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Evolution medicine

Zirui Song, Amol S Navathe, Ezekiel J Emanuel, Kevin G Volpp
The United States is simultaneously moving toward value-based payments for populations and precision medicine for individuals. During this evolution, innovations in payment and delivery that enhance tailoring of treatments to individuals while improving the value of care are needed. We propose one such innovation that would allow physician payment and patient cost sharing to better reflect the value of care by allowing the appropriateness of a service for a given patient in a given clinical situation to play a more meaningful role in the design of such incentives...
March 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
Xiao-Meng Zhang, Zhi-Jian Lin, Fan Li, Bing Zhang, Xiao-Xin Guo, Le Yang
Based on the relation of efficacy and toxicity, this study mined the dosage rules and characteristics of Aconitum herbs in oral prescriptions from 48 traditional ancient books from Eastern Han dynasty to Qing dynasty, to provide the basis for strengthening the clinical risk pharmacovigilance. In the 48 traditional ancient books, 4 521 prescriptions with clear daily oral dosage were included to establish a database. SPSS 20.0 software was used for statistics and analysis of the daily dosage characteristics with different kinds of herbs, indications, dose forms, processing, use in special population, and other aspects...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Brenda Si Elias, Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Betty Head, Geoffrey G Hicks
Translating to the Community (T2C) is a social bio-repository designed to advance new diagnostic tools and realign community-clinical processes, with the aim to mitigate the short-and-long term impacts of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), prenatal alcohol exposure, and its co-morbidities and behaviors. In this paper, we describe the evolution of this repository as a new translational partnership to advance a precision medicine approach to FASD. Key to its evolution was a partnership between academic researchers, Indigenous communities, families and a regional diagnostic clinic...
March 15, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Yan Li, Zhirong Zhang, Junbo Yang, Guanghui Lv
Fritillaria spp. constitute important traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Xinjiang is one of two diversity hotspots in China in which eight Fritillaria species occur, two of which are endemic to the region. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationships of Xinjiang Fritillaria species (including F. yuminensis) within the genus are unclear. In the present study, we sequenced the chloroplast (cp) genomes of seven Fritillaria species in Xinjiang using the Illumina HiSeq platform, with the aim of assessing the global structural patterns of the seven cp genomes and identifying highly variable cp DNA sequences...
2018: PloS One
D Bradley Welling, Robert K Jackler
PURPOSE: To review contributions of the American Otological Society (AOS) over the most recent quarter century (1993-2018) and to comment on possible future evolution of the field during the quarter century to come. METHODS: Retrospective review of selected topics from the AOS transactions, distinguished lectureships over the past 25 years, and selective reflection by the authors. Speculation on potential advances of the next quarter century derived from emerging topics in the current literature and foreseeable trends in science and technology are also proffered for consideration (and possible future ridicule)...
April 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Riyad B Abu-Laban, Sharla Drebit, Ronald R Lindstrom, Chantel Archibald, Kim Eggers, Kendall Ho, Afshin Khazei, Adam Lund, Carolyn MacKinnon, Ray Markham, Julian Marsden, Ed Martin, Jim Christenson
As generalists, emergency practitioners face challenges in providing state-of-the-art care owing to the broad spectrum of practice and the rapid rate of new knowledge generation. Networks have become increasingly prevalent in health care, and it was in this backdrop, and the resulting opportunity to advance evidence-informed emergency care in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC), that a new "Emergency Medicine Network" (EM Network) was launched in 2017. The EM Network consists of four programs, each led by a physician with expertise and a track record in the domain: (1) Clinical Resources; (2) Innovation; (3) Continuing Professional Development; and (4) Real-time Support...
January 4, 2018: Curēus
Carlos A Aguilar, Sarah M Greising, Alain Watts, Stephen M Goldman, Chelsea Peragallo, Christina Zook, Jacqueline Larouche, Benjamin T Corona
Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable capacity to regenerate when injured, but when confronted with major traumatic injury resulting in volumetric muscle loss (VML), the regenerative process consistently fails. The loss of muscle tissue and function from VML injury has prompted development of a suite of therapeutic approaches but these strategies have proceeded without a comprehensive understanding of the molecular landscape that drives the injury response. Herein, we administered a VML injury in an established rodent model and monitored the evolution of the healing phenomenology over multiple time points using muscle function testing, histology, and expression profiling by RNA sequencing...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Chloë Campbell, Rhiannon Braund, Caroline Morris
INTRODUCTION Recognition of the need to reduce harm and optimise patient outcomes from the use of medicines is contributing to an evolution of pharmacy practice in primary health care internationally. This evolution is changing community pharmacy and leading to new models of care that enable pharmacist contribution beyond traditional realms. There is little information about the extent of these changes in New Zealand. AIM The aim of this study was to investigate emerging roles of pharmacists in primary health care...
December 2017: Journal of Primary Health Care
L Collado-Yurrita, M J Ciudad-Cabañas, M A Cuadrado-Cenzual
OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to show changes in Medical Education in the Department of Medicine at the Complutense University of Madrid in the last 10-15 years. RESULTS: Medical education in the Department of Medicine at the Complutense University of Madrid has undergone significant changes in the last 10-15 years. An attempt to summarize these shows that radical change in the teaching of medicine for both teachers and students has taken place in three areas: 1. Progressive development of Patient-centered medical education...
