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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646699/insulin-and-the-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Djuro Macut, Jelica Bjekić-Macut, Dario Rahelić, Mirjana Doknić
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrinopathy among women during reproductive age. PCOS is characterised by hyperandrogenaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, and deranged adipokines secretion from the adipose tissue. In addition to the reduced insulin sensitivity, PCOS women exhibit β-cell dysfunction as well. Low birth weight and foetal exposure to androgens may contribute to the development of the PCOS phenotype during life. Further metabolic complications lead to dyslipidaemia, worsening obesity and glucose tolerance, high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, and greater susceptibility to diabetes...
June 12, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646394/the-antihypertensive-efficacy-of-the-triple-fixed-combination-of-perindopril-indapamide-and-amlodipine-the-results-of-the-petra-study
#2
György Ábrahám, Csaba András Dézsi
INTRODUCTION: The etiology of essential hypertension is multifactorial. Therefore, treatment with combinations of antihypertensive agents acting on multiple targets is necessary for successful therapy in the majority of patients. According to the experience and clinical data accumulated so far, combination therapy with three agents from different pharmacological classes is required in approx. 30% of patients in order to achieve long-term blood pressure control. The primary objective of the PETRA study was to evaluate the efficacy of blood pressure (BP) control with once daily administration of the different dosage strengths of the once-daily, triple fixed combination of perindopril, indapamide, and amlodipine...
June 23, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646083/does-depression-increase-the-risk-of-stroke-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-population-based-cohort-study
#3
Tzung-Yi Tsai, Ming-Chi Lu, Hanoch Livneh, Shan-Yun Chiu, Ning-Sheng Lai, How-Ran Guo
OBJECTIVES: Comorbid depression is common and undertreated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It remains uncertain whether comorbid depression provoked the risk of poor clinical outcome, stroke in particular, among patients with RA. This work aimed to determine if depression onset during the treatment process increases stroke risk for patients with RA as compared with those with (1) neither RA nor depression, (2) RA only and (3) depression only. DESIGN: A nationwide, population-based cohort study...
June 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645696/exercise-training-improves-functional-status-in-hypertensive-older-adults-under-angiotensin-converting-enzymes-inhibitors-medication
#4
Liliana C Baptista, Aristides M Machado-Rodrigues, Manuel Teixeira Veríssimo, Raul A Martins
BACKGROUND: The study aims to analyze the effect of three types of treatment on functional status, and cardiovascular risk outcomes in hypertensive older adults with comorbidities. METHODS: Participants (n=418) underwent one of the following 3 conditions: i) multicomponent exercise training 3times/week (MEX; n=116); ii) angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors used mono-dose daily (ACEi; n=70); iii) combined exercise and ACEi drugs (ACEiMEX; n=232). The trial was completed by 82% of the participants (n=342): MEX (n=90); ACEi (n=66); ACEiMEX (n=186)...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645694/-comparative-analysis-effectiveness-of-nicotine-addiction-treatment-in-people-with-psychiatric-comorbidity
#5
R Godoy, F J Callejas, J Cruz, A I Tornero, P J Tárraga, J A Rodríguez-Montes
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether or not nicotine addiction treatment was less effective in psychiatric than in the healthy population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive and comparative cohort study was conducted in Albacete University Hospital during years 2008-2012 on all patients that attended the Tobacco Cessation Unit. The statistical tests used were Chi-squared, likelihood ratio, and the Student t test. Statistical significance P≤.05. RESULTS: The study included a total of 1,484 patients, of which 48...
June 20, 2017: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645586/venous-sinus-stenting-in-the-management-of-patients-with-intracranial-hypertension-manifesting-with-skull-base-cerebrospinal-fluid-leaks
#6
Rajiv R Iyer, David Solomon, Abhay Moghekar, C Rory Goodwin, Charles M Stewart, Masaru Ishii, Philippe Gailloud, Gary L Gallia
BACKGROUND: A subset of patients with skull base cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are found to have elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). In these patients, elevated ICP is thought to contribute to both the pathophysiology of the leak as well as postoperative leak recurrences. Current strategies for post-operative ICP control include medical therapy and shunting procedures. The aim of this study is to report the use of venous sinus stenting (VSS) in the management of patients with skull base CSF leaks due to elevated ICP...
June 20, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644975/a-neural-blood-pressure-marker-for-bioelectronic-medicines-for-treatment-of-hypertension
#7
Cristian Sevcencu, Thomas N Nielsen, Johannes J Struijk
A novel therapeutic approach for treating resistant hypertension could be the use of bioelectronic medicines to achieve blood pressure (BP) control in implanted patients by closed-loop stimulation of the left vagus nerve (LVN). However, such a technology would require an implantable BP marker, which is not available yet. As it is known that the LVN conducts afferent BP-related signals, this study aimed to investigate if such signals could be recorded with implantable means and used to derive BP markers. The present experiments were performed in anesthetized pigs subjected to a transient or stable BP increase induced by adrenaline administration...
