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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161397/abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-repair-in-the-united-kingdom-an-exemplar-for-the-role-of-anaesthetists-in-perioperative-medicine
#1
S J Howell
The past two decades have seen an increasing recognition that the delivery of safe surgery with low complication rates and good long-term outcomes is a team endeavour embracing the whole patient care pathway. The key role of the anaesthetist in managing the patient through the surgical process is widely understood and has driven the emergence of perioperative medicine. In parallel with these developments there has been a sea change in the organisation of the care of patients presenting for elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159935/bayesian-estimation-of-multicomponent-relaxation-parameters-in-magnetic-resonance-fingerprinting
#2
Debra McGivney, Anagha Deshmane, Yun Jiang, Dan Ma, Chaitra Badve, Andrew Sloan, Vikas Gulani, Mark Griswold
PURPOSE: To estimate multiple components within a single voxel in magnetic resonance fingerprinting when the number and types of tissues comprising the voxel are not known a priori. THEORY: Multiple tissue components within a single voxel are potentially separable with magnetic resonance fingerprinting as a result of differences in signal evolutions of each component. The Bayesian framework for inverse problems provides a natural and flexible setting for solving this problem when the tissue composition per voxel is unknown...
November 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157492/biomolecular-mri-reporters-evolution-of-new-mechanisms
#3
REVIEW
Arnab Mukherjee, Hunter C Davis, Pradeep Ramesh, George J Lu, Mikhail G Shapiro
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique for observing the function of specific cells and molecules inside living organisms. However, compared to optical microscopy, in which fluorescent protein reporters are available to visualize hundreds of cellular functions ranging from gene expression and chemical signaling to biomechanics, to date relatively few such reporters are available for MRI. Efforts to develop MRI-detectable biomolecules have mainly focused on proteins transporting paramagnetic metals for T1 and T2 relaxation enhancement or containing large numbers of exchangeable protons for chemical exchange saturation transfer...
November 2017: Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156578/pancreatic-cancer-molecular-characterization-clonal-evolution-and-cancer-stem-cells
#4
REVIEW
Elvira Pelosi, Germana Castelli, Ugo Testa
Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death and is the most lethal of common malignancies with a five-year survival rate of <10%. PDAC arises from different types of non-invasive precursor lesions: intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, mucinous cystic neoplasms and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia. The genetic landscape of PDAC is characterized by the presence of four frequently-mutated genes: KRAS, CDKN2A, TP53 and SMAD4. The development of mouse models of PDAC has greatly contributed to the understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms through which driver genes contribute to pancreatic cancer development...
November 18, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132828/lactoferrin-chitosan-and-melaleuca-alternifolia-natural-products-that-show-promise-in-candidiasis-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Lorena de Oliveira Felipe, Willer Ferreira da Silva Júnior, Katialaine Corrêa de Araújo, Daniela Leite Fabrino
The evolution of microorganisms resistant to many medicines has become a major challenge for the scientific community around the world. Motivated by the gravity of such a situation, the World Health Organization released a report in 2014 with the aim of providing updated information on this critical scenario. Among the most worrying microorganisms, species from the genus Candida have exhibited a high rate of resistance to antifungal drugs. Therefore, the objective of this review is to show that the use of natural products (extracts or isolated biomolecules), along with conventional antifungal therapy, can be a very promising strategy to overcome microbial multiresistance...
November 10, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130157/target-discovery-for-precision-medicine-using-high-throughput-genome-engineering
#6
Xinyi Guo, Poonam Chitale, Neville E Sanjana
Over the past few years, programmable RNA-guided nucleases such as the CRISPR/Cas9 system have ushered in a new era of precision genome editing in diverse model systems and in human cells. Functional screens using large libraries of RNA guides can interrogate a large hypothesis space to pinpoint particular genes and genetic elements involved in fundamental biological processes and disease-relevant phenotypes. Here, we review recent high-throughput CRISPR screens (e.g. loss-of-function, gain-of-function, and targeting noncoding elements) and highlight their potential for uncovering novel therapeutic targets, such as those involved in cancer resistance to small molecular drugs and immunotherapies, tumor evolution, infectious disease, inborn genetic disorders, and other therapeutic challenges...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129935/antimalarial-use-of-malagasy-plants-is-poorly-correlated-with-performance-in-antimalarial-bioassays
#7
Wendy L Applequist, Michel Ratsimbason, Alyse Kuhlman, Stephan Rakotonandrasana, Vincent Rasamison, David G I Kingston
Bioassay screening of plant extracts can identify unique lead compounds for drug development, but the "hit rate" from random screening is very low. Targeted screening of medicinal plants has been repeatedly reported to increase the percentage of samples displaying bioactivity. Contrarily, Maranz (2012) suggested that African antimalarial plants were unsuitable sources of antimalarial drugs because high prevalence of malaria would result in rapid evolution of resistance to active compounds that directly targeted the parasite...
