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Teresa A Castillo, Renata A Lemos, José Raimundo G Pereira, José Maria A Alves, Maria Francisca S Teixeira
The objective of this study was to analyze mycelial growth under different culture conditions and antimicrobial activity of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) Kumm. (DPUA 1533) and P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) Kumm. cv. Florida (DPUA 1534) against fungi and bacteria of medical importance. The growth of Pleurotus species was evaluated in natural and complex media, with and without light, at 25°C and 28°C for 8, 15, and 30 days. Candida albicans (DPUA 1336), Cryptococcus laurentii (DPUA 1501), Aspergillus flavus (DPUA 1836), Escherichia coli (DAUPE 224), and Mycobacterium smegmatis (ATCC 607) were used to test antibiosis...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Gabriela M Chiocchetti, Elisabete A De Nadai Fernandes, Anna A Wawer, Susan Fairweather-Tait, Tatiana Christides
Background : Iron deficiency is a public health problem in many low- and middle-income countries. Introduction of agro-industrial food by-products, as additional source of nutrients, could help alleviate this micronutrient deficiency, provide alternative sources of nutrients and calories in developed countries, and be a partial solution for disposal of agro-industry by-products. Methods : The aim of this study was to determine iron bioavailability of 5 by-products from Brazilian agro-industry (peels from cucumber, pumpkin, and jackfruit, cupuaçu seed peel, and rice bran), using the in vitro digestion/ Caco-2 cell model; with Caco-2 cell ferritin formation as a surrogate marker of iron bioavailability...
May 16, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
B B Huang, C F Huang, Z Q Lyu, Y F Chen, P L Li, L Liu, C H Lai
This study was conducted to determine and compare available energy and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 9 samples of defatted rice bran (DFRB) fed to growing pigs and to generate prediction equations for DE and ME based on chemical analysis. In Exp. 1, sixty crossbred growing pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire; 40.7 ± 3.5 kg BW) were fed 1 of 10 diets in a completely randomized design to determine the available energy of DFRB. The diets included a corn-soybean meal basal diet and 9 experimental diets formulated by replacing the corn and soybean meal with 29...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Arti Barnes, Andrea C Betts, Eric K Borton, Joanne M Sanders, Sandi L Pruitt, Claudia Werner, Andres Bran, Carolee D Estelle, Bijal A Balasubramanian, Stephen J Inrig, Ethan A Halm, Celette Sugg Skinner, Jasmin A Tiro
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about cervical cancer screening and results patterns among HIV infected (HIV+) women in real-world healthcare settings. We characterized two periods of screening opportunity. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: U.S. safety-net healthcare system in Dallas County, Texas. SUBJECTS: We analyzed data from electronic medical records (EMR) of 1,490 HIV+ women receiving care 2010-2014. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At baseline, we categorized a woman's Pap status 15 months prior to index date as under-screened (vs...
May 11, 2018: AIDS
Phumon Sookwong, Sugunya Mahatheeranont
Rice bran contains a great amount of functional lipids and phytochemicals including γ-oryzanols, tocotrienols, and tocopherols. However, utilization of those compounds is limited and needs some proven guidelines for better implementation. We introduce some effective strategies for the utilization of rice functional lipids, including an introduction of pigmented rice varieties for better bioactive compounds, biofortification of rice tocotrienols, plasma technology for improving rice phytochemicals, supercritical CO2 extraction of high quality rice bran oil, and an example on the development of tocotrienol-fortified foods...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Xiaoping Luo, Jiemei Cui, Haihui Zhang, Yuqing Duan
Subcritical water extraction (SWE), an environment-friendly technique, was applied to extract polyphenolics from sorghum bran. Extraction temperatures (°C), time (min), and solid-liquid ratio (mL/g) were investigated and optimized by Box-Behnken design. The optimized conditions for SWE was 144.5 °C of temperature, 21 min of time, and 35 mL/g of solid-liquid ratio, with a polyphenolics yield of 47.253 ± 0.375 mg GAE/g dw, which was in good agree with the predicted value. Comparing with hot water extraction (HWE), SWE resulted in a higher yield of polyphenolics, higher radical scavenging activities, and more efficient antiproliferative activity...
