials. However, the benefit is driven by the high volume subset and may not apply to low-volume/oligometastatic patients...
August 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817310/semaphorins-and-their-roles-in-airway-biology-potential-as-therapeutic-targets
#8
Hesam Movassagh, Forough Khadem, Abdelilah S Gounni
Semaphorins are a large family of proteins originally identified as axon guidance cues which play a crucial role in neural development. They are also ubiquitously expressed beyond the nervous system and contribute to regulation of essential cell functions such as cell migration, proliferation, and adhesion. Binding of semaphorins to their receptors, including plexins and neuropilins, triggers diverse signaling pathways which are involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases from cancer to autoimmune and allergic disorders...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817209/huntington-s-disease-a-clinical-review
#9
Peter McColgan, Sarah J Tabrizi
Huntington's disease (HD) is a fully penetrant neurodegenerative disease caused by a dominantly inherited CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene on chromosome 4. In Western populations HD has a prevalence of 10.6-13.7 individuals per 100,000. It is characterised by cognitive, motor and psychiatric disturbance. At the cellular level mutant huntingtin results in neuronal dysfunction and death through a number of mechanisms, including disruption of proteostasis, transcription and mitochondrial function and direct toxicity of the mutant protein...
August 17, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816935/perimesencephalic-nonaneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-caused-by-transverse-sinus-thrombosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#10
Fang-Wang Fu, Jie Rao, Yuan-Yuan Zheng, Liang Song, Wei Chen, Qi-Hui Zhou, Jian-Guang Yang, Jiang-Qiong Ke, Guo-Qing Zheng
RATIONALE: Perimesencephalic nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (PNSAH) is characterized by a pattern of extravasated blood restricted to the perimesencephalic cisterns, normal angiographic findings, and an excellent prognosis with an uneventful course and low risks of complication. The precise etiology of bleeding in patients with PNSAH has not yet been established. The most common hypothesis is that PNSAH is venous in origin. Intracranial venous hypertension has been considered as the pivotal factor in the pathogenesis of PNSAH...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816756/characterizing-the-posttransfer-period-among-patients-with-pediatric-onset-ibd-the-impact-of-academic-versus-community-adult-care-on-emergent-health-resource-utilization
#11
Natasha Bollegala, Eric I Benchimol, Anne M Griffiths, Adrienne Kovacs, Allan H Steinhart, Xinbei Zhao, Geoffrey C Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during childhood require transfer to an adult gastroenterologist, in Ontario usually just before their 18th birthday. Pediatric onset IBD is a complex phenotype with demonstrated noncompliance risk that may require targeted measures to optimize health care outcomes in the adult care setting. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of posttransfer health care setting (academic versus community gastroenterologist) on emergent health resource utilization...
September 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816754/health-care-services-in-ibd-factors-associated-with-service-utilization-and-preferences-for-service-options-for-routine-and-urgent-care
#12
Matthew T Bernstein, John R Walker, Tarun Chhibba, Melony Ivekovic, Harminder Singh, Laura E Targownik, Charles N Bernstein
BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore factors associated with health service utilization and preference for services, including alternatives to attending the emergency department (ED) when experiencing mild to moderate or severe symptoms. METHODS: A total of 1143 persons (46% response rate) aged 18 to 65 years in the population-based University of Manitoba IBD Research Registry participated in the survey. RESULTS: Although 61% had a gastroenterologist, when experiencing active symptoms, only 29% felt they could call their gastroenterologist for an urgent appointment, and 42% could call their gastroenterologist for telephone advice...
September 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816750/health-care-services-in-ibd-factors-associated-with-service-utilization-and-preferences-for-service-options-for-routine-and-urgent-care
#13
Matthew T Bernstein, John R Walker, Tarun Chhibba, Melony Ivekovic, Harminder Singh, Laura E Targownik, Charles N Bernstein
BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore factors associated with health service utilization and preference for services, including alternatives to attending the emergency department (ED) when experiencing mild to moderate or severe symptoms. METHODS: A total of 1143 persons (46% response rate) aged 18 to 65 years in the population-based University of Manitoba IBD Research Registry participated in the survey. RESULTS: Although 61% had a gastroenterologist, when experiencing active symptoms, only 29% felt they could call their gastroenterologist for an urgent appointment, and 42% could call their gastroenterologist for telephone advice...
August 14, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816746/characterizing-the-posttransfer-period-among-patients-with-pediatric-onset-ibd-the-impact-of-academic-versus-community-adult-care-on-emergent-health-resource-utilization
#14
Natasha Bollegala, Eric I Benchimol, Anne M Griffiths, Adrienne Kovacs, Allan H Steinhart, Xinbei Zhao, Geoffrey C Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during childhood require transfer to an adult gastroenterologist, in Ontario usually just before their 18th birthday. Pediatric onset IBD is a complex phenotype with demonstrated noncompliance risk that may require targeted measures to optimize health care outcomes in the adult care setting. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of posttransfer health care setting (academic versus community gastroenterologist) on emergent health resource utilization...