March 11, 2018: Medical Teacher
Edward H Reynolds
The word hysteria originated in the Corpus Hippocraticum (c420 BCE) as a natural explanation for a variety of diseases in women linked in the Greco-Roman mind to an animate or inanimate womb, but which in the last five centuries has evolved to describe an elusive disorder of brain ± mind in men and women, currently referred to by neurologists as "functional neurological disorder". The Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians had no knowledge of brain or psychological function. Babylonian and Assyrian descriptions of disease and behaviour include only rare examples suggestive of modern hysteria...
February 17, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Céline Mascaux, Ming-Sound Tsao, Fred R Hirsch
Precision medicine commonly refers to the selection of the most effective cancer treatments based on the presence of specific biomarkers (eg, genomic abnormalities) in a patient's tumor. Therefore, genomic testing is used to identify patients whose tumors harbor the vulnerability that is sensitive to corresponding targeted therapies. This approach allows for the selection of patients who have the greatest chance of deriving benefit from the treatments, reduces toxicity, and significantly improves outcome; precision medicine is recommended for advanced non-small cell lung cancer...
March 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Nathalie Tabin, Sharon Mitchell, Elaine O'Connell, Daiana Stolz, Gernot Rohde
First published in 2006, the first European core syllabus in Adult Respiratory Medicine was developed with the intention of harmonising education and training throughout Europe. Internationally recognised by the European Union of Medical Specialists and identified as the first document of its kind in respiratory medicine, it has provided a comprehensive guide for both local and national institutions in the development of adult respiratory training programmes. Like all fields in education, respiratory medicine is an ever-changing area and as such, respective syllabi, curricula and training programmes must adapt and diversify in line with the evolution of core medical concepts...
March 2018: Breathe
Damian Swieczkowski, Piotr Merks, Milosz Jaguszewski, Danuta Siluk
Pharmacy students should have a sufficient level of knowledge, skills, and attitude to practice pharmaceutical care effectively in the routine practice in the community pharmacy. Moreover, the strong cooperation between pharmacists and physicians is strongly needed in the process of providing pharmaceutical care. The aim of the study was to investigate the opinions of students of the Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy from Medical University of Gdansk on pharmaceutical care and cognitive services and aspects of interprofessional collaboration between physicians and pharmacists under the conditions of Polish healthcare system...
May 2017: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica
Ryan C Shean, Alexander L Greninger
Infectious pathogens are known for their rapid evolutionary rates with new mutations arising over days to weeks. The ability to rapidly recover whole genome sequences and analyze the spread and evolution of pathogens using genetic information and pathogen collection dates has lead to interest in real-time tracking of infectious transmission and outbreaks. However, the level of temporal resolution afforded by these analyses may conflict with definitions of what constitutes protected health information (PHI) and privacy requirements for de-identification for publication and public sharing of research data and metadata...
January 2018: Virus Evolution
Leslie Sheu, Catherine Burke, Dylan Masters, Patricia S O'Sullivan
Phenomenon: Preclerkship medical education has undergone extensive reform, and the clerkship years are growing targets for curricular innovation. As institutions implement new preclerkship curricula to better prepare medical students to practice medicine in the context of modern healthcare systems, the perspective of clerkship leaders regarding clerkship student roles and potential for change will facilitate redefining these roles so that preclerkship educational innovations can continue into clerkships. APPROACH: In this qualitative exploratory study, authors conducted semistructured interviews with clerkship and site directors for eight core clerkships from April to May 2016...
March 6, 2018: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
Roberto Satolli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Michael Tessler, David Marancik, Donald Champagne, Alistair Dove, Alvin Camus, Mark E Siddall, Sebastian Kvist
Leeches (Annelida: Hirudinea) possess powerful salivary anticoagulants and, accordingly, are frequently employed in modern, authoritative medicine. Members of the almost exclusively marine family Piscicolidae account for 20% of leech species diversity, and feed on host groups (e.g., sharks) not encountered by their freshwater and terrestrial counterparts. Moreover, some species of Ozobranchidae feed on endangered marine turtles and have been implicated as potential vectors for the tumor-associated turtle herpesvirus...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
Karen E Pinder, Jennifer A Shabbits
BACKGROUND: The past decade has witnessed successful expansion, distribution and curricular renewal at the University of British Columbia (UBC) medical school. The expansion and distribution of the medical program doubled enrollment and established the first North American medical school training students across multiple geographical locations. The more recent competency-based curriculum renewal demonstrates sustained innovation within UBC medicine. AIMS: This paper describes that a significant contributor to these successes has been a team of teaching faculty whose exclusive roles have been providing curricular support...
March 5, 2018: Medical Teacher
Mathilde J H Girard-Madoux, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero, Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg, Catherine Mooser, Gabrielle T Belz, Andrew J Macpherson, Eric Vivier
Biological redundancy ensures robustness in living organisms at several levels, from genes to organs. In this review, we explore the concept of redundancy and robustness through an analysis of the caecal appendix, an organ that is often considered to be a redundant remnant of evolution. However, phylogenic data show that the Appendix was selected during evolution and is unlikely to disappear once it appeared. In humans, it is highly conserved and malformations are extremely rare, suggesting a role for that structure...
March 2, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
M J García Velloso, M Rodríguez Fraile
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
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