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Evolution medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651991/ribosome-inactivating-proteins-from-an-evolutionary-perspective
#1
Walter Jesús Lapadula, Maximiliano Juri Ayub
Ribosome Inactivating Proteins (RIPs) are rRNA N-glycosidases that inhibit protein synthesis through the elimination of a single adenine residue from 28S rRNA. Many of these toxins have been characterized in depth from a biochemical and molecular point of view. In addition, their potential use in medicine as highly selective toxins is being explored. In contrast, the evolutionary history of RIP encoding genes has remained traditionally underexplored. In recent years, accumulation of large genomic data has fueled research on this issue and revealed unexpected information about the origin and evolution of RIP toxins...
June 23, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647104/-french-haemovigilance-from-1994-to-nowadays-evolution-and-prospects
#2
B Lassale, G Daurat, M Besse-Moreau, J-P Aullen
Born in France in 1993, haemovigilance aims at monitoring the blood transfusion chain from the donor to the recipient, receiving labile blood products. It differs from the other vigilances due to its organization and its completeness dealing with the collected information. Prior to the European directive, the French agency created a new gravity level: grade 0, aiming at reporting and analyzing the blood transfusion chain dysfunction. Thus, haemovigilance gradually integrates the management of the risks and is given new missions in hospitals and private hospitals...
June 21, 2017: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642541/can-uk-undergraduate-dental-programmes-provide-training-in-non-surgical-facial-aesthetics
#3
T W M Walker, F Gately, S Stagnell, A Kerai, C Mills, S Thomas
Aim Recently, more and more dentists have found themselves engaging in the delivery of non-surgical facial aesthetics (NSFA) as part of their regular practice routine. NSFA is a growing field in aesthetic medicine that is practised by a range of clinicians including doctors, dentists and registered prescriber nurses and is an industry estimated to be worth over £3 billion in the UK alone. In the past few years, several public scandals in aesthetic medicine have prompted reactions by several bodies including the Government and Royal Colleges...
June 23, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641555/supervised-machine-learning-methods-applied-to-predict-ligand-binding-affinity
#4
Gabriela Sehnem Heck, Val Oliveira Pintro, Richard Rene Pereira, Mauricio Boff de Ávila, Nayara Maria Bernhardt Levin, Walter Filgueira de Azevedo
BACKGROUND: Calculation of ligand-binding affinity is an open problem in computational medicinal chemistry. The ability to computationally predict affinities has a beneficial impact in the early stages of drug development, since it allows a mathematical model to assess protein-ligand interactions. Due to the availability of structural and binding information, machine learning methods have been applied to generate scoring functions with good predictive power. OBJECTIVE: Our goal here is to review recent developments in the application of machine learning methods to predict ligand- binding affinity...
June 22, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641396/geneticization-in-mim-omim%C3%A2-exploring-historic-and-epistemic-drivers-of-contemporary-understandings-of-genetic-disease
#5
Rachel A Ankeny
Prior to the genomic sequencing era, the bible for those working in clinical genetics was McKusick's Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM), which appeared in multiple editions between the 1960s and the late 1990s. This catalogue was organized according to general patterns of inheritance and focused on phenotypes. Beginning in the mid-1980s, it was replaced by Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM®), a continuously updated catalogue documenting molecular relationships between genetic variation and phenotypic expression...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639255/necessity-and-feasibility-of-improving-mental-health-services-in-china-a-systematic-qualitative-review
#6
REVIEW
Xudong Zhao, Liang Liu, Chengping Hu, Fazhan Chen, Xirong Sun
It has been nearly 40 years since the reform and opening up of Mainland China. The mental health services system has developed rapidly as a part of the profound socioeconomic changes that ensued. However, its development has not been as substantial as other areas of medical care. For the current qualitative systematic review, we searched databases, including China Biology Medicine disc, Weipu, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang digital periodical full text data, China's important newspaper full text database, China Statistical Yearbook database, etc...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638038/-a-current-view-on-the-history-of-atypical-antipsychotics
#7
D S Danilov
Based on the analysis of the original literature, the author for the first time systemizes the data on the story of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The history of introduction of the first atypical neuroleptics - clozapine and sulpiride, which launched the dichotomic development of psychopharmacology of atypical antipsychotics, is described. Historical facts on the introduction into practice of different sulpiride- and clozapine-like neuroleptics as well as the relationship of their history with the elaboration of dopamine and serotonin hypotheses of mechanisms of action of antipsychotics are presented...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636311/insights-into-integrated-lead-generation-and-target-identification-in-malaria-and-tuberculosis-drug-discovery
#8
John Okombo, Kelly Chibale
New, safe and effective drugs are urgently needed to treat and control malaria and tuberculosis, which affect millions of people annually. However, financial return on investment in the poor settings where these diseases are mostly prevalent is very minimal to support market-driven drug discovery and development. Moreover, the imminent loss of therapeutic lifespan of existing therapies due to evolution and spread of drug resistance further compounds the urgency to identify novel effective drugs. However, the advent of new public-private partnerships focused on tropical diseases and the recent release of large data sets by pharmaceutical companies on antimalarial and antituberculosis compounds derived from phenotypic whole cell high throughput screening have spurred renewed interest and opened new frontiers in malaria and tuberculosis drug discovery...
