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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103613/tissue-based-next-generation-sequencing-application-in-a-universal-healthcare-system
#1
REVIEW
Seán O Hynes, Brendan Pang, Jacqueline A James, Perry Maxwell, Manuel Salto-Tellez
In the context of solid tumours, the evolution of cancer therapies to more targeted and nuanced approaches has led to the impetus for personalised medicine. The targets for these therapies are largely based on the driving genetic mutations of the tumours. To track these multiple driving mutations the use of next generation sequencing (NGS) coupled with a morphomolecular approach to tumours, has the potential to deliver on the promises of personalised medicine. A review of NGS and its application in a universal healthcare (UHC) setting is undertaken as the technology has a wide appeal and utility in diagnostic, clinical trial and research paradigms...
January 19, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097046/molecular-classification-of-tissue-from-a-transformed-non-hogkin-s-lymphoma-case-with-unexpected-long-time-remission
#2
Julie Støve Bødker, Marianne Tang Severinsen, Tarec Christoffer El-Galaly, Rasmus Froberg Brøndum, Maria Bach Laursen, Steffen Falgreen, Mette Nyegaard, Alexander Schmitz, Lasse Hjort Jakobsen, Anna Amanda Schönherz, Hanne Due, Linn Reinholdt, Martin Bøgsted, Karen Dybkær, Hans Erik Johnsen
BACKGROUND: The concept of precision medicine in cancer includes individual molecular studies to predict clinical outcomes. In the present N = 1 case we retrospectively have analysed lymphoma tissue by exome sequencing and global gene expression in a patient with unexpected long-term remission following relaps. The goals were to phenotype the diagnostic and relapsed lymphoma tissue and evaluate its pattern. Furthermore, to identify mutations available for targeted therapy and expression of genes to predict specific drug effects by resistance gene signatures (REGS) for R-CHOP as described at http://www...
2017: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096488/novel-superspreader-bacteriophages-promote-horizontal-gene-transfer-by-transformation
#3
Eric C Keen, Valery V Bliskovsky, Francisco Malagon, James D Baker, Jeffrey S Prince, James S Klaus, Sankar L Adhya
: Bacteriophages infect an estimated 10(23) to 10(25) bacterial cells each second, many of which carry physiologically relevant plasmids (e.g., those encoding antibiotic resistance). However, even though phage-plasmid interactions occur on a massive scale and have potentially significant evolutionary, ecological, and biomedical implications, plasmid fate upon phage infection and lysis has not been investigated to date. Here we show that a subset of the natural lytic phage population, which we dub "superspreaders," releases substantial amounts of intact, transformable plasmid DNA upon lysis, thereby promoting horizontal gene transfer by transformation...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094796/the-evolution-of-no-cost-resistance-at-sub-mic-concentrations-of-streptomycin-in-streptomyces-coelicolor
#4
Sanne Westhoff, Tim Marijn van Leeuwe, Omar Qachach, Zheren Zhang, Gilles Philippus van Wezel, Daniel Eric Rozen
At the high concentrations used in medicine, antibiotics exert strong selection on bacterial populations for the evolution of resistance. However, these lethal concentrations may not be representative of the concentrations bacteria face in soil, a recognition that has led to questions of the role of antibiotics in soil environments as well as the dynamics of resistance evolution during sublethal challenge. Here we examine the evolution of resistance to sub-minimal inhibitory concentrations (sub-MIC) of streptomycin in the filamentous soil bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor...
January 17, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073516/early-diagnosis-of-systemic-amyloidosis-by-means-of-a-transverse-carpal-ligament-biopsy-carried-out-during-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-surgery
#5
Judit Fernández Fuertes, Óscar Rodríguez Vicente, Sergio Sánchez Herráez, Luis Rafael Ramos Pascua
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The systematic analysis of a carpal transverse ligament (CTL) sample obtained during routine carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) surgery may constitute a method of early diagnosis for systemic amyloidosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective study carried out on 147 consecutive CTL samples collected from patients intervened for CTS at the University Hospital of León from April 2006 to May 2007. In those cases in which amyloid deposition was observed in the CTL sample, the study was completed with a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the subcutaneous fascia, using the Red Congo stain in both cases...
