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Evolution medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912577/classifying-the-evolutionary-and-ecological-features-of-neoplasms
#1
REVIEW
Carlo C Maley, Athena Aktipis, Trevor A Graham, Andrea Sottoriva, Amy M Boddy, Michalina Janiszewska, Ariosto S Silva, Marco Gerlinger, Yinyin Yuan, Kenneth J Pienta, Karen S Anderson, Robert Gatenby, Charles Swanton, David Posada, Chung-I Wu, Joshua D Schiffman, E Shelley Hwang, Kornelia Polyak, Alexander R A Anderson, Joel S Brown, Mel Greaves, Darryl Shibata
Neoplasms change over time through a process of cell-level evolution, driven by genetic and epigenetic alterations. However, the ecology of the microenvironment of a neoplastic cell determines which changes provide adaptive benefits. There is widespread recognition of the importance of these evolutionary and ecological processes in cancer, but to date, no system has been proposed for drawing clinically relevant distinctions between how different tumours are evolving. On the basis of a consensus conference of experts in the fields of cancer evolution and cancer ecology, we propose a framework for classifying tumours that is based on four relevant components...
September 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911247/metabolic-pathways-and-pharmacokinetics-of-natural-medicines-with-low-permeability
#2
Mei Zeng, Lan Yang, Dan He, Yao Li, Mingxin Shi, Jingqing Zhang
Drug metabolism plays an important role in the drug disposal process. Differences in pharmacokinetics among individuals are the basis for personalized medicine. Natural medicines, formed by long-term evolution of nature, prioritize the action of a target protein with a drug. Natural medicines are valued for structural diversity, low toxicity, low cost, and definite biological activities. Metabolic pathway and pharmacokinetic research of natural medicines is highly beneficial for clinical dose adjustment and the development of personalized medicine...
September 14, 2017: Drug Metabolism Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904688/cellulitis-in-aged-persons-a-neglected-infection-in-the-literature
#3
Anis Mzabi, Wafa Marrakchi, Zeineb Alaya, Fatma Ben Fredj, Amel Rezgui, Elyès Bouajina, Chedia Laouani Kechrid
Cellulitis is a frequent soft tissue and skin infection. The lower limbs are affected in 70 to 80% of cases. Cellulitis in aged persons is not yet well described in literature. A retrospective descriptive study conducted in the Internal Medicine Department of Sahloul hospital in Sousse in Tunisia. It included patients whose age was up to 65 years old admitted into hospital for cellulitis of the legs, the arms or the face. One hundred fifty eight patients with a mean age of 73 years old (range: 65 to 94 years old) were included...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903768/liquid-dynamic-medicine-and-n-of-1-clinical-trials-a-change-of-perspective-in-oncology-research
#4
REVIEW
Nicola Silvestris, Gennaro Ciliberto, Paolo De Paoli, Giovanni Apolone, Maria Luisa Lavitrano, Marco A Pierotti, Giorgio Stanta
The increasing use of genomics to define the pattern of actionable mutations and to test and validate new therapies for individual cancer patients, and the growing application of liquid biopsy to dynamically track tumor evolution and to adapt molecularly targeted therapy according to the emergence of tumor clonal variants is shaping modern medical oncology., In order to better describe this new therapeutic paradigm we propose the term "Liquid dynamic medicine" in the place of "Personalized or Precision medicine"...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903376/improving-circulating-tumor-cells-enumeration-and-characterization-to-predict-outcome-in-first-line-chemotherapy-mcrpc-patients
#5
Luis León-Mateos, Helena Casas, Alicia Abalo, María Vieito, Manuel Abreu, Urbano Anido, Antonio Gómez-Tato, Rafael López, Miguel Abal, Laura Muinelo-Romay
INTRODUCTION: There is a critical need of new surrogate markers for improving the therapeutic selection and monitoring of metastatic prostate cancer patients. Nowadays clinical management of these patients is been driven by biochemical and clinical parameters without enough accuracy to allow a real personalized medicine. The present study was conducted to go insight the molecular profile of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) isolated from advanced metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) with the aim of identifying prognostic marker with potential utility for therapy selection and monitoring...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894191/non-cell-autonomous-effects-yield-lower-clonal-diversity-in-expanding-tumors
#6
Tazzio Tissot, Frédéric Thomas, Benjamin Roche
Recent cancer research has investigated the possibility that non-cell-autonomous (NCA) driving tumor growth can support clonal diversity (CD). Indeed, mutations can affect the phenotypes not only of their carriers ("cell-autonomous", CA effects), but also sometimes of other cells (NCA effects). However, models that have investigated this phenomenon have only considered a restricted number of clones. Here, we designed an individual-based model of tumor evolution, where clones grow and mutate to yield new clones, among which a given frequency have NCA effects on other clones' growth...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892437/public-health-system-research-in-public-health-emergency-preparedness-in-the-united-states-2009-2015-actionable-knowledge-base
#7
Elena Savoia, Leesa Lin, Dottie Bernard, Noah Klein, Lyndon P James, Stefano Guicciardi
BACKGROUND: In 2008, the Institute of Medicine released a letter report identifying 4 research priority areas for public health emergency preparedness in public health system research: (1) enhancing the usefulness of training, (2) improving timely emergency communications, (3) creating and maintaining sustainable response systems, and (4) generating effectiveness criteria and metrics. OBJECTIVES: To (1) identify and characterize public health system research in public health emergency preparedness produced in the United States from 2009 to 2015, (2) synthesize research findings and assess the level of confidence in these findings, and (3) describe the evolution of knowledge production in public health emergency preparedness system research...
