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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910009/cancer-cytogenetics-an-introduction
#1
Thomas S K Wan
The Philadelphia chromosome was the first chromosomal abnormality discovered in cancer using the cytogenetics technique in 1960, and was consistently associated with chronic myeloid leukemia. Over the past five decades, innovative technical advances in the field of cancer cytogenetics have greatly enhanced the detection ability of chromosomal alterations, and have facilitated the research and diagnostic potential of chromosomal studies in neoplasms. These developments notwithstanding, chromosome analysis of a single cell is still the easiest way to delineate and understand the relationship between clonal evolution and disease progression of cancer cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904793/current-concepts-in-treatment-of-patellofemoral-osteochondritis-dissecans
#2
Chris Juneau, Russ Paine, Eric Chicas, Emily Gardner, Lane Bailey, James McDermott
: Identification, protection, and management of patellofemoral articular cartilage lesions continue to remain on the forefront of sports medicine rehabilitation. Due to high-level compression forces that are applied through the patellofemoral (PF) joint, managing articular cartilage lesions is challenging for sports medicine specialists. Articular cartilage damage may exist in a wide spectrum of injuries ranging from small, single areas of focal damage to wide spread osteoarthritis involving large chondral regions...
December 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903712/the-myeloma-stem-cell-concept-revisited-from-phenomenology-to-operational-terms
#3
REVIEW
Hans Erik Johnsen, Martin Bøgsted, Alexander Schmitz, Julie Støve Bødker, Tarec Christoffer El-Galaly, Preben Johansen, Peter Valent, Niklas Zojer, Els Van Valckenborgh, Karin Vanderkerken, Mark van Duin, Pieter Sonneveld, Martin Perez-Andres, Alberto Orfao, Karen Dybkær
The concept of the myeloma stem cell may have important therapeutic implications, yet its demonstration has been hampered by a lack of consistency in terms and definitions. Here, we summarize the current documentation and propose single-cell in vitro studies for future translational studies. By the classical approach, a CD19(-)/CD45(low/-)/CD38(high)/CD138(+) malignant plasma cell, but not the CD19(+)/CD38(low/-) memory B cell compartment, is enriched for tumorigenic cells that initiate myeloma in xenografted immunodeficient mice, supporting that myeloma stem cells are present in the malignant PC compartment...
December 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903259/differential-variation-patterns-between-hubs-and-bottlenecks-in-human-protein-protein-interaction-networks
#4
Erli Pang, Yu Hao, Ying Sun, Kui Lin
BACKGROUND: The identification, description and understanding of protein-protein networks are important in cell biology and medicine, especially for the study of system biology where the focus concerns the interaction of biomolecules. Hubs and bottlenecks refer to the important proteins of a protein interaction network. Until now, very little attention has been paid to differentiate these two protein groups. RESULTS: By integrating human protein-protein interaction networks and human genome-wide variations across populations, we described the differences between hubs and bottlenecks in this study...
December 1, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897016/open-data-for-discovery-science
#5
Philip R O Payne, Kun Huang, Nigam H Shah, Jessica Tenenbaum
The modern healthcare and life sciences ecosystem is moving towards an increasingly open and data-centric approach to discovery science. This evolving paradigm is predicated on a complex set of information needs related to our collective ability to share, discover, reuse, integrate, and analyze open biological, clinical, and population level data resources of varying composition, granularity, and syntactic or semantic consistency. Such an evolution is further impacted by a concomitant growth in the size of data sets that can and should be employed for both hypothesis discovery and testing...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896724/genomic-database-searching
#6
James R A Hutchins
The availability of reference genome sequences for virtually all species under active research has revolutionized biology. Analyses of genomic variations in many organisms have provided insights into phenotypic traits, evolution and disease, and are transforming medicine. All genomic data from publicly funded projects are freely available in Internet-based databases, for download or searching via genome browsers such as Ensembl, Vega, NCBI's Map Viewer, and the UCSC Genome Browser. These online tools generate interactive graphical outputs of relevant chromosomal regions, showing genes, transcripts, and other genomic landmarks, and epigenetic features mapped by projects such as ENCODE...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894973/is-there-nothing-new-under-the-sun-the-influence-of-herbals-and-pharmacopoeias-on-ethnobotanical-traditions-in-albacete-spain
#7
Diego Rivera, Alonso Verde, Concepción Obón, Francisco Alcaraz, Candelaria Moreno, Teresa Egea, José Fajardo, José Antonio Palazón, Arturo Valdés, Maria Adele Signorini, Piero Bruschi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: This paper has two overarching aims: (1) presenting the results of studying the Albacete tariff of medicines of 1526 and (2) broadly analyzing the origin and influences of medicinal traditional knowledge in the region of Albacete, Spain. We use historical and modern literature that may have influenced this knowledge. Our primary goal was to determine the ingredients used in the pharmacy in the 16th century CE in Albacete through the analysis of the tariff, and our secondary goal was to investigate until when ingredients and uses present in pharmacy and herbals persisted in later periods...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892397/science-and-medicine-in-football-progress-evolution
