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Evolution medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226421/opening-plenary-speaker-human-genomics-precision-medicine-and-advancing-human-health
#1
Eric D Green
Starting with the launch of the Human Genome Project in 1990, the past quarter-century has brought spectacular achievements in genomics that dramatically empower the study of human biology and disease. The human genomics enterprise is now in the midst of an important transition, as the growing foundation of genomic knowledge is being used by researchers and clinicians to tackle increasingly complex problems in biomedicine. Of particular prominence is the use of revolutionary new DNA sequencing technologies for generating prodigious amounts of DNA sequence data to elucidate the complexities of genome structure, function, and evolution, as well as to unravel the genomic bases of rare and common diseases...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225713/the-development-and-evolution-of-physical-medicine-and-rehabilitation-in-taiwan-from-1958-to-2016
#2
I-Nan Lien, Pei-Shen Wu, Tyng-Guey Wang, Ssu-Yuan Chen, Henry L Lew
The field of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) began its development in Taiwan since 1958, and has gradually evolved into a profession that provides a diversity of clinical services and educational activities. The objectives of this brief report were to (1) review its background and milestones in the past 6 decades, (2) describe the current role and function of its Academy of PM&R, (3) present the content and format of its board certification process, focusing on (a) residency training requirements, (b) self-assessment examination, board certification process, and (c) maintenance of certification through continued education...
March 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219727/economic-botany-collections-a-source-of-material-evidence-for-exploring-historical-changes-in-chinese-medicinal-materials
#3
Eric Brand, Christine Leon, Mark Nesbitt, Ping Guo, Ran Huang, Hubiao Chen, Li Liang, Zhongzhen Zhao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Many Chinese medicinal materials (CMMs) have changed over centuries of use, particularly in terms of their botanical identity and processing methods. In some cases, these changes have important implications for safety and efficacy in modern clinical practice. As most previous research has focused on clarifying the evolution of CMMs by analyzing traditional Chinese materia medica ("bencao") literature, assessments of historical collections are needed to validate these conclusions with material evidence...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217177/an-overview-of-current-practice-in-external-beam-radiation-oncology-with-consideration-to-potential-benefits-and-challenges-for-nanotechnology
#4
REVIEW
Raymond B King, Stephen J McMahon, Wendy B Hyland, Suneil Jain, Karl T Butterworth, Kevin M Prise, Alan R Hounsell, Conor K McGarry
Over the past two decades, there has been a significant evolution in the technologies and techniques employed within the radiation oncology environment. Over the same period, extensive research into the use of nanotechnology in medicine has highlighted a range of potential benefits to its incorporation into clinical radiation oncology. This short communication describes key tools and techniques that have recently been introduced into specific stages of a patient's radiotherapy pathway, including diagnosis, external beam treatment and subsequent follow-up...
2017: Cancer Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212112/cancer-as-robust-intrinsic-state-shaped-by-evolution-a-key-issues-review
#5
Ruoshi Yuan, Xiaomei Zhu, Gaowei Wang, Site Li, Ping Ao
Cancer is a complex disease: its pathology cannot be properly understood in terms of independent players-genes, proteins, molecular pathways, or their simple combinations. This is similar to many-body physics of a condensed phase that many important properties are not determined by a single atom or molecule. The rapidly accumulating large 'omics' data also require a new mechanistic and global underpinning to organize for rationalizing cancer complexity. A unifying and quantitative theory was proposed by some of the present authors that cancer is a robust state formed by the endogenous molecular-cellular network, which is evolutionarily built for the developmental processes and physiological functions...
February 17, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211646/observational-study-on-the-dispensing-of-cough-syrups-to-children-with-acute-cough-by-community-pharmacists-in-france
#6
François-André Allaert, Stéphanie Villet, Stéphane Vincent, Laurent Sauve
BACKGROUND: Over-the-counter medicines may be proposed by pharmacists for children with acute cough. Study objectives were to describe the sociodemographic profile of children who were proposed a cough syrup by a pharmacist, the nature of the cough and type(s) of cough syrup proposed and to assess the evolution of the cough, tolerance and satisfaction with treatment. METHODS: Observational, prospective, longitudinal, multicentre study with 157 pharmacies in France...
February 17, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203439/evolutional-trends-in-the-management-of-tracheal-and-bronchial-injuries
#7
REVIEW
Brendan Patrick Madden
Tracheal and Bronchial injuries are potentially life threatening complications which require urgent diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. They typically occur in association with blunt and penetrating chest trauma although they are increasingly being encountered in patients following endobronchial intervention and percutaneous tracheostomy insertion. Their precise incidence is unknown. Presenting features include dyspnoea, stridor, respiratory and haemodynamic compromise, haemoptysis, surgical emphysema, pneumothorax and persistent significant airleak...
