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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784552/-new-calculation-algorithms-in-brachytherapy-for-iridium-192-treatments
#1
C Robert, I Dumas, F Martinetti, C Chargari, C Haie-Meder, D Lefkopoulos
Since 1995, the brachytherapy dosimetry protocols follow the methodology recommended by the Task Group 43. This methodology, which has the advantage of being fast, is based on several approximations that are not always valid in clinical conditions. Model-based dose calculation algorithms have recently emerged in treatment planning stations and are considered as a major evolution by allowing for consideration of the patient's finite dimensions, tissue heterogeneities and the presence of high atomic number materials in applicators...
May 18, 2018: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782399/frozen-in-time-a-history-of-the-synthesis-of-nitrous-oxide-and-how-the-process-remained-unchanged-for-over-2-centuries
#2
Alexander Buslov, Matthew Carroll, Manisha S Desai
Three major factors have contributed to the unrivaled popularity of nitrous oxide (N2O) among anesthetists in the 20th century and beyond: its impressive safety profile, its affordability, and its rapid induction and emergence times. These 3 characteristics of N2O have been discussed and written about extensively throughout the medical literature. Nonetheless, the characteristic that contributed most to N2O's initial discovery-the elegance and simplicity of its synthesis-has received substantially less attention...
May 17, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781921/exercise-periodization-over-the-year-improves-metabolic-syndrome-and-medication-use
#3
Felix Morales-Palomo, Miguel Ramirez-Jimenez, Juan Fernando Ortega, Ricardo Mora-Rodriguez
PURPOSE: We aimed to determine if yearly repeated exercise training reduces metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the use of medicines to control MetS components. METHODS: Fifty five MetS individuals were randomized into a TRAIN group that underwent two yearly programs of 16-week of high intensity interval training (HIIT) or a non-exercising CONT group. We measured the evolution of all five MetS components, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF; assessed by VO2PEAK) and medicine use, at baseline (0 months), mid (12 months) and end-point (24 months)...
May 2, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773744/worldwide-emergence-of-resistance-to-antifungal-drugs-challenges-human-health-and-food-security
#4
REVIEW
Matthew C Fisher, Nichola J Hawkins, Dominique Sanglard, Sarah J Gurr
The recent rate of emergence of pathogenic fungi that are resistant to the limited number of commonly used antifungal agents is unprecedented. The azoles, for example, are used not only for human and animal health care and crop protection but also in antifouling coatings and timber preservation. The ubiquity and multiple uses of azoles have hastened the independent evolution of resistance in many environments. One consequence is an increasing risk in human health care from naturally occurring opportunistic fungal pathogens that have acquired resistance to this broad class of chemicals...
May 18, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771635/pathogenesis-based-treatments-in-primary-sjogren-s-syndrome-using-artificial-intelligence-and-advanced-machine-learning-techniques-a-systematic-literature-review
#5
Nathan Foulquier, Pascal Redou, Christophe Le Gal, Bénédicte Rouvière, Jacques-Olivier Pers, Alain Saraux
Big data analysis has become a common way to extract information from complex and large datasets among most scientific domains. This approach is now used to study large cohorts of patients in medicine. This work is a review of publications that have used artificial intelligence and advanced machine learning techniques to study physio pathogenesis-based treatments in pSS. A systematic literature review retrieved all articles reporting on the use of advanced statistical analysis applied to the study of systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) over the last decade...
May 17, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769134/advances-on-chimeric-antigen-receptor-modified-t-cell-therapy-for-oncotherapy
#6
REVIEW
Yanyu Pang, Xiaoyang Hou, Chunsheng Yang, Yanqun Liu, Guan Jiang
Tumor treatment is still complicated in the field of medicine. Tumor immunotherapy has been the most interesting research field in cancer therapy. Application of chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy has recently achieved excellent clinical outcome in patients, especially those with CD19-positive hematologic malignancies. This phenomenon has induced intense interest to develop CAR-T cell therapy for cancer, especially for solid tumors. However, the performance of CAR-T cell treatment in solid tumor is not as satisfactory as that in hematologic disease...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769100/what-did-the-go4health-policy-research-project-contribute-to-the-policy-discourse-on-the-sustainable-development-goals-a-reflexive-review
#7
REVIEW
Vannarath Te, Nadia Floden, Sameera Hussain, Claire E Brolan, Peter S Hill
BACKGROUND: In 2012, the European Commission funded Go4Health-Goals and Governance for Global Health, a consortium of 13 academic research and human rights institutions from both Global North and South-to track the evolution of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and provide ongoing policy advice. This paper reviews the research outputs published between 2012 and 2016, analyzing the thematic content of the publications, and the influence on global health and development discourse through citation metrics...