#8
Franco M Impellizzeri, Tim Meyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888820/the-cochrane-collaboration-%C3%A2-the-role-in-the-evolution-of-evidence-based-medicine-and-development-of-cooperation-in-poland
#9
Magdalena Koperny, Wiktoria Leśniak, Miłosz Jankowski, Małgorzata Bała
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an approach to decision making on the basis of the reliable and up to date best evidence. EBM is regarded as the gold standard all over the world. Cochrane Collaboration is one of the institutions, which promote EBM among physicians, policy makers and other health care workers. Cochrane Collaboration is international non-profit organization bringing together people from all over the world, the aim of which is to create and disseminate reliable scientific information. The Cochrane Collaboration develops and publishes systematic reviews on medical and diagnostic procedures...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885899/regenerative-medicine-lessons-from-mother-nature
#10
Juan Diego Naranjo, Michelle E Scarritt, Luai Huleihel, Anjani Ravindra, Crisanto M Torres, Stephen F Badylak
Regenerative medicine strategies for the restoration of functional tissue have evolved from the concept of ex vivo creation of engineered tissue toward the broader concept of in vivo induction of functional tissue reconstruction. Multidisciplinary approaches are being investigated to achieve this goal using evolutionarily conserved principles of stem cell biology, developmental biology and immunology, current methods of engineering and medicine. This evolution from ex vivo tissue engineering to the manipulation of fundamental in vivo tenets of development and regeneration has the potential to capitalize upon the incredibly complex and only partially understood ability of cells to adapt, proliferate, self-organize and differentiate into functional tissue...
December 2016: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885003/circadian-clocks-not-your-grandfather-s-clock
#11
REVIEW
Fred W Turek
The last 20 years have seen the rapid evolution of our understanding of the molecular genes and networks that enable almost all forms of life to generate 24-hour-or circadian-rhythms. One finding has been particularly exciting: that the molecular circadian clock resides in almost all of the cells of the body and that the clock regulates the timing of many cellular and signaling pathways associated with multiple disease states. Such advances represent a new frontier for medicine: circadian medicine.
November 25, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878212/obesity-paradox-obesity-orthodox-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-an-approach-to-unity
#12
Jesse Roth, Navneet Sahota, Priya Patel, Syed Faizan Mehdi, Mohammad Masum Wiese, Hafiz B Mahboob, Michelle Bravo, Daniel J Eden, Muhammad A Bashir, Amrat Kumar, Farah Alsaati, Irwin J Kurland, Wunnie Brima, Ann Danoff, Alessandra L Szulc, Valentin A Pavlov, Kevin J Tracey, Huan Yang
Obesity and the accompanying metabolic syndrome are strongly associated with heightened morbidity and mortality in older adults. In our review of more than 20 epidemiologic studies of major infectious diseases, including leaders such as tuberculosis, community-acquired pneumonia, and sepsis, obesity was associated with better outcomes. A cause-and-effect relationship between over-nutrition and survival with infection is suggested by results of two preliminary studies of infections in mice, where high fat feeding for 8-10 weeks provided much better outcomes...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877132/immunophenotyping-reveals-the-diversity-of-human-dental-pulp-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-vivo-and-their-evolution-upon-in-vitro-amplification
#13
Maxime Ducret, Hugo Fabre, Olivier Degoul, Gianluigi Atzeni, Colin McGuckin, Nico Forraz, Frédéric Mallein-Gerin, Emeline Perrier-Groult, Brigitte Alliot-Licht, Jean-Christophe Farges
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) from human dental pulp (DP) can be expanded in vitro for cell-based and regenerative dentistry therapeutic purposes. However, their heterogeneity may be a hurdle to the achievement of reproducible and predictable therapeutic outcomes. To get a better knowledge about this heterogeneity, we designed a flow cytometric strategy to analyze the phenotype of DP cells in vivo and upon in vitro expansion with stem cell markers. We focused on the CD31(-) cell population to exclude endothelial and leukocytic cells...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872987/the-ir-evolution-in-oncology-tools-treatments-and-guidelines
#14
Thierry de Baere
Early focus of interventional oncologists was developing tools and imaging guidance, performing "procedures" acting as a skillful technician without knowledge of clinical patient outcomes, beyond post-treatment image findings. Interventional oncologists must deliver "treatments" and not "procedures", and focus on clinically relevant outcomes, provide clinical continuity of care, which means stand at multidisciplinary tumor boards, see patients in consultation before treatment and for follow-up. Interventional oncologists have fought for the same "market" with surgery in a head to head, bloody competition called red ocean strategy in marketing terms, resulting in many aborted trials...