October 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Connie Gallardo, Julio Cezar Dadalt, Messias Alves Trindade Neto
The study was conducted to determine the effects of multicarbohydrase (MC) preparation (700 U α-galactosidase, 2,200 U galactomannanase, 3,000 U xylanase, and 22,000 U β-glucanase per kg of diet) and phytase (Phy, 500 FTU per kg of diet) supplementation on the nutritive value of wheat bran (WB) in broiler chicks. Trial 1 determined retention of nutrients and apparent metabolizable energy corrected by nitrogen (AMEn). One reference diet (RD) protein-free (85% corn based) was fortified to determine the WB nutrient retention coefficient...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Ayami Handa, Hitomi Kawanabe, Akihiro Ibe
The content of nonvolatile amines (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, and spermidine) in commercial pickles and their raw materials was determined in order to investigate the origin of these amines and to evaluate possible health risks. The nonvolatile amine content varied depending on the type of pickle; histamine and tyramine contents were relatively high, namely, 6.0-264 and 2.0-369 μ g/g, respectively, especially in soybean paste pickles and moromi pickles. Amines derived from raw materials were detected in soy sauce pickles, soybean paste pickles, and moromi pickles...
2018: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan
Liangkun Long, Meijuan Xu, Yuexin Shi, Qunying Lin, Jing Wang, Shaojun Ding
Two new endo-1,4-beta-xylanases encoding genes EpXyn1 and EpXyn3 were isolated from mesophilic fungus Eupenicillium parvum 4-14. Based on analysis of catalytic domain and phylogenetic trees, the xylanases EpXYN1 (404 aa) and EpXYN3 (220 aa) belong to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 and 11, respectively. Both EpXYN1 and EpXYN3 were successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris and the recombinant enzymes were characterized using beechwood xylan, birchwood xylan, or oat spelt xylan as substrates, respectively...
May 9, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Kiyomi Abe, Etsuko Araki, Yasuhiro Suzuki, Seiichi Toki, Hiroaki Saika
Rice bran oil (RBO) contains many valuable healthy constituents, including oleic acid. Improvement of the fatty acid composition in RBO, including an increase in the content of oleic acid, which helps suppress lifestyle disease, would increase health benefits. The enzyme fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2) catalyzes the conversion of oleic acid to linoleic acid in plants, and FAD2 mutants exhibit altered oleic and linoleic acid content in many crops. There are three functional FAD2 genes in the genome of rice (Oryza sativa L...
April 26, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Zhiqian Lyu, Yakui Li, Hu Liu, Enkai Li, Peili Li, Shuai Zhang, Fenglai Wang, Changhua Lai
The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of increased fiber content in diets on heat production (HP) and NE:ME ratio and to determine the NE content and NE:ME ratio of full-fat rice bran (FFRB), defatted rice bran (DFRB), corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn germ meal (CGM) fed to growing barrows using indirect calorimetry (IC). Thirty growing barrows (28.5 ± 2.4 kg BW) were allotted in a completely randomized design to 5 dietary treatments that included a corn-soybean meal basal diet and 4 experimental diets with a constant ratio of corn and soybean meal (difference method) containing 30% FFRB, DFRB, CGF, and CGF...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Dmitriy Smolensky, Davina Rhodes, D Scott McVey, Zachary Fawver, Ramasamy Perumal, Thomas Herald, Leela Noronha
As diet is one of the major controllable factors in cancer development, potentially chemopreventive foods are of significant interest to public health. One such food is sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), a cereal grain that contains varying concentrations of polyphenols. In a panel of 15 sorghum germplasm, we identified strains with higher polyphenol content than previously reported for this grain. Bran extracts from the germplasm with the highest and lowest polyphenol content were then tested against HepG2 and Caco2 cancer cells to assess effects on cancer cell viability, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and protein expression patterns...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Yang Lu, Shuhua Shan, Hanqing Li, Jiangying Shi, Xiaoli Zhang, Zhuoyu Li
Foxtail millet is the second-most widely planted species of millet and the most important cereal food in China. Our previous study showed that bound polyphenol of inner shell (BPIS) from foxtail millet bran displayed effective anti-tumor activities in vitro and in vivo. The present research further implied that BPIS has the ability to reverse the multi-drug resistance of colorectal cancer in human HCT-8/Fu cells, the IC50 values of 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu), oxaliplatin (L-OHP) and vincristine (VCR) were decreased form 6593 ± 53...