August 14, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816650/evidence-for-more-cost-effective-surveillance-options-for-bovine-spongiform-encephalopathy-bse-and-scrapie-in-great-britain
#15
Ben A Wall, Mark E Arnold, Devi Radia, Will Gilbert, Angel Ortiz-Pelaez, Katharina Dc Stärk, Ed Van Klink, Javier Guitian
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are an important public health concern. Since the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) during the 1980s and its link with human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, active surveillance has been a key element of the European Union's TSE control strategy. Success of this strategy means that now, very few cases are detected compared with the number of animals tested. Refining surveillance strategies would enable resources to be redirected towards other public health priorities...
August 10, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816643/pharmacometabolomics-informs-quantitative-radiomics-for-glioblastoma-diagnostic-innovation
#16
Theodora Katsila, Minos-Timotheos Matsoukas, George P Patrinos, Dimitrios Kardamakis
Applications of omics systems biology technologies have enormous promise for radiology and diagnostics in surgical fields. In this context, the emerging fields of radiomics (a systems scale approach to radiology using a host of technologies, including omics) and pharmacometabolomics (use of metabolomics for patient and disease stratification and guiding precision medicine) offer much synergy for diagnostic innovation in surgery, particularly in neurosurgery. This synthesis of omics fields and applications is timely because diagnostic accuracy in central nervous system tumors still challenges decision-making...
August 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816594/consensus-statement-on-current-and-emerging-methods-for-the-diagnosis-and-evaluation-of-cerebrovascular-disease
#17
Manus J Donahue, Eric Achten, Petrice M Cogswell, Frank-Erik De Leeuw, Colin P Derdeyn, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Audrey P Fan, Rashid Ghaznawi, Jeremy J Heit, M Arfan Ikram, Peter Jezzard, Lori C Jordan, Eric Jouvent, Linda Knutsson, Richard Leigh, David S Liebeskind, Weili Lin, Thomas W Okell, Adnan I Qureshi, Charlotte J Stagg, Matthias Jp van Osch, Peter Cm van Zijl, Jennifer M Watchmaker, Max Wintermark, Ona Wu, Greg Zaharchuk, Jinyuan Zhou, Jeroen Hendrikse
Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) remains a leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability in most developed countries. This work summarizes state-of-the-art, and possible future, diagnostic and evaluation approaches in multiple stages of CVD, including (i) visualization of sub-clinical disease processes, (ii) acute stroke theranostics, and (iii) characterization of post-stroke recovery mechanisms. Underlying pathophysiology as it relates to large vessel steno-occlusive disease and the impact of this macrovascular disease on tissue-level viability, hemodynamics (cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and mean transit time), and metabolism (cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption and pH) are also discussed in the context of emerging neuroimaging protocols with sensitivity to these factors...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816587/dna-methylation-independent-growth-restriction-and-altered-developmental-programming-in-a-mouse-model-of-preconception-male-alcohol-exposure
#18
Richard C Chang, William M Skiles, S Chronister Sarah, Haiqing Wang, Gabrielle I Sutton, Yudhishtar S Bedi, Matthew Snyder, Charles R Long, Michael C Golding
The preconception environment is a significant modifier of dysgenesis and the development of environmentally-induced disease. To date, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) have been exclusively associated with maternal exposures, yet emerging evidence suggests male-inherited alterations in the developmental program of sperm may be relevant to the growth-restriction phenotypes of this condition. Using a mouse model of voluntary consumption, we find chronic preconception male ethanol exposure associates with fetal growth restriction, decreased placental efficiency, abnormalities in cholesterol trafficking, sex-specific alterations in the genetic pathways regulating hepatic fibrosis, and disruptions in the regulation of imprinted genes...
August 17, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816544/animal-inflammation-based-models-of-depression-and-their-application-to-drug-discovery
#19
Li Ma, Konstantin A Demin, Tatyana O Kolesnikova, Sergey L Kharsko, Xiaokang Zhu, Xiaodong Yuan, Cai Song, Darya A Meshalkina, Brian E Leonard, Li Tian, Allan V Kalueff
Depression, anxiety and other affective disorders are globally widespread and severely debilitating human brain diseases. Despite their high prevalence and mental health impact, affective pathogenesis is poorly understood, and often remains recurrent and resistant to treatment. The lack of efficient antidepressants and presently limited conceptual innovation necessitate novel approaches and new drug targets in the field of antidepressant therapy. Areas covered: Herein, the authors discuss the emerging role of neuro-immune interactions in affective pathogenesis, which can become useful targets for CNS drug discovery, including modulating neuroinflammatory pathways to alleviate affective pathogenesis...
August 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816372/in-vitro-antitubercular-activity-of-3-deoxysappanchalcone-isolated-from-the-heartwood-of-caesalpinia-sappan-linn
#20
Hoonhee Seo, Sukyung Kim, Hafij Al Mahmud, Md Imtiazul Islam, Kung-Woo Nam, Byung-Eui Lee, Hanna Lee, Myoung-Lae Cho, Heung-Mook Shin, Ho-Yeon Song
Responsible for nearly 1.5 million deaths every year, the infectious disease tuberculosis remains one of the most serious challenges to global health. The emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and, more recently, extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis poses a significant threat in our effort to control this epidemic. New drugs are urgently needed to combat the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance. To achieve this goal, we screened approximately 500 species of medicinal plant methanol extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions for potential inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth...
August 17, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
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