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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651384/agaricus-bisporus-production-on-substrates-pasteurized-by-self-heating
#1
Stephania Colmenares-Cruz, José E Sánchez, Javier Valle-Mora
The aim of this work was to determine if the self-heating pasteurization procedure is technically applicable to the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus. Firstly the substrates alone (corncob, Pangola grass and a mixture of both ingredients with wood shavings) were tested. Two supplementation trials were then undertaken using soybean, wheat bran, sheep manure, sesame seed, black bean and chia. Highest production values (BE = 176.3% and Y = 26.6 kg/m(2)) were obtained using a 9% supplement, with a formula consisting of 25% each of soybean, black bean, wheat bran and chia, added at spawning and at casing...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651042/effect-of-dephytinization-by-fermentation-and-hydrothermal-autoclaving-treatments-on-the-antioxidant-activity-dietary-fiber-and-phenolic-content-of-oat-bran
#2
H Özkaya, B Özkaya, B Duman, S Turksoy
Fermentation and hydrothermal methods were tested to reduce the phytic acid (PA) content of oat bran and the effects of these methods on the dietary fiber (DF) and total phenolic (TP) contents and antioxidant activity (AA) were also investigated. Fermentation with 6% yeast and for 6 h resulted in 88.2% reduction in PA content while it was only 32.5% in sample incubated for 6 h without yeast addition. The PA loss in autoclaved oat bran sample (1.5 h, pH 4.0) was 95.2% while it was at most 41.8% in sample autoclaved without pH adjustment...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650728/minor-constituents-in-rice-bran-oil-and-sesame-oil-play-a-significant-role-in-modulating-lipid-homeostasis-and-inflammatory-markers-in-rats
#3
Yalagala Poorna Chandra Rao, Dhavamani Sugasini, Talahalli Ravichandra Ramaprasad, Belur Ramaswamy Lokesh
The effects of feeding rats with groundnut oil (GNO), rice bran oil (RBO), and sesame oil (SESO) on serum lipids, liver lipids, and inflammatory markers were evaluated in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with AIN-93 diet supplemented with 10 wt% of GNO, RBO, and SESO in the form of native (N) and minor constituent-removed (MCR) oils. Rats given RBO and SESO showed significant reduction in serum and liver lipids, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, cytokines in liver, and eicosanoids in leukocytes as compared with the rats given GNO and MCR oils...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643618/heat-stabilised-rice-bran-consumption-by-colorectal-cancer-survivors-modulates-stool-metabolite-profiles-and-metabolic-networks-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Dustin G Brown, Erica C Borresen, Regina J Brown, Elizabeth P Ryan
Rice bran (RB) consumption has been shown to reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) growth in mice and modify the human stool microbiome. Changes in host and microbial metabolism induced by RB consumption was hypothesised to modulate the stool metabolite profile in favour of promoting gut health and inhibiting CRC growth. The objective was to integrate gut microbial metabolite profiles and identify metabolic pathway networks for CRC chemoprevention using non-targeted metabolomics. In all, nineteen CRC survivors participated in a parallel randomised controlled dietary intervention trial that included daily consumption of study-provided foods with heat-stabilised RB (30 g/d) or no additional ingredient (control)...
May 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639016/accumulation-properties-of-polychlorinated-biphenyl-congeners-in-yusho-patients-and-prediction-of-their-cytochrome-p450-dependent-metabolism-by-in-silico-analysis
#5
Shusaku Hirakawa, Takashi Miyawaki, Tsuguhide Hori, Jumboku Kajiwara, Susumu Katsuki, Masashi Hirano, Yuka Yoshinouchi, Hisato Iwata, Chikage Mitoma, Masutaka Furue
In what has become known as the Yusho incident, thousands of people in western Japan were poisoned by the accidental ingestion of rice bran oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and various dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. In this study, we investigated the accumulation patterns of 69 PCB congeners in the blood of Yusho patients in comparison with those of non-exposed controls. The blood samples were collected at medical check-ups in 2004 and 2005. To compare the patterns of PCB congeners, we calculated the concentration ratio of each congener relative to the 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaCB (CB153) concentration...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636431/enhanced-production-of-raw-starch-degrading-enzyme-using-agro-industrial-waste-mixtures-by-thermotolerant-rhizopus-microsporus-for-raw-cassava-chip-saccharification-in-ethanol-production
#6
Srisakul Trakarnpaiboon, Nantana Srisuk, Kuakoon Piyachomkwan, Kenji Sakai, Vichien Kitpreechavanich
In the present study, solid state fermentation for the production of raw starch degrading enzyme was investigated by thermotolerant Rhizopus microsporus TISTR 3531 using a combination of agro-industrial wastes as substrates. The obtained crude enzyme was applied for hydrolysis of raw cassava starch and chips at low temperature and subjected to non-sterile ethanol production using raw cassava chips. The agro-industrial wastes ratio was optimized using a simplex axial mixture design. The results showed that the substrate mixture consisting of rice bran: corncob: cassava bagasse at 8 g: 10 g: 2 g yielded the highest enzyme production of 201...
June