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Evolution medicine

Kattina Zavala, Michael W Vandewege, Federico G Hoffmann, Juan C Opazo
The study of the evolutionary history of genes related to human disease lies at the interface of evolution and medicine. These studies provide the evolutionary context on which medical researchers should work, and are also useful in providing information to suggest further genetic experiments, especially in model species where genetic manipulations can be made. Here we studied the evolution of the β-adrenoreceptor gene family in vertebrates with the aim of adding an evolutionary framework to the already abundant physiological information...
October 18, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Allan M Showalter, Brian D Keppler, Xiao Liu, Jens Lichtenberg, Lonnie R Welch
BACKGROUND: Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) constitute a plant cell wall protein superfamily that functions in diverse aspects of growth and development. This superfamily contains three members: the highly glycosylated arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs), the moderately glycosylated extensins (EXTs), and the lightly glycosylated proline-rich proteins (PRPs). Chimeric and hybrid HRGPs, however, also exist. A bioinformatics approach is employed here to identify and classify AGPs, EXTs, PRPs, chimeric HRGPs, and hybrid HRGPs from the proteins predicted by the completed genome sequence of poplar (Populus trichocarpa)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Akira Shiraishi, Jun Murata, Erika Matsumoto, Shin Matsubara, Eiichiro Ono, Honoo Satake
Forsythia spp. are perennial woody plants which are one of the most extensively used medicinal sources of Chinese medicines and functional diets owing to their lignan contents. Lignans have received widespread attention as leading compounds in the development of antitumor drugs and healthy diets for reducing the risks of lifestyle-related diseases. However, the molecular basis of Forsythia has yet to be established. In this study, we have verified de novo deep transcriptome of Forsythia koreana leaf and callus using the Illumina HiSeq 1500 platform...
2016: PloS One
James J Hsieh, Emily H Cheng
With the ever-increasing complexity of tumor heterogeneity (TH) discovered through cancer genome sequencing, it is apparent that TH has become the biggest hurdle for precision cancer therapeutics. Through studying the genomics of exceptional responders to targeted therapeutic agents in kidney cancer, we demonstrated parallel convergent gene/pathway/capability/function evolution of kidney cancer in the context of TH, which prompted us to propose a new cancer evolution model "the braided cancer river model". Based on this model, we might be able to outsmart a given cancer type within an individual patient through simultaneously inhibiting preferred parallel pathways or sequential nodes...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Matthias Willmann, Silke Peter
The increasing threat of antimicrobial resistance poses one of the greatest challenges to modern medicine. The collection of all antimicrobial resistance genes carried by various microorganisms in the human body is called the human resistome and represents the source of resistance in pathogens that can eventually cause life-threatening and untreatable infections. A deep understanding of the human resistome and its multilateral interaction with various environments is necessary for developing proper measures that can efficiently reduce the spread of resistance...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Isabelle Bragard, Nesrine Farhat, Marie-Christine Seghaye, Oliver Karam, Arthur Neuschwander, Yasaman Shayan, Katharina Schumacher
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric cardiac arrest is a rare event. Its management requires technical (TSs) and nontechnical skills (NTSs). We assessed the effectiveness of a simulation-based training to improve these skills in managing life-threatening pediatric cardiac arrhythmias. METHODS: Four teams, each composed of 1 pediatric resident, 1 emergency medicine resident, and 2 pediatric nurses, were randomly assigned to the experimental group (EG) participating in 5 video-recorded simulation sessions with debriefing or to the control group (CG) assessed 2 times with video-recorded simulation sessions without debriefing at a 2-week interval...
October 18, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
A Supe
The cross-cultural exchanges between the people of India and their colonial rulers provides a fascinating insight into how these encounters shaped medicine and medical education in India. This article traces the history of how Indian medicine was transformed in the backdrop of colonialism and hegemony. It goes on to show how six decades after independence, we have have still been unable to convincingly shrug off the colonial yoke. India needs to work out a national medical curriculum which caters to our country's needs...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Nashmiah Aid Alrashedy, Jeanmaire Molina
Psychoactive plants contain chemicals that presumably evolved as allelochemicals but target certain neuronal receptors when consumed by humans, altering perception, emotion and cognition. These plants have been used since ancient times as medicines and in the context of religious rituals for their various psychoactive effects (e.g., as hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives). The ubiquity of psychoactive plants in various cultures motivates investigation of the commonalities among these plants, in which a phylogenetic framework may be insightful...
2016: PeerJ
Mario Plebani
The last 50years have seen substantial changes in the landscape of laboratory medicine: its role in modern medicine is in evolution and the quality of laboratory services is changing. The need to control and improve quality in clinical laboratories has grown hand in hand with the growth in technological developments leading to an impressive reduction of analytical errors over time. An essential cause of this impressive improvement has been the introduction and monitoring of quality indicators (QIs) such as the analytical performance specifications (in particular bias and imprecision) based on well-established goals...
October 16, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
R Hurlemann, N Marsh
Numerous honorary initiatives for humanitarian aid towards refugees illustrate the high prevalence of altruistic behavior in the population. In medicine, an exquisite example of a human propensity for altruism is organ donation. Current perspectives on the neurobiology of altruism suggest that it is deeply rooted in the motivational architecture of the social brain. This is reflected by the social evolution of cooperation and parochialism, both of which are modulated by the evolutionarily conserved peptide hormone oxytocin...