January 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202622/the-hypertension-pandemic-an-evolutionary-perspective
#8
REVIEW
Bernard C Rossier, Murielle Bochud, Olivier Devuyst
Hypertension affects over 1.2 billion individuals worldwide and has become the most critical and expensive public health problem. Hypertension is a multifactorial disease involving environmental and genetic factors together with risk-conferring behaviors. The cause of the disease is identified in ∼10% of the cases (secondary hypertension), but in 90% of the cases no etiology is found (primary or essential hypertension). For this reason, a better understanding of the mechanisms controlling blood pressure in normal and hypertensive patients is the aim of very active experimental and clinical research...
March 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198518/comparison-of-shortened-gated-myocardial-perfusion-imaging-processed-with-myovation-evolution-with-full-time-study
#9
Krzysztof Filipczak, Jacek Kuśmierek, Jarosław Drożdż, Krzysztof Chiżyński, Jarosław D Kasprzak, Jan Z Peruga, Anna Płachcińska
BACKGROUND: The work compares the results of shortened gated myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), processed with "Myovation Evolution" software, with a study performed in a standard way. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in a group of 95 patients (56 males and 39 females, age 62 ± 9 years, BMI 28 ± 4) with known or suspected CAD, without clinical history or any signs of a previous myocardial infarction. All patients underwent coronary angiography (CA) within 3 months of MPI...
2017: Nuclear Medicine Review. Central & Eastern Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194337/development-of-statistics-as-a-discipline-for-clinical-research-past-present-and-future
#10
REVIEW
Chitra Lele
This article traces the history and evolution of statistics in the era of evidence based medicine, and focuses on the Indian perspective of this growth of statistics as a discipline for clinical research. Statistics will assume a more inter disciplinary form. Use of software other than SAS likely to grow further. In India, innovative statistical methods will help propel the development of biosimilars. The future is exciting with statistics being used for real world evidence, development of biosimilars, mining of adverse event data and becoming a core function in medicinal product development and lifecycle maintenance...
January 2017: Perspectives in Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193377/another-time-another-space-the-evolution-of-the-virtual-journal-club
#11
REVIEW
Alison L Chetlen, Carol M Dell, Agnieszka O Solberg, Hansel J Otero, Kirsteen R Burton, Matthew T Heller, Nikita Lakomkin, Stephane L Desouches, Stacy E Smith
Virtual journal clubs (VJCs) provide a standardized, easily accessible forum for evidence-based discussion. The new virtual reality setting in which journal clubs and other online education events now take place offers great advantages and new opportunities for radiologists in academic medicine and private practice. VJCs continue to evolve, largely due to many emerging technologies and platforms. VJCs will continue to play an increasingly important role in medical education, interdisciplinary interaction, and multi-institutional collaboration...
March 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193031/mose2-nanolabels-for-electrochemical-immunoassays
#12
Rou Jun Toh, Carmen C Mayorga-Martinez, Zdeněk Sofer, Martin Pumera
There is huge interest in biosensors as a result of the demand for personalized medicine. In biomolecular detection, transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) can be used as signal-enhancing elements. Herein, we utilize a solution-based electrochemical exfoliation technique with bipolar electrodes to manufacture MoSe2 nanolabels for biomolecular detection. Prepared MoSe2 nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit electrocatalytic activity toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), and such a property allows it to act as a robust label for magneto-immunoassays toward protein detection...
December 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191927/foldectures-3d-molecular-architectures-from-self-assembly-of-peptide-foldamers
#13
Sung Hyun Yoo, Hee-Seung Lee
The wide range of fascinating supramolecular architectures found in nature, from DNA double helices to giant protein shells, inspires researchers to mimic the diverse shapes and functions of natural systems. Thus, a variety of artificial molecular platforms have been developed by assembling DNA-, peptide-, and protein-based building blocks for medicinal and biological applications. There has also been a significant interest in the research of non-natural oligomers (i.e., foldamers) that fold into well-defined secondary structures analogous to those found in proteins, because the assemblies of foldamers are expected not only to form biomimetic supramolecular architectures that resemble those of nature but also to display unique functions and unprecedented topologies at the same time due to their different folding propensities from those of natural building blocks...