June 17, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644844/carbonic-anhydrase-inhibitor-attenuates-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-acute-lung-injury
#8
Chou-Chin Lan, Chung-Kan Peng, Shih-En Tang, Kun-Lun Huang, Chin-Pyng Wu
Ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is implicated in several clinical conditions including lung transplantation, cardiopulmonary bypass surgery, re-expansion of collapsed lung from pneumothorax or pleural effusion and etc. IR-induced ALI remains a challenge in the current treatment. Carbonic anhydrase has important physiological function and influences on transport of CO2. Some investigators suggest that CO2 influences lung injury. Therefore, carbonic anhydrase should have the role in ALI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644156/clinical-case-of-the-month-a-57-year-old-man-with-an-axillary-mass
#9
Palak Desai, Andrew Myers, Brian Boulmay, Fred A Lopez
A 57-year-old man presented to the surgical oncology clinic with a mildly tender mass under his right arm. Four years prior, the patient had a melanoma removed from his right shoulder along with an ipsilateral right axillary sentinel lymph sampling. Computed tomography (CT) scan was negative for metastatic disease at that time. The patient did not undergo completion axillary node dissection and was lost to follow-up. The patient was originally from Australia, did not tan but reported multiple sunburns before age 18...
May 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643721/surgical-treatment-of-metarhizium-anisopliae-sclerokeratitis-and-endophthalmitis
#10
Dan Derhy, Arnaud Sauer, Marcela Sabou, Jonathan Letsch, Ermanno Candolfi, Valérie Letscher-Bru, Tristan Bourcier
A 55-year-old nurse was referred with a 5-month history of right eye corneal abscess. The initial injury occurred when doing lawn work. The infection worsened despite multiple antibiotic, antiviral, and steroid treatments. Visual acuity was limited to hand motion. On examination, there was keratitis, ocular hypertension, and a secondary cataract. Corneal scrapings grew a filamentous fungus, identified as Metarhizium anisopliae (MA). Despite intensive antifungal treatment with topical, intravitreous, and systemic voriconazole, purulent corneal melting and scleritis with endophthalmitis rapidly appeared...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643420/impact-on-survival-of-warfarin-in-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-receiving-subcutaneous-treprostinil
#11
Mona Ascha, Xuan Zhou, Youlan Rao, Omar A Minai, Adriano R Tonelli
INTRODUCTION: Anticoagulation is a common treatment modality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Further studies are needed to appropriately assess the risk / benefit ratio of anticoagulation, particularly in PAH patients receiving PAH-specific therapies. AIMS: We use observational long-term data on PAH patients treated with subcutaneous (SQ) treprostinil from a large open-label study. Patients were followed for up to four years. The use of warfarin and bleeding events were recorded...
June 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642988/development-of-pulmonary-hypertension-during-treatment-with-diazoxide-a-case-series-and-literature-review
#12
Matthew R Timlin, Alexander B Black, Heather M Delaney, Renée I Matos, Candace S Percival
Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is the most common cause of persistent hypoglycemia in infancy. The mainstay of medical management for CHI is diazoxide. Diazoxide inhibits insulin release from the pancreas, but also causes smooth muscle relaxation and fluid retention so it is typically given with chlorothiazide. In July 2015, the FDA issued a drug safety communication warning that pulmonary hypertension (PH) had been reported in 11 infants being treated with diazoxide and that the PH resolved with withdrawal of diazoxide...
June 22, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642330/effects-of-intensive-bp-control-in-ckd
#13
Alfred K Cheung, Mahboob Rahman, David M Reboussin, Timothy E Craven, Tom Greene, Paul L Kimmel, William C Cushman, Amret T Hawfield, Karen C Johnson, Cora E Lewis, Suzanne Oparil, Michael V Rocco, Kaycee M Sink, Paul K Whelton, Jackson T Wright, Jan Basile, Srinivasan Beddhu, Udayan Bhatt, Tara I Chang, Glenn M Chertow, Michel Chonchol, Barry I Freedman, William Haley, Joachim H Ix, Lois A Katz, Anthony A Killeen, Vasilios Papademetriou, Ana C Ricardo, Karen Servilla, Barry Wall, Dawn Wolfgram, Jerry Yee
The appropriate target for BP in patients with CKD and hypertension remains uncertain. We report prespecified subgroup analyses of outcomes in participants with baseline CKD in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial. We randomly assigned participants to a systolic BP target of <120 mm Hg (intensive group; n=1330) or <140 mm Hg (standard group; n=1316). After a median follow-up of 3.3 years, the primary composite cardiovascular outcome occurred in 112 intensive group and 131 standard group CKD participants (hazard ratio [HR], 0...