January 7, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062204/impact-of-formulation-properties-and-process-parameters-on-the-dispensing-and-depositioning-of-drug-nanosuspensions-using-micro-valve-technology
#6
Bastian Bonhoeffer, Arno Kwade, Michael Juhnke
Flexible manufacturing processes with continuously adjustable dose strengths are considered particularly innovative and interesting for applications in personalized medicine, continuous manufacturing or early drug development. A piezo-actuated micro-valve has been investigated for the dispensing and depositioning of drug nanosuspensions onto substrates to facilitate the manufacturing of solid oral dosage forms. The investigated micro-valve has been characterized regarding dispensing behavior, mass flow, accuracy and robustness...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056830/development-of-aspergillosis-in-a-cohort-of-non-neutropenic-non-transplant-patients-colonised-by-aspergillus-spp
#7
José Barberán, Francisco-Javier García-Pérez, Victoria Villena, Alberto Fernández-Villar, Eduardo Malmierca, Cristina Salas, María-José Giménez, Juan-José Granizo, Lorenzo Aguilar
BACKGROUND: A previous study explored factors discriminating colonization and true infection among non-transplant, non-neutropenic patients with repeated Aspergillus spp. isolation from lower respiratory samples. The present study explored the evolution of patients with Aspergillus colonization in that study to determine the percentage of cases progressing to aspergillosis and time to development. METHODS: Clinical records were retrospectively reviewed (for each patient from his end date in the past study) and data from all respiratory processes suffered by patients up to April 2015 were recorded...
January 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054430/the-complex-patient-a-concept-clarification
#8
REVIEW
Eli Manning, Marilou Gagnon
Over the last decade, the concept of the "complex patient" has not only been more widely used in multidisciplinary healthcare teams and across various healthcare disciplines, but it has also become more vacuous in meaning. The uptake of the concept of the "complex patient" spans across disciplines, such as medicine, nursing, and social work, with no consistent definition. We review the chronological evolution of this concept and its surrogate terms, namely "comorbidity," "multimorbidity," "polypathology," "dual diagnosis," and "multiple chronic conditions...
January 5, 2017: Nursing & Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050011/consensus-molecular-subtypes-and-the-evolution-of-precision-medicine-in-colorectal-cancer
#9
Rodrigo Dienstmann, Louis Vermeulen, Justin Guinney, Scott Kopetz, Sabine Tejpar, Josep Tabernero
Critical driver genomic events in colorectal cancer have been shown to affect the response to targeted agents that were initially developed under the 'one gene, one drug' paradigm of precision medicine. Our current knowledge of the complexity of the cancer genome, clonal evolution patterns under treatment pressure and pharmacodynamic effects of target inhibition support the transition from a one gene, one drug approach to a 'multi-gene, multi-drug' model when making therapeutic decisions. Better characterization of the transcriptomic subtypes of colorectal cancer, encompassing tumour, stromal and immune components, has revealed convergent pathway dependencies that mandate a 'multi-molecular' perspective for the development of therapies to treat this disease...