May 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765380/the-complete-plastome-sequences-of-seven-species-in-gentiana-sect-kudoa-gentianaceae-insights-into-plastid-gene-loss-and-molecular-evolution
#8
Shan-Shan Sun, Peng-Cheng Fu, Xiao-Jun Zhou, Yan-Wei Cheng, Fa-Qi Zhang, Shi-Long Chen, Qing-Bo Gao
The chloroplast (cp) genome is useful in the study of phylogenomics, molecular dating, and molecular evolution. Gentiana sect. Kudoa is a predominantly alpine flowering plant that is valued for its contributions to medicine, ecology, and horticulture. Previous evolutionary studies showed that the plastid gene loss pattern and intra-sectional phylogenetics in sect. Kudoa are still unclear. In this study, we compared 11 Gentiana plastomes, including 7 newly sequenced plastomes from sect. Kudoa , to represent its three serious: ser...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760738/dental-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-and-their-exosomes
#9
REVIEW
Peter Stanko, Ursula Altanerova, Jana Jakubechova, Vanda Repiska, Cestmir Altaner
Stem cells derived from human dental pulp tissue (DP-MSC) differ from the other mesenchymal stem cells prepared from bone marrow or adipose tissue due to their embryonic origin from the neural crest and are of special interest because of their neurotropic character. Furthermore, the therapeutic potential of DP-MSCs is realized through paracrine action of extracellularly released components, for which exosomes play an important role. In this review, we intend to explore the properties of these cells with an emphasis on exosomes...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758235/innovation-and-trends-in-the-development-and-approval-of-antiviral-medicines-1987-2017-and-beyond
#10
REVIEW
Shuvam Chaudhuri, Julian A Symons, Jerome Deval
2017 marked the 30th anniversary of the approval of zidovudine (AZT) as the first HIV/AIDS therapy. Since then, more than eighty antiviral drugs have received FDA approval, half of which treat HIV infection. Here, we provide a retrospective analysis of approved antiviral drugs, including therapeutics against other major chronic infections such as hepatitis B and C, and herpes viruses, over the last thirty years. During this time, only a few drugs were approved to treat acute viral infections, mainly influenza...
May 15, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757235/clinically-applicable-inhibitors-impacting-genome-stability
#11
REVIEW
Anu Prakash, Juan F Garcia-Moreno, James A L Brown, Emer Bourke
Advances in technology have facilitated the molecular profiling (genomic and transcriptomic) of tumours, and has led to improved stratification of patients and the individualisation of treatment regimes. To fully realize the potential of truly personalised treatment options, we need targeted therapies that precisely disrupt the compensatory pathways identified by profiling which allow tumours to survive or gain resistance to treatments. Here, we discuss recent advances in novel therapies that impact the genome (chromosomes and chromatin), pathways targeted and the stage of the pathways targeted...
May 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756285/evolution-of-a-rapid-onsite-evaluation-rose-service-for-endobronchial-ultrasound-guided-ebus-fine-needle-aspiration-fna-cytology-in-a-uk-hospital-a-7-year-audit
#12
Tracey Stevenson, Manish Powari, Christopher Bowles
OBJECTIVE: Endobronchial ultrasound fine needle aspiration (EBUS FNA) is a well-established procedure for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. We review our provision of this service at the Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Foundation Trust and the role of rapid onsite evaluation (ROSE) with the increasing demand for molecular markers in this era of personalized medicine. METHODS: A review of the changes in the Endoscopy clinic over the 7 years from the introduction of EBUS at the end of 2010 until 2017 was carried out...
May 13, 2018: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739980/systematic-analysis-of-demeter-like-dna-glycosylase-genes-shows-lineage-specific-smi-mir7972-involved-in-smdml1-regulation-in-salvia-miltiorrhiza
#13
Jiang Li, Caili Li, Shanfa Lu
DEMETER-like DNA glycosylases (DMLs) initiate the base excision repair-dependent DNA demethylation to regulate a wide range of biological processes in plants. Six putative SmDML genes, termed SmDML1-SmDML6, were identified from the genome of S. miltiorrhiza, an emerging model plant for Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) studies. Integrated analysis of gene structures, sequence features, conserved domains and motifs, phylogenetic analysis and differential expression showed the conservation and divergence of SmDMLs...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738334/precision-medicine-and-lymphoma
#14
James A Heward, Emil A Kumar, Koorosh Korfi, Jessica Okosun, Jude Fitzgibbon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The treatment of the germinal center lymphomas, diffuse large B cell (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma, has changed little beyond the introduction of immunochemotherapies. However, there exists a substantial group of patients within both diseases for which improvements in care will involve appropriate tailoring of treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: DLBCL consists of two major subtypes with striking differences in their clinical outcomes paralleling their underlying genetic heterogeneity...