June 22, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642262/arterial-stiffness-induces-remodeling-phenotypes-in-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-via-yap-taz-mediated-repression-of-cyclooxygenase-2
#14
Paul B Dieffenbach, Christina Mallarino Haeger, Anna Maria F Coronata, Kyoung Moo Choi, Xaralabos Varelas, Daniel J Tschumperlin, Laura E Fredenburgh
Pulmonary arterial stiffness is an independent risk factor for mortality in pulmonary hypertension (PH), and plays a critical role in PH pathophysiology. We have recently demonstrated arterial stiffening early in experimental PH, along with evidence for a mechanobiologic feedback loop by which arterial stiffening promotes further cellular remodeling behaviors. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin signaling have been implicated in stiffness-mediated regulation, with prostaglandin activity inversely correlated to matrix stiffness and remodeling behaviors in vitro, as well as to disease progression in rodent PH models...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642109/neoaortic-xenoprosthetic-grafts-for-treatment-of-mycotic-aneurysms-and-infected-aortic-grafts
#15
C Anibueze, V Sankaran, U Sadat, K Tan, Y G Wilson, R E Brightwell, M S Delbridge, P W Stather
OBJECTIVE: There is no international consensus regarding the optimum management of infected aortae (mycotic aneurysms, infected aortic grafts). Neoaortoiliac reconstruction has advantages over extra anatomical bypass grafting; however use of autologous vein is associated with venous hypertension and compartment syndrome, alternatively cadaveric homografts are associated with high rates of perianastomotic haemorrhage, limb occlusion and pseudoaneurysm. Arterial repair using xenoprosthetic patches is associated with lower infection rates compared to the use of prosthetic material...
June 19, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642065/severe-and-resistant-hypertension-in-an-older-woman-with-claudication
#16
Puneet Gupta, Robert Hagberg, Electra Kaloudis, Anika Lucas, Parth Shah, William B White
Coarctation of the aorta is an uncommon cause of treatment-resistant hypertension in adults. It is typically detected and treated in infancy or childhood with surgical or endovascular procedures. Most cases of recurrence of coarctation after repair occur in childhood or early adulthood; recurrence in older persons (>70 years) has rarely been reported. A 73-year-old woman was referred to us for the management of treatment-resistant hypertension accompanied by symptoms of claudication and headaches, which had resulted in multiple emergency room visits...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641836/late-outcomes-of-pulmonary-embolism-the-post-pe-syndrome
#17
Akhilesh K Sista, Frederikus A Klok
The post-Pulmonary Embolism (post-PE) syndrome is being increasingly recognized as a long-term consequence of PE. Its most severe manifestation, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), affects a small proportion of PE survivors. However, many more with less severe post-PE syndrome have reduced quality of life and functional capacity. The pathophysiology is incompletely understood, but involves unresolved pulmonary artery thrombi, right ventricular damage, and abnormal gas exchange. Treatment has only been established for CTEPH, and further studies are required to determine how less severe forms of the post-PE syndrome should be treated and if preventive strategies can reduce its incidence...
June 16, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641720/fenofibrate-attenuates-hypertension-in-goldblatt-hypertensive-rats-role-of-20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic-acid-in-the-nonclipped-kidney
#18
Alexandra Sporková, Věra Čertíková Chábová, Šárka Doleželová, Šárka Jíchová, Libor Kopkan, Zdeňka Vaňourková, Elzbieta Kompanowska-Jezierska, Janusz Sadowski, Hana Maxová, Luděk Červenka
BACKGROUND: There is vast evidence that the renin-angiotensin system is not the sole determinant of blood pressure (BP) elevation in human renovascular hypertension or the relevant experimental models. This study tested the hypothesis that kidney deficiency of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), a product of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent ω-hydroxylase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism, is important in the pathophysiology of the maintenance phase of 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) Goldblatt hypertension...
June 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641568/an-expanding-role-of-biomarkers-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#19
Mustafa Yildiz, Alparslan Sahin, Michael Behnes, İbrahim Akin
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), is a chronic disease which may cause or result from mulitple cardiopulmonary disorders. The disease has complex pathophysiological mechanisms and involves many systematic, cellular and molecular changes. Therefore, it is crutial to find out underlying mechanisms and detect biomarkers to achieve early and proper diagnosis, evaluate of disease severity, for follow-up and monitor response to treatment. Many biomarker for PAH have been investigated but yet no such biomarker has been found specific and easily accessible to use for the patients...
June 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641354/-acute-liver-failure-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-hepatorenal-syndrome-hepatopulmonary-syndrome-and-portopulmonary-hypertension-artificial-liver-support-on-the-icu
#20
Uwe Lodes, David Jacob, Frank Meyer
Background Acute hepatic dysfunction in the form of acute liver failure (ALF) or acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a disease with a high risk of mortality and requires interdisciplinary intensive care. Aim This article explains the nomenclature, pathophysiology, prognosis and possible treatment options of ALF and ACLF, including the possibilities of extracorporeal liver support therapy at the point of liver transplantation (LTx). Method Narrative review with a selective literature review and representative case studies...
June 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
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