September 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887510/mirna-target-network-analysis-identifies-potential-biomarkers-for-traditional-chinese-medicine-tcm-syndrome-development-evaluation-in-hepatitis-b-caused-liver-cirrhosis
#8
Yamin Liu, Mei Wang, Yunquan Luo, ChenJian Chen, Yiyu Lu, Yulin Shi, Chenchen Tang, Qianmei Zhou, Hui Zhang, Yuanjia Hu, Shibing Su, Qilong Chen
Hepatitis B is one of most etiologies of Liver cirrhosis in China, and clinically lacks the effective strategy for Hepatitis B caused cirrhosis (HBC) therapy. As a complementary and alternative medicine, Chinese Traditional Medicine (TCM) has special therapeutic effects for HBC. Here, we focus on the evolution process of HBC TCM syndromes, which was from Excessive (Liver-Gallbladder Dampness-Heat Syndrome, LGDHS) to Deficient (Liver-Kidney Deficiency Syndrome, LKYDS) via Excessive-Deficient syndrome (Liver-Depression and Spleen-Deficiency Syndrome, LDSDS)...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887214/trypanocidal-activity-of-polysaccharide-extract-from-genipa-americana-leaves
#9
Racquel Oliveira da Silva Souza, Paloma Leão Sousa, Ramon Róseo Paula Pessoa Bezerra de Menezes, Tiago Lima Sampaio, Louise Donadello Tessarolo, Francisca Crislandia Oliveira Silva, Maria Gonçalves Pereira, Alice Maria Costa Martins
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The parts of the Genipa americana (Rubiaceae) tree, also known as "jenipapo" or "jenipapeiro", has been used in traditional Medicine in parasitic and bacterial infections. Thus, the experimental evolution of the antiparasitic activity of polysaccharide extracts from Genipa americana leaves, and correlation with antiparasitic and popular use is important. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the effect of polysaccharide extract obtained from Genipa americana leaves on all Trypanosoma cruzi (Y strain: benznidazole-resistant) developmental forms, a protozoan that causes Chagas' disease...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879710/heat-shock-protein-90-alpha-lass-b-member-1-a-key-regulative-gene-of-monitoring-duodenal-tumor-for-obesity-induced-by-high-fat-diet
#10
Li Zheng, Jie Bai, Jin-Ling Zhang, Xia Meng, Yan-Na Hao
BACKGROUND: Effective methods of preventing and treating duodenal carcinoma, especially cancer induced by obesity (resulting from a high-fat diet) remains a longstanding challenge in medicine. METHODS: With regard to the objective, key genes were explored in the evolutional process in a group of normal, obese (high-fat diet), and duodenal tumor mice. Here, 23 genes were selected by the bioinformatics method. In order to correct the result, verification experiments were performed twice through online analysis...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874420/the-evolution-of-the-use-of-%C3%AE-blockers-to-treat-heart-failure-a-conversation-with-finn-waagstein-md
#11
Finn Waagstein, John D Rutherford
Finn Waagstein was born in Copenhagen in 1938. He graduated from Aarhus University Medical School in 1964. He received his cardiology training in the Sahlgrenska University Hospital at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. He was appointed Associate Professor in 1980, and he assisted in establishing and directing the first Swedish heart transplant program. From 1990 he directed the heart failure and cardiomyopathy research programs. He is currently Professor of Cardiology and senior physician at Wallenberg Laboratory...
September 5, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871967/clinical-research-ethics-considerations-for-the-radiation-oncologist
#12
REVIEW
Shlomo A Koyfman, Sue S Yom
Consideration of clinical research ethics in radiation oncology is underexplored relative to other areas of oncology. A number of ethical challenges related to informed consent, randomization, conflicts of interest, and scientific validity and social value are shared with other areas of medicine, although their exact inflections are specific to radiation oncology. In addition, there are unique concerns in radiation oncology arising from the rapid evolution and uneven distribution of radiation technologies; the greater unfamiliarity of the general public and research oversight committees in regard to radiation oncology clinical practice; and the high complexity of managing most radiation oncology research, much of which is carried out in high-acuity multidisciplinary oncologic settings...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869808/pediatric-emergency-in-brazil-the-consolidation-of-an-area-in-the-pediatric-field
#13
REVIEW
Jefferson P Piva, Patrícia M Lago, Pedro Celiny R Garcia
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to present a review on the evolution, development, and consolidation of the pediatric emergency abroad and in Brazil, as well as to discuss the residency program in this key area for pediatricians. DATA SOURCES: This was a narrative review, in which the authors used pre-selected documents utilized as the minimum requirements for the Residency Program in Pediatric Emergency Medicine and articles selected by interest for the theme development, at the SciELO and Medline databases, between 2000 and 2017...