January 4, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048367/th-a-207b-00-shear-wave-imaging-and-a-qiba-us-biomarker-update
#10
Paul Carson
: Imaging of tissue elastic properties is a relatively new and powerful approach to one of the oldest and most important diagnostic tools. Imaging of shear wave speed with ultrasound is has been added to most high-end ultrasound systems. Understanding this exciting imaging mode aiding its most effective use in medicine can be a rewarding effort for medical physicists and other medical imaging and treatment professionals. Assuring consistent, quantitative measurements across the many ultrasound systems in a typical imaging department will constitute a major step toward realizing the great potential of this technique and other quantitative imaging...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047721/th-a-207b-01-basics-and-current-implementations-of-ultrasound-imaging-of-shear-wave-speed-and-elasticity
#11
S Chen
: Imaging of tissue elastic properties is a relatively new and powerful approach to one of the oldest and most important diagnostic tools. Imaging of shear wave speed with ultrasound is has been added to most high-end ultrasound systems. Understanding this exciting imaging mode aiding its most effective use in medicine can be a rewarding effort for medical physicists and other medical imaging and treatment professionals. Assuring consistent, quantitative measurements across the many ultrasound systems in a typical imaging department will constitute a major step toward realizing the great potential of this technique and other quantitative imaging...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047072/th-a-207b-02-qiba-ultrasound-elasticity-imaging-system-biomarker-qualification-and-user-testing-of-systems
#12
B Garra
: Imaging of tissue elastic properties is a relatively new and powerful approach to one of the oldest and most important diagnostic tools. Imaging of shear wave speed with ultrasound is has been added to most high-end ultrasound systems. Understanding this exciting imaging mode aiding its most effective use in medicine can be a rewarding effort for medical physicists and other medical imaging and treatment professionals. Assuring consistent, quantitative measurements across the many ultrasound systems in a typical imaging department will constitute a major step toward realizing the great potential of this technique and other quantitative imaging...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046935/su-d-206-07-cbct-scatter-correction-based-on-rotating-collimator
#13
G Yu, Y Yin, L Qiang, B Li, Z Feng, P Huang, D Li
PURPOSE: Scatter correction in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has obvious effect on the removal of image noise, the cup artifact and the increase of image contrast. Several methods using a beam blocker for the estimation and subtraction of scatter have been proposed. However, the inconvenience of mechanics and propensity to residual artifacts limited the further evolution of basic and clinical research. Here, we propose a rotating collimator-based approach, in conjunction with reconstruction based on a discrete Radon transform and Tchebichef moments algorithm, to correct scatter-induced artifacts...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040277/microparticles-and-their-role-in-coronary-artery-disease
#14
REVIEW
Sudheer Koganti, Despina Eleftheriou, Paul A Brogan, Tushar Kotecha, Ying Hong, Roby D Rakhit
Despite significant advances in prevention, medical and interventional management, coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Although the number of people being diagnosed with CAD has plateaued in the western world, it is projected to increase significantly in the developing world reaching epidemic proportions, particularly in South Asia. To better stratify the risk of developing and suffering a cardiovascular event due to CAD, not only plasma biomarkers relating to disease burden but also disease activity in CAD are needed; this will allow targeting of appropriate management to high-risk patients for acute events...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038993/inflammaging-and-omics-in-human-longevity
#15
REVIEW
Daniela Monti, Rita Ostan, Vincenzo Borelli, Gastone Castellani, Claudio Franceschi
Inflammaging is a recent theory of aging originally proposed in 2000 where data and conceptualizations regarding the aging of the immune system (immunosenescence) and the evolution of immune responses from invertebrates to mammals converged. This theory has received an increasing number of citations and experimental confirmations. Here we present an updated version of inflammaging focused on omic data - particularly on glycomics - collected on centenarians, supercentenarians and their offspring. Accordingly, we arrived to the following conclusions: i) inflammaging has a structure where specific combinations of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators are involved; ii) inflammaging is systemic and more complex than we previously thought, as many organs, tissues and cell types participate in producing pro- and anti-inflammatory stimuli conceptualized as "molecular garbage"; iii) inflammaging is dynamic, can be propagated locally to neighboring cells and systemically from organ to organ by circulating products and microvesicles, and amplified by chronic age-related diseases constituting a "local fire" which in turn produces additional inflammatory stimuli and molecular garbage; iv) an integrated Systems Medicine approach is urgently needed to let emerge a robust and highly informative set/combination of omic markers able to better grasp the complex molecular core of inflammaging in elderly and centenarians...