November 21, 2016: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871777/towards-precision-medicine-in-the-clinic-from-biomarker-discovery-to-novel-therapeutics
#15
REVIEW
Dearbhaile C Collins, Raghav Sundar, Joline S J Lim, Timothy A Yap
Precision medicine continues to be the benchmark to which we strive in cancer research. Seeking out actionable aberrations that can be selectively targeted by drug compounds promises to optimize treatment efficacy and minimize toxicity. Utilizing these different targeted agents in combination or in sequence may further delay resistance to treatments and prolong antitumor responses. Remarkable progress in the field of immunotherapy adds another layer of complexity to the management of cancer patients. Corresponding advances in companion biomarker development, novel methods of serial tumor assessments, and innovative trial designs act synergistically to further precision medicine...
November 18, 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870346/divided-zygomatic-bone-in-primates-with-implications-of-skull-morphology-and-biomechanics
#16
Qian Wang, Paul C Dechow
Typically the zygoma is a single bone in the facial skeleton whose shape uniquely copes with loads associated with mastication. Rarely but naturally, the zygoma is divided into two or more parts by supernumerary sutures. These extra intrazygomatic sutures are located at an area of critical morphological and biomechanical importance, yet their impacts have not been studied. In this study, the morphological and possible biomechanical consequences of the divided zygoma (DZ) were investigated in primates including rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), orangutans (Pongo abelii and P...
December 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866037/preoperative-preparation-of-a-patient-with-grade-ii-leg-lymphedema-for-his-third-hip-replacement-surgery
#17
Maria de Fátima Guerreiro Godoy, Livia Maria Pereira de Godoy, Renata Lopes Pinto, Jose Maria Pereira de Godoy
INTRODUCTION: The treatment of lymphedema remains a challenge to modern medicine, due to the characteristics of the disease. CASE PRESENTATION: Report on the case of a 75-year-old patient with lower limb lymphedema for treatment prior to surgery. At age 45, he made the first hip replacement surgery in the left leg. One year later he performed the same surgery on the right leg. At that time his legs had slight ankle edema mainly of the left leg and the entire left leg was affected by lymphedema...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865897/enigmas-in-tumor-resistance-to-kinase-inhibitors-and-calculation-of-the-drug-resistance-index-for-cancer-dric
#18
REVIEW
C I Edvard Smith
Darwinian selection is also applicable when antibiotics, the immune system or other host factors shape the repertoire of microorganisms, and similarly, clonal selection is the hallmark of tumor evolution. The ongoing revolution in new anti-cancer treatment modalities, combined with an unprecedented precision in characterizing malignant clones at the level below one percent, profoundly improves the understanding of repertoire-tuning mechanisms. There is no fundamental difference between selection of the tumor cells in the presence, or absence, of therapy...
November 16, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863567/advancing-precision-nuclear-medicine-and-molecular-imaging-for-lymphoma
#19
REVIEW
Chadwick L Wright, Joseph J Maly, Jun Zhang, Michael V Knopp
PET with fluorodeoxyglucose F 18 ((18)F FDG-PET) is a meaningful biomarker for the detection, targeted biopsy, and treatment of lymphoma. This article reviews the evolution of (18)F FDG-PET as a putative biomarker for lymphoma and addresses the current capabilities, challenges, and opportunities to enable precision medicine practices for lymphoma. Precision nuclear medicine is driven by new imaging technologies and methodologies to more accurately detect malignant disease. Although quantitative assessment of response is limited, such technologies will enable a more precise metabolic mapping with much higher definition image detail and thus may make it a robust and valid quantitative response assessment methodology...
January 2017: PET Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859987/evolution-of-the-model-of-the-clinical-practice-of-emergency-medicine-1979-to-present
#20
Francis L Counselman, Michael S Beeson, Catherine A Marco, Susan K Adsit, Anne L Harvey, Julia N Keehbauch
The Model of the Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine (The EM Model) is a three dimensional representation of the clinical practice of Emergency Medicine. It is a product of successful collaboration involving the American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM), the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM), the Emergency Medicine Residents' Association (EMRA), the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD), the Residency Review Committee for Emergency Medicine (RRC-EM) and the American Academy of Emergency Medicine (AAEM)...
November 17, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
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