May 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732246/characterization-and-transferability-of-microsatellites-for-gentiana-lawrencei-var-farreri-gentianaceae
#15
Shan-Shan Sun, Peng-Cheng Fu, Yan-Wei Cheng, Xiao-Jun Zhou, Jian-Min Han
Premise of the Study: Microsatellite markers were developed for a medicinal herb, Gentiana lawrencei var. farreri (Gentianaceae), for the future assessment of population genetic structure and potential hybridization events with related taxa. Methods and Results: Using the 454 FLX+ sequencing platform, we obtained 81,717 clean reads with an average length of 291 bp. A total of 3031 primer pairs were designed, and 96 were selected for validation. A set of 20 fluorescently labeled primer pairs was further selected and screened for polymorphisms in three G...
January 2018: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731363/halogenase-engineering-and-its-utility-in-medicinal-chemistry
#16
REVIEW
Amy E Fraley, David H Sherman
Halogenation is commonly used in medicinal chemistry to improve the potency of pharmaceutical leads. While synthetic methods for halogenation present selectivity and reactivity challenges, halogenases have evolved over time to perform selective reactions under benign conditions. The optimization of halogenation biocatalysts has utilized enzyme evolution and structure-based engineering alongside biotransformation in a variety of systems to generate stable site-selective variants. The recent improvements in halogenase-catalyzed reactions has demonstrated the utility of these biocatalysts for industrial purposes, and their ability to achieve a broad substrate scope implies a synthetic tractability with increasing relevance in medicinal chemistry...
April 30, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730807/religiosity-spirituality-matters-on-plant-based-local-medical-system
#17
Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque, Washington Soares Ferreira Júnior, Daniel Carvalho Pires Sousa, Rafael Corrêa Prota Santos Reinaldo, André Luiz Borba do Nascimento, Paulo Henrique Santos Gonçalves
Religiosity/spirituality can affect health and quality of life in myriad ways. Religion has been present since the first moments of our evolutionary history, whether it is understood as a byproduct or as an adaptation of our cognitive evolution. We investigated how religion influences medicinal plant-based local medical systems (LMSs) and focuses on how individual variation in the degree of religiosity/spirituality affects the structure of LMSs. The knowledge of people about their medical systems was obtained through the free-listing technique, and level of religiosity/spirituality was calculated using the Brazilian version of the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727610/in-defense-of-sugar-a-critique-of-diet-centrism
#18
REVIEW
Edward Archer
Sugars are foundational to biological life and played essential roles in human evolution and dietary patterns for most of recorded history. The simple sugar glucose is so central to human health that it is one of the World Health Organization's Essential Medicines. Given these facts, it defies both logic and a large body of scientific evidence to claim that sugars and other nutrients that played fundamental roles in the substantial improvements in life- and health-spans over the past century are now suddenly responsible for increments in the prevalence of obesity and chronic non-communicable diseases...
May 1, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727160/mos-2-nanoparticles-as-electrocatalytic-labels-in-magneto-immunoassays
#19
Daniel Bouša, Carmen C Mayorga-Martinez, Vlastimil Mazánek, Zdeněk Sofer, Kristýna Boušová, Martin Pumera
Ability to detect biomolecules with a simple and cost-effective approach has been very demanding in today's medicine. The nanoparticles and two-dimensional materials have been extensively used within this field in devices with high selectivity and sensitivity. Here, we report the use of MoS2 nanoparticles (MoS2 NPs) as a signal-enhancing label in a standard immunoassay test. MoS2 NPs were prepared by a bipolar electrochemistry method. The current response during the hydrogen evolution reaction catalyzed by MoS2 was measured...
May 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726749/international-variation-in-programmes-for-assessment-of-children-s-neurodevelopment-in-the-community-understanding-disparate-approaches-to-evaluation-of-motor-social-emotional-behavioural-and-cognitive-function
#20
Philip Wilson, Rachael Wood, Kirsten Lykke, Anette Hauskov Graungaard, Ruth Kirk Ertmann, Merethe Kirstine Andersen, Ole Rikard Haavet, Per Lagerløv, Eirik Abildsnes, Mina P Dahli, Marjukka Mäkelä, Aleksi Varinen, Merja Hietanen
BACKGROUND: Few areas of medicine demonstrate such international divergence as child development screening and surveillance. Many countries have nationally mandated surveillance policies, but the content of programmes and mechanisms for delivery vary enormously. The cost of programmes is substantial but no economic evaluations have been carried out. We have critically examined the history, underlying philosophy, content and delivery of programmes for child development assessment in five countries with comprehensive publicly funded health services (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Scotland and Sweden)...
May 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
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