June 21, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634530/the-role-of-medical-education-in-the-development-of-the-scientific-practice-of-medicine
#9
Lucien Cardinal, Alan Kaell
The authors describe the important role of medical schools and graduate medical education programs (residencies) in relationship to the advances in Medicine witnessed during the twentieth century; diagnosis, prognosis and treatment were revolutionized. This historical essay details the evolution of the education system and the successful struggle to introduce a uniform, science-based curriculum and bedside education. The result was successive generations of soundly educated physicians prepared with a broad knowledge in science, an understanding of laboratory methods and the ability to practice medicine at the bedside...
January 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632830/-declaration-of-the-chilean-academy-of-medicine-of-law-20-850-on-clinical-trials-of-pharmaceutical-products-and-medical-devices-and-of-the-bylaw-that-will-regulate-its-application
#10
Gloría López, Gloría Valdés, Emilio Roessler, Vicente Valdivieso
In Chile, high cost treatments required by selected medical conditions are financed by the State, according to Law 20.850. A bylaw under discussion by the Senate regulates clinical trials, posing complex issues that will endanger local interest in front-line research: 1) The exclusive and mandatory control bestowed to the Institute of Public Health during all stages of the trials and also the surveillance of institutions performing clinical trials, overriding their Clinical Research Review Boards; 2) The 10 year period during which any adverse event is assumed to have been caused by the medication or devise evaluated by the trial, unless the contrary is proven in a judicial process; 3) Individuals submitted to the trials are entitled to free post trial access to the treatment received during the study, financed by the trial supporting entities and as long as the drug or devise is considered to be useful...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632825/-what-do-the-numbers-tell-us-about-the-temporal-evolution-of-chagas-disease
#11
Mauricio Canals, Christian González, Lucia Canals, Andrea Canals, Dante Cáceres, Sergio Alvarado, Pedro E Cattan, Miguel Saavedra, Inés Zulantay, Werner Apt
Chagas disease remains highly prevalent in Chile, especially between the regions of Arica and Parinacota, and Coquimbo. Since 1999 it is considered that in Chile the vector transmission was interrupted. Under this premise, the epidemiological dynamics should be changing. We analyzed the evolution of the prevalence of Chagas' disease analyzing 64,995 xenodiagnosis performed in the laboratory of Parasitology of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile between 1949 and 2014. The evolution of the mortalities and incidences from the databases of the Ministry of Health in the periods in which it was analyzed...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631441/genetic-landscape-and-deregulated-pathways-in-b-cell-lymphoid-malignancies
#12
R Rosenquist, S Beà, M-Q Du, B Nadel, Q Pan-Hammarström
With the introduction of next-generation sequencing, the genetic landscape of the complex group of B-cell lymphoid malignancies has rapidly been unravelled in recent years. This has provided important information about recurrent genetic events and identified key pathways deregulated in each lymphoma subtype. In parallel, there has been intense search and development of novel types of targeted therapy that 'hit' central mechanisms in lymphoma pathobiology, such as BTK, PI3K or BCL2 inhibitors. In this review, we will outline the current view of the genetic landscape of selected entities: follicular lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and marginal zone lymphoma...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627850/to-prevent-and-deal-with-medical-problems-on-board
#13
Blaise Genton, Valérie D'Acremont
As more and more quality of life becomes a goal of personnel and sustainable development, long-distance travel is becoming more widespread. Sailing around the world is an example of this evolution. The keys to a successful journey are rigorous preparation and adherence to some prevention rules. Medical or surgical emergencies are rare, and can often be dealt with by remote medical contact. New communication technologies such as satellite phones make it possible to seek medical advice from professionals, or even for sailers to treat themselves with very short prior training, provided that the required equipment and medicines have been embarked before leaving...