February 13, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191775/noninvasive-assessment-of-an-engineered-bioactive-graft-in-myocardial-infarction-impact-on-cardiac-function-and-scar-healing
#14
Carolina Gálvez-Montón, Ramon Bragós, Carolina Soler-Botija, Idoia Díaz-Güemes, Cristina Prat-Vidal, Verónica Crisóstomo, Francisco M Sánchez-Margallo, Aida Llucià-Valldeperas, Paco Bogónez-Franco, Isaac Perea-Gil, Santiago Roura, Antoni Bayes-Genis
Cardiac tissue engineering, which combines cells and biomaterials, is promising for limiting the sequelae of myocardial infarction (MI). We assessed myocardial function and scar evolution after implanting an engineered bioactive impedance graft (EBIG) in a swine MI model. The EBIG comprises a scaffold of decellularized human pericardium, green fluorescent protein-labeled porcine adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells (pATPCs), and a customized-design electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) monitoring system...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191771/linking-pluripotency-reprogramming-and-cancer
#15
Juan Manuel Iglesias, Juan Gumuzio, Angel G Martin
Tumor development and the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells are highly comparable processes with striking similarities. Cellular plasticity is inherent to tumor evolution, rendering cells that acquire a stem cell-like phenotype, for which Sox2 activation has proved instrumental for the plastic acquisition of stemness properties in tumor cells. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying both events might uncover novel approaches for the development of anticancer therapeutics and constitute model systems for understanding tumor generation and ensuring the biosafety of cell-based therapies...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187284/clonal-heterogeneity-and-tumor-evolution-past-present-and-the-future
#16
REVIEW
Nicholas McGranahan, Charles Swanton
Intratumor heterogeneity, which fosters tumor evolution, is a key challenge in cancer medicine. Here, we review data and technologies that have revealed intra-tumor heterogeneity across cancer types and the dynamics, constraints, and contingencies inherent to tumor evolution. We emphasize the importance of macro-evolutionary leaps, often involving large-scale chromosomal alterations, in driving tumor evolution and metastasis and consider the role of the tumor microenvironment in engendering heterogeneity and drug resistance...
February 9, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187030/evolution-of-quality-assurance-for-clinical-immunohistochemistry-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine-part-3-technical-validation-of-immunohistochemistry-ihc-assays-in-clinical-ihc-laboratories
#17
Emina E Torlakovic, Carol C Cheung, Corrado D'Arrigo, Manfred Dietel, Glenn D Francis, C Blake Gilks, Jacqueline A Hall, Jason L Hornick, Merdol Ibrahim, Antonio Marchetti, Keith Miller, J Han van Krieken, Soren Nielsen, Paul E Swanson, Mogens Vyberg, Xiaoge Zhou, Clive R Taylor
Validation of immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays is a subject that is of great importance to clinical practice as well as basic research and clinical trials. When applied to clinical practice and focused on patient safety, validation of IHC assays creates objective evidence that IHC assays used for patient care are "fit-for-purpose." Validation of IHC assays needs to be properly informed by and modeled to assess the purpose of the IHC assay, which will further determine what sphere of validation is required, as well as the scope, type, and tier of technical validation...
February 9, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185084/-schistosomose-urog%C3%A3-nitale-et-cancer
#18
A Berry, X Iriart, J Fillaux, J-F Magnaval
The existence of a link between urinary schistosomiasis (US) and bladder carcinoma was first suspected by C. Goebel in 1905. In 1911, A.R Ferguson, who was a professor of Pathology and Microbiology at the Faculty of Medicine in Cairo, published a more detailed survey from 40 autopsies, and reported a likely association of bladder carcinoma with granulomas caused by US. Subsequently, published results from several studies reinforced Ferguson's hypothesis. Moreover, in most countries where US was endemic, association of high prevalence of bladder carcinoma with US had been pointed out...
February 10, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182587/evolution-of-quality-assurance-for-clinical-immunohistochemistry-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine-part-2-immunohistochemistry-test-performance-characteristics
#19
Emina E Torlakovic, Carol C Cheung, Corrado D'Arrigo, Manfred Dietel, Glenn D Francis, C Blake Gilks, Jacqueline A Hall, Jason L Hornick, Merdol Ibrahim, Antonio Marchetti, Keith Miller, J Han van Krieken, Soren Nielsen, Paul E Swanson, Mogens Vyberg, Xiaoge Zhou, Clive R Taylor
All laboratory tests have test performance characteristics (TPCs), whether or not they are explicitly known to the laboratorian or the pathologist. TPCs are thus also an integral characteristic of immunohistochemistry (IHC) tests and other in situ, cell-based molecular assays such as DNA or RNA in situ hybridization or aptamer-based testing. Because of their descriptive, in situ, cell-based nature, IHC tests have a limited repertoire of appropriate TPCs. Although only a few TPCs are relevant to IHC, proper selection of informative TPCs is nonetheless essential for the development of and adherence to appropriate quality assurance measures in the IHC laboratory...
February 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178974/antidepressant-prescribing-in-the-precision-medicine-era-a-prescriber-s-primer-on-pharmacogenetic-tools
#20
REVIEW
Chad A Bousman, Malcolm Forbes, Mahesh Jayaram, Harris Eyre, Charles F Reynolds, Michael Berk, Malcolm Hopwood, Chee Ng
About half of people who take antidepressants do not respond and many experience adverse effects. These detrimental outcomes are in part a result of the impact of an individual's genetic profile on pharmacokinetics and pharmcodynamics. If known and made available to clinicians, this could improve decision-making and antidepressant therapy outcomes. This has spurred the development of numerous pharmacogenetic-based decision support tools. In this article, we provide an overview of pharmacogenetic decision support tools, with particular focus on tools relevant to antidepressants...
February 8, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
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