September 1, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866008/evolutionary-rescue-of-a-parasite-population-by-mutation-rate-evolution
#14
Philip B Greenspoon, Nicole Mideo
The risk of antibiotic resistance evolution in parasites is a major problem for public health. Identifying factors which promote antibiotic resistance evolution is thus a priority in evolutionary medicine. The rate at which new mutations enter the parasite population is one important predictor; however, mutation rate is not necessarily a fixed quantity, as is often assumed, but can itself evolve. Here we explore the possible impacts of mutation rate evolution on the fate of a disease circulating in a host population, which is being treated with drugs, the use of which varies over time...
September 1, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864612/clinical-history-of-the-theranostic-radionuclide-approach-to-neuroendocrine-tumors-and-other-types-of-cancer-historical-review-based-on-an-interview-of-eric-p-krenning-by-rachel-levine
#15
Rachel Levine, Eric P Krenning
In nuclear medicine, the term theranostics describes the combination of therapy and diagnostic imaging. In practice, this concept dates back more than 50 years; however, among the most successful examples of theranostics are peptide receptor scintigraphy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumors. The development of these modalities through the radiolabeling of somatostatin analogs with various radionuclides has led to a revolution in patient management and established a foundation for expansion of the theranostic principle into other oncology indications...
September 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862657/personalized-computational-models-as-biomarkers
#16
Walter Kolch, Dirk Fey
Biomarkers are cornerstones of clinical medicine, and personalized medicine, in particular, is highly dependent on reliable and highly accurate biomarkers for individualized diagnosis and treatment choice. Modern omics technologies, such as genome sequencing, allow molecular profiling of individual patients with unprecedented resolution, but biomarkers based on these technologies often lack the dynamic element to follow the progression of a disease or response to therapy. Here, we discuss computational models as a new conceptual approach to biomarker discovery and design...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855603/complete-chloroplast-genome-sequence-of-decaisnea-insignis-genome-organization-genomic-resources-and-comparative-analysis
#17
Bin Li, Furong Lin, Ping Huang, Wenying Guo, Yongqi Zheng
Decaisnea insignis is a wild resource plant and is used as an ornamental, medicinal, and fruit plant. High-throughput sequencing of chloroplast genomes has provided insight into the overall evolutionary dynamics of chloroplast genomes and has enhanced our understanding of the evolutionary relationships within plant families. In the present study, we sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of D. insignis and used the data to assess its genomic resources. The D. insignis chloroplast genome is 158,683 bp in length and includes a pair of inverted repeats of 26,167 bp that are separated by small and large single copy regions of 19,162 bp and 87,187 bp, respectively...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851485/recalmin-ii-eight-years-of-hospitalisation-in-internal-medicine-units-2007-2014-what-has-changed
#18
A Zapatero-Gaviria, R Barba-Martín, J Canora Lebrato, C Fernández-Pérez, R Gómez-Huelgas, J L Bernal-Sobrino, J Díaz-Manglano, J Marco-Martínez, F J Elola-Somoza
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the evolution of care provided by the internal medicine units (IMU) of the Spanish National Health System from 2007 to 2014. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analysed all discharges from the IMU of the Spanish National Health System in 2007 and 2014, using the Minimum Basic Data Set. We compared the risk factors by episode, mortality and readmissions between the two periods. We prepared specific fits for the risk for mortality and readmissions in heart failure, pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as the Charlson index for all activity...
August 26, 2017: Revista Clínica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840966/the-diy-digital-medical-centre
#19
James Kenneth Timmis, Kenneth Timmis
Healthcare systems worldwide are confronted with major economic, organizational and logistical challenges. Historic evolution of health care has led to significant healthcare sector fragmentation, resulting in systemic inefficiencies and suboptimal resource exploitation. To attain a sustainable healthcare model, fundamental, system-wide improvements that effectively network, and ensure fulfilment of potential synergies between sectors, and include and facilitate coherent strategic planning and organisation of healthcare infrastructure are needed...
August 25, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840706/-evolution-and-transition-of-source-of-patrinia-herba-and-patrinia-radix
#20
Ying-Long Xiang, Gui-Lin Mei, Han Luo, Wen-Tao Fang, Hua-Sheng Peng, Cheng-Wu Feng, Qing-Shan Yang, Xiang-Yu Li, Yan-Peng Zhang
Both Patrinia Herba and Patrinia Radix are traditional Chinese herbal medicines. The herbal source and medicinal part of them are confusing in the herbal medicine market of China. To explore the evolution and transition of the herbal source and medicinal part of Patrinia Herba and Patrinia Radix, this paper systematically summarizes the record of the herbal source and medicinal part of them in ancient classics of herbal medicine in China. According to the findings, before Ming Dynasty, Patrinia Herba originated from the radix of the plants with yellow flowers of Patrinia...
July 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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