December 27, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035474/technical-note-early-post-mortem-changes-of-human-bone-in-taphonomy-with-%C3%AE-ct
#16
Erwan Le Garff, Vadim Mesli, Yann Delannoy, Thomas Colard, Xavier Demondion, Anne Becart, Valéry Hedouin
Post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation is an important issue in forensic medicine, particularly for criminal purposes and legal limitation periods. The goal of the present study is to examine the evolution of the trabecular cranial vault bone after 4 weeks of conservation in a controlled environment with micro-tomography (μCT) analyses.Four bone samples were extracted from a fresh human cranial vault (a donation to science according to the French law) and conserved in an air-controlled environment. The samples were weighed and μCT scanned at a 10-μm resolution every week after death for a month...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032179/madelung-s-disease-revision-of-59-surgical-cases
#17
Cristina Isabel Calvo Pinto, Pedro João Marques Cardoso Carvalho, Manuel Maia Oliveira Correia
BACKGROUND: Madelung's disease (MD) is a rare disease, more common in Mediterranean countries and associated with alcohol abuse. However, MD etiology remains not completely understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate clinical features, treatment options and outcomes in patients with MD treated in our plastic surgery department. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 59 cases of MD operated on between 2004 and 2013. Demographic information, location of the deposits, associated pathology and habits, number and type of surgeries performed, surgical complications and disease evolution were analyzed...
December 28, 2016: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028572/romanian-medicine-european-medicine
#18
EDITORIAL
Ioan Cristian Stoica, Dinu Antonescu, Adrian Pana, Stefan Mogos, Romain Seil
The aim of the present paper is to present the message transmitted by the Presidential Lecture given during the first congress of arthroscopy organised in Romania, in March 2016, by the Romanian Society of Arthroscopy and Sports Trauma (SRATS). The goal was to present the evolution of medical care in Romania over the years, with the remarkable progress made in the first half of the twentieth century and the current status of arthroscopic surgery as seen from the point of view of medical professionals, as well as from a governmental point of view...
December 28, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027312/the-subclonal-architecture-of-metastatic-breast-cancer-results-from-a-prospective-community-based-rapid-autopsy-program-cascade
#19
Peter Savas, Zhi Ling Teo, Christophe Lefevre, Christoffer Flensburg, Franco Caramia, Kathryn Alsop, Mariam Mansour, Prudence A Francis, Heather A Thorne, Maria Joao Silva, Nnennaya Kanu, Michelle Dietzen, Andrew Rowan, Maik Kschischo, Stephen Fox, David D Bowtell, Sarah-Jane Dawson, Terence P Speed, Charles Swanton, Sherene Loi
BACKGROUND: Understanding the cancer genome is seen as a key step in improving outcomes for cancer patients. Genomic assays are emerging as a possible avenue to personalised medicine in breast cancer. However, evolution of the cancer genome during the natural history of breast cancer is largely unknown, as is the profile of disease at death. We sought to study in detail these aspects of advanced breast cancers that have resulted in lethal disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Three patients with oestrogen-receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer and one patient with triple negative breast cancer underwent rapid autopsy as part of an institutional prospective community-based rapid autopsy program (CASCADE)...
December 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025465/myocardial-regeneration-for-humans%C3%A3-modifying-biology-and-manipulating-evolution
#20
Kathleen M Broughton, Mark A Sussman
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide and developing novel therapies to treat and cure the disease remains a high priority in the healthcare research community. Adult stem cells were successful in entering numerous clinical trials over the past 15 years in attempts to regenerate the heart. First-generation adult stem cell therapies for myocardial regeneration were highly promising in small animal models but realized benefits in humans were far more modest. Consequently, second-generation therapeutic approaches in early implementation phases have focused on enhancing cellular properties with higher survival and regenerative potential...
December 27, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
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