March 2017: Economic Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124375/reductive-augmentation-of-the-breast
#8
Paul E Chasan
AIM: Although breast reduction surgery plays an invaluable role in the correction of macromastia, it almost always results in a breast lacking in upper pole fullness and/or roundness. We present a technique of breast reduction combined with augmentation termed "reductive augmentation" to solve this problem. The technique is also extremely useful for correcting breast asymmetry, as well as revising significant pseudoptosis in the patient who has previously undergone breast augmentation with or without mastopexy...
November 9, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123336/the-indian-college-of-palliative-medicine-a-concept-in-evolution
#9
EDITORIAL
Naveen Salins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120031/histopathological-immunohistochemical-and-stereological-analysis-of-the-effect-of-gingko-biloba-egb761-on-the-hippocampus-of-rats-exposed-to-long-term-cellphone-radiation
#10
Fikret Gevrek
Cellular phones are major sources of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) that can penetrate the human body and pose serious health hazards. The increasingly widespread use of mobile communication systems has raised concerns about the effects of cellphone radiofrequency (RF) on the hippocampus because of its close proximity to radiation during cellphone use. The effects of cellphone EMR exposure on the hippocampus of rats and the possible counteractive effects of ginkgo biloba (Egb761) were aimed to investigate...
November 9, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118369/influence-of-non-thermal-plasma-on-structural-and-electrical-properties-of-globular-and-nanostructured-conductive-polymer-polypyrrole-in-water-suspension
#11
Pavel Galář, Josef Khun, Dušan Kopecký, Vladimír Scholtz, Miroslava Trchová, Anna Fučíková, Jana Jirešová, Ladislav Fišer
Non-thermal plasma has proved its benefits in medicine, plasma assisted polymerization, food industry and many other fields. Even though, the ability of non-thermal plasma to modify surface properties of various materials is generally known, only limited attention has been given to exploitations of this treatment on conductive polymers. Here, we show study of non-thermal plasma treatment on properties of globular and nanostructured polypyrrole in the distilled water. We observe that plasma presence over the suspension level doesn't change morphology of the polymer (shape), but significantly influences its elemental composition and physical properties...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113995/time-for-change-a-new-training-programme-for-morpho-molecular-pathologists
#12
REVIEW
David A Moore, Caroline A Young, Hayley T Morris, Karin A Oien, Jessica L Lee, J Louise Jones, Manuel Salto-Tellez
The evolution of cellular pathology as a specialty has always been driven by technological developments and the clinical relevance of incorporating novel investigations into diagnostic practice. In recent years, the molecular characterisation of cancer has become of crucial relevance in patient treatment both for predictive testing and subclassification of certain tumours. Much of this has become possible due to the availability of next-generation sequencing technologies and the whole-genome sequencing of tumours is now being rolled out into clinical practice in England via the 100 000 Genome Project...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111801/quality-improvement-in-perioperative-medicine-driving-the-revolution
#13
Matthew Wilson, David Walker
Perioperative medicine and quality improvement are both emerging fields with the potential to contribute to safer and more reliable care for surgical patients. One key component has been the evolution of the national audit project programme. This article describes the current state of quality improvement within perioperative medicine, the evolution of the national audit project programme and the effects it has produced on the quality of patient care. The article also highlights opportunities for health-care professionals to engage with this innovative area of medicine...
November 2, 2017: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110756/apol1-nephropathy-a-population-genetics-and-evolutionary-medicine-detective-story
#14
REVIEW
Etty Kruzel-Davila, Walter G Wasser, Karl Skorecki
Common DNA sequence variants rarely have a high-risk association with a common disease. When such associations do occur, evolutionary forces must be sought, such as in the association of apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene risk variants with nondiabetic kidney diseases in populations of African ancestry. The variants originated in West Africa and provided pathogenic resistance in the heterozygous state that led to high allele frequencies owing to an adaptive evolutionary selective sweep. However, the homozygous state is disadvantageous and is associated with a markedly increased risk of a spectrum of kidney diseases encompassing hypertension-attributed kidney disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, human immunodeficiency virus nephropathy, sickle cell nephropathy, and progressive lupus nephritis...