May 3, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627842/ultrasonography-an-useful-diagnostic-tool-for-the-general-practitioner
#14
Eva Rikley, Noémie Boillat-Blanco, Jean-Yves Meuwly, Éric Breuss, Nicolas Senn
The ultrasound has become an increasingly popular tool in the clinical assessment of patients, not least in the field of general medicine. The technical evolution as well as the recent changes of the application of ultrasounds allows for rapid and targeted exams that has the potential to improve the care of patients. With the help of recent articles regarding ultrasound (US) in general medical practice, this article presents several useful indications for the primary care physician as well as shows today's training in Switzerland and demonstrates the need of an adapted training to better respond to today's need...
May 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622978/the-evolution-and-nomenclature-of-gnrh-type-and-corazonin-type-neuropeptide-signaling-systems
#15
REVIEW
Meet Zandawala, Shi Tian, Maurice R Elphick
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was first discovered in mammals on account of its effect in triggering pituitary release of gonadotropins and the importance of this discovery was recognized forty years ago in the award of the 1977 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Investigation of the evolution of GnRH revealed that GnRH-type signaling systems occur throughout the chordates, including agnathans (e.g. lampreys) and urochordates (e.g. sea squirts). Furthermore, the discovery that adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is the ligand for a GnRH-type receptor in the arthropod Drosophila melanogaster provided evidence of the antiquity of GnRH-type signaling...
June 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617685/adult-congenital-heart-disease-magnitude-of-the-problem
#16
Akanksha N Thakkar, Ponraj Chinnadurai, C Huie Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To define the magnitude of problems faced by patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) and to identify unmet needs for this population. RECENT FINDINGS: The ACHD population is estimated to include more than 1 million people in the United States and continues to grow at a steady rate. Owing to the decline in early mortality in this group, modern medicine is now faced by the long-term complications associated with congenital heart disease such as chronic heart failure, increased endocarditis risk, elevated burden of arrhythmias, pulmonary hypertension, valvular dysfunction, and pregnancy...
June 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611974/internal-medicine-residency-program-in-guyana-a-collaborative-model-for-sustainable-graduate-medical-education-in-resource-limited-settings
#17
Dev Persaud, Joanna Cole, Ramdeo Jainarine, Zahira Khalid
The Georgetown Public Hospital Corporation (GPHC) started the Internal Medicine/Infectious Diseases residency program in 2013. It was a collaborative initiative between GPHC and University of Maryland. Since that time the program has gone through many trials and developed new partnerships and collaboration and emerged as a young successful program with close international links that have worked and persevered in developing the successful academic and professional careers of its residents. International collaborations have resulted in applying innovative methods of teaching to deliver the curriculum in a sustainable manner in a resource-limited setting...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609429/reciprocal-evolution-of-opiate-science-from-medical-and-cultural-perspectives
#18
George B Stefano, Nastazja Pilonis, Radek Ptacek, Richard M Kream
Over the course of human history, it has been common to use plants for medicinal purposes, such as for providing relief from particular maladies and self-medication. Opium represents one longstanding remedy that has been used to address a range of medical conditions, alleviating discomfort often in ways that have proven pleasurable. Opium is a combination of compounds obtained from the mature fruit of opium poppy, papaver somniferum. Morphine and its biosynthetic precursors thebaine and codeine constitute the main bioactive opiate alkaloids contained in opium...
June 13, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605888/origins-and-evolution-of-social-medicine-and-contemporary-social-medicine-in-korea
#19
Dal Sun Han, Sang-Soo Bae, Dong-Hyun Kim, Yong-Jun Choi
Social medicine is recognized as one of medical specialties in many countries. However, social medicine has never been formally introduced to Korea, presumably because the term and its principles were not accepted for some years in the past in American medicine, which has strongly influenced Korean medicine. This paper describes the origins and evolution of social medicine and briefly discusses contemporary social medicine in Korea. Social medicine was initiated in France and Germany in 1848. Since then, it has expanded globally and developed in diverse ways...
2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600448/development-of-a-curricular-framework-for-pediatric-hospital-medicine-fellowships
#20
Karen E Jerardi, Erin Fisher, Caroline Rassbach, Jennifer Maniscalco, Rebecca Blankenburg, Lindsay Chase, Neha Shah
Pediatric Hospital Medicine (PHM) is an emerging field in pediatrics and one that has experienced immense growth and maturation in a short period of time. Evolution and rapid expansion of the field invigorated the goal of standardizing PHM fellowship curricula, which naturally aligned with the field's evolving pursuit of a defined identity and consideration of certification options. The national group of PHM fellowship program directors sought to establish curricular standards that would more accurately reflect the competencies needed to practice pediatric hospital medicine and meet future board certification needs...
June 9, 2017: Pediatrics
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