October 17, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Joseph L Graves, Chris Reiber, Anna Thanukos, Magdalena Hurtado, Terry Wolpaw
Evolutionary science is indispensable for understanding biological processes. Effective medical treatment must be anchored in sound biology. However, currently the insights available from evolutionary science are not adequately incorporated in either pre-medical or medical school curricula. To illuminate how evolution may be helpful in these areas, examples in which the insights of evolutionary science are already improving medical treatment and ways in which evolutionary reasoning can be practiced in the context of medicine are provided...
October 15, 2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Dominic Way, Hortense Blazsin, Ragnar Löfstedt, Frederic Bouder
This paper reviews the main tools for communicating benefit-risk medicines information to patients that are used, or could be used, by pharmaceutical regulators. One highly successful tool from the food safety sector (front-of-package traffic-light labelling) and the mental models approach (which provides a framework for developing new tools) are also reviewed as they show great promise for being usefully adapted to the pharmaceutical context. The evolution of benefit-risk medicines communication is first contextualised within the broader risk communication literature...
October 14, 2016: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Joia S Mukherjee, Danika Barry, Robert D Weatherford, Ishaan K Desai, Paul E Farmer
The advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1996 brought with it an urgent need to develop models of health care delivery that could enable its effective and equitable delivery, especially to patients living in poverty. Community-based care, which stretches from patient homes and communities-where chronic infectious diseases are often best managed-to modern health centers and hospitals, offers such a model, providing access to proximate HIV care and minimizing structural barriers to retention. We first review the recent literature on community-based ART programs in low- and low-to-middle-income country settings and document two key principles that guide effective programs: decentralization of ART services and long-term retention of patients in care...
October 13, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Aastha Gupta, Sandeep Juneja, Marco Vitoria, Vincent Habiyambere, Boniface Dongmo Nguimfack, Meg Doherty, Daniel Low-Beer
With anti-retroviral treatment (ART) scale-up set to continue over the next few years it is of key importance that manufacturers and planners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) hardest hit by the HIV/AIDS pandemic are able to anticipate and respond to future changes to treatment regimens, generics pipeline and demand, in order to secure continued access to all ARV medicines required. We did a forecast analysis, using secondary WHO and UNAIDS data sources, to estimate the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and the market share and demand for a range of new and existing ARV drugs in LMICs up to 2025...
2016: PloS One
C L Gurudatt
A case report is a specific type of research design that reports on an aspect of the management of patients. Case reports have significantly influenced the evolution of medicine. In general, case reports should be short and focussed and should contain abstract, introduction, description of the case, discussion and conclusion. The aim of this article is to provide useful details and tips to the young anaesthesiologists in the writing of a case report and then to publish it.
September 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Paraskevas Vezyridis, Stephen Timmons
OBJECTIVE: To identify publication and citation trends, most productive institutions and countries, top journals, most cited articles and authorship networks from articles that used and analysed data from primary care databases (CPRD, THIN, QResearch) of pseudonymised electronic health records (EHRs) in UK. METHODS: Descriptive statistics and scientometric tools were used to analyse a SCOPUS data set of 1891 articles. Open access software was used to extract networks from the data set (Table2Net), visualise and analyse coauthorship networks of scholars and countries (Gephi) and density maps (VOSviewer) of research topics co-occurrence and journal cocitation...
October 11, 2016: BMJ Open
Mandar S Joshi, Kelsey A Montgomery, Peter J Giannone, John A Bauer, Mina H Hanna
Preterm birth is associated with increased risks of morbidity and mortality along with increased healthcare costs. Advances in medicine have enhanced survival for preterm infants but the overall incidences of major morbidities have changed very little. Abnormal renal development is an important consequence of premature birth. Acute kidney injury (AKI) in the neonatal period is multifactorial and may increase lifetime risk of chronic kidney disease.Traditional biomarkers in newborns suffer from considerable confounders, limiting their use for early identification of AKI...
October 10, 2016: Pediatric Research
Morag K Mansley, Jessica R Ivy, Matthew A Bailey
Hypertension is known as the "silent killer," driving the global public health burden of cardiovascular and renal disease. Blood pressure homeostasis is intimately associated with sodium balance and the distribution of sodium between fluid compartments and within tissues. On a population level, most societies consume 10 times more salt that the 0.5 g required by physiological need. This high salt intake is strongly linked to hypertension and to the World Health Organization targeting a ∼30% relative reduction in mean population salt intake to arrest the global mortality due to cardiovascular disease...
September 2016: KI Rep
Kurt T Barnhart
The science of contraceptive medicine and reproductive medicine are similar. At present contraceptive medicine has moved beyond understanding the mechanism of action of steroid hormones with the introduction of many safe and effective methods. Long-acting reversible contraceptives are increasing in acceptance and providing very high efficacy. The science has pivoted toward optimization of family planning in selected high-risk populations, such as those with a high-risk of thrombosis, as well as addressing the challenge of obesity...
October 5, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Isabelle Callebaut, Brice Hoffmann, Pierre Lehn, Jean-Paul Mornon
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that functions as an ATP-gated channel. Considerable progress has been made over the last years in the understanding of the molecular basis of the CFTR functions, as well as dysfunctions causing the common genetic disease cystic fibrosis (CF). This review provides a global overview of the theoretical studies that have been performed so far, especially molecular modelling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations...
October 7, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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