November 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109301/personalized-medicine-a-modern-approach-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-hypertension
#15
REVIEW
Carmine Savoia, Massimo Volpe, Guido Grassi, Claudio Borghi, Enrico Agabiti Rosei, Rhian M Touyz
The main goal of treating hypertension is to reduce blood pressure to physiological levels and thereby prevent risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension-associated target organ damage. Despite reductions in major risk factors and the availability of a plethora of effective antihypertensive drugs, the control of blood pressure to target values is still poor due to multiple factors including apparent drug resistance and lack of adherence. An explanation for this problem is related to the current reductionist and 'trial-and-error' approach in the management of hypertension, as we may oversimplify the complex nature of the disease and not pay enough attention to the heterogeneity of the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of the disorder...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106464/application-of-single-cell-sequencing-in-human-cancer
#16
Mattias Rantalainen
Precision medicine is emerging as a cornerstone of future cancer care with the objective of providing targeted therapies based on the molecular phenotype of each individual patient. Traditional bulk-level molecular phenotyping of tumours leads to significant information loss, as the molecular profile represents an average phenotype over large numbers of cells, while cancer is a disease with inherent intra-tumour heterogeneity at the cellular level caused by several factors, including clonal evolution, tissue hierarchies, rare cells and dynamic cell states...
November 2, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106442/bioinformatics-on-a-national-scale-an-example-from-switzerland
#17
Vivienne Baillie Gerritsen, Patricia M Palagi, Christine Durinx
Switzerland has been a pioneer in the field of bioinformatics since the early 1980s. As time passed, the need for one entity to gather and represent bioinformatics on a national scale was felt and, in 1998, the SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics was created. Hence, 2018 marks the Institute's 20th anniversary. Today, the Institute federates 65 research and service groups across the country-whose activity domains range from genomics, proteomics, medicine and health to structural biology, systems biology, phylogeny and evolution-and a group whose sole task is dedicated to training...
July 4, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102834/establishment-of-an-alternative-efficiently-genotyping-strategy-for-human-abo-gene
#18
Enzhu Jiang, Peifu Yu, Siyi Zhang, Chunmei Li, Mei Ding, Baojie Wang, Hao Pang
ABO genotyping is used in several disciplines, including transfusion, transplantation, human evolution, and forensic medicine. Detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on a locus is a common way to identify different genotypes. In this study we developed a strategy for ABO genotyping, which can rapidly and efficiently detect SNPs. DNA fragments containing 4 SNPs in the ABO gene (c.261delG, c.297A > G, c.1009A > G, and c.1061delC) were amplified using individually and multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods and subsequently genotyped by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis...
November 1, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101112/prostate-cancer-germline-variations-and-implications-for-screening-and-treatment
#19
Alexander Dias, Zsofia Kote-Jarai, Christos Mikropoulos, Ros Eeles
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a highly heritable disease, and rapid evolution of sequencing technologies has enabled marked progression of our understanding of its genetic inheritance. A complex polygenic model that involves common low-penetrance susceptibility alleles causing individually small but cumulatively significant risk and rarer genetic variants causing greater risk represent the current most accepted model. Through genome-wide association studies, more than 100 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with PCa risk have been identified...
November 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101000/what-is-precise-pathophysiology-in-development-of-hypertension-in-pregnancy-precision-medicine-requires-precise-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#20
REVIEW
Qinqin Gao, Jiaqi Tang, Na Li, Bailin Liu, Mengshu Zhang, Miao Sun, Zhice Xu
It is widely accepted that placental ischemia is central in the evolution of hypertension in pregnancy. Many studies and reviews have targeted placental ischemia to explain mechanisms for initiating pregnancy hypertension. The placenta is rich in blood vessels, which are the basis for developing placental ischemia. However, is the physiology of placental vessels the same as that of nonplacental vessels? What is the pathophysiology of placental vessels in development of pregnancy hypertension? This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of special features of placental vascular regulations and the pathophysiological changes linked to preeclamptic conditions...
October 31, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
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