May 6, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Roheena Abdullah, Bakhtawar Javed Peracha, Kinza Nisar, Mehwish Iqtedar, Afshan Kaleem, Tehreema Iftikhar, Faiza Saleem, Shagufta Naz
Endoglucanase is one of the most important enzymes of the cellulase group.  Endoglucanase are involved in the catalytic hydrolysis of cellulose and plays a pivotal role in different sectors like pharmaceutical, textile, detergent, and food processing as well as paper and pulp industry. With consumers getting more and more aware of environmental issues, industries find enzymes as a better option over other chemical catalysts. In the current research different thermophilic fungal strains were isolated from the different sources...
April 30, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Hyeon-Woong Yum, Jin-Kyu Seo, Jin-Yeon Jeong, Gap-Don Kim, M Shafiur Rahman, Han-Sul Yang
The effects of pork back fat (PBF) substitution with various concentrations of rice bran oil (RBO) (50%, 45%, 40% and 35%) on the physicochemical characteristics and sensory attributes of emulsion-type pork sausages were studied. The modified pork sausages were compared with control sausages produced using PBF only. The sausages with RBO had significantly lower ( p <0.05) moisture content than the control sausages. Sausages made from PBF substituted with 40% RBO showed the lowest cooking loss. Substitution of PBF with RBO had no significant effect on the emulsion stability of pork sausages...
February 2018: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
Dong-Hua Xue, Yu-Qiang Liu, Qian Cai, Ke Liang, Bing-Yuan Zheng, Fang-Xiao Li, Xue Pang
Background: The rhizome of Atractylodes lancea (AL) is usually used for the treatment of various diseases such as spleen deficiency syndrome (SDS). Both bran-processed and crude AL is included in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The different efficacies of bran-processed and crude AL on SDS are largely unknown, and the mechanisms of AL effects have not been fully elucidated. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the effects of bran-processed and crude AL and then assess the mechanisms of treating SDS...
April 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Mostafa Soufizadeh, Rasoul Pirmohammadi, Yunes Alijoo, Hamed Khalilvandi Behroozyar
Indigestible neutral detergent fibers (iNDF) accurately predict forage digestibility when measured in situ . The objective of this study was to determine the effects of rumen incubation times on the estimated concentrations of iNDF for four forages (alfalfa hay, corn silage, wheat straw and orchard grass), four concentrates (barley grain, soybean meal, beet pulp and wheat bran) and two total mixed ration samples in dairy cows. The iNDF contents of the samples were evaluated in 10 feeds using three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows in a completely randomized design...
2018: Veterinary Research Forum
Mayumi Hachinohe, Naoto Nihei, Shinichi Kawamoto, Shioka Hamamatsu
To clarify the behavior of radioactive cesium (Cs) in buckwheat grains during milling and cooking processes, parameters such as processing factor (Pf) and food processing retention factor (Fr) were evaluated in two lots of buckwheat grains, R1 and R2, with different concentrations of radioactive Cs. Three milling fractions, the husk, bran, and flour fractions, were obtained using a mill and electric sieve. The radioactive Cs (134 Cs + 137 Cs) concentrations in husk and bran were higher than that in grain, whereas the concentration in flour was lower than that in grain...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
R Monte-Secades, E Montero-Ruiz, J Feyjoo-Casero, M González-Anglada, M Freire-Romero, A Gil-Díaz, A Granados-Maturano, D Rubal-Bran, R Rabuñal-Rey, L Nevado Lopez-Alegria
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the activity of interconsultations conducted by internal medicine (IM) departments, their formal aspects and the profile of clinical care required and to quantify the workload they represent. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A multicentre, observational prospective study was conducted with consecutive hospitalised patients treated by IM departments using interconsultations between May 15 and June 15, 2016. We estimated the workload related to this activity (1time unit [TU]=10min)...
April 24, 2018: Revista Clínica Española
Annalisa Lucera, Cristina Costa, Valeria Marinelli, Maria Antonietta Saccotelli, Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile, Amalia Conte
In this work, spreadable cheese was enriched with flours from by-products (red and white grape pomace, tomato peel, broccoli, corn bran, and artichokes) as sources of fibres and antioxidant compounds. The physicochemical and the sensory properties of all the cheese samples were analysed. Results revealed that total phenolic content, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of samples containing grape pomace significantly increased, followed by broccoli, artichoke, corn bran, and tomato peel by-products, compared to the control cheese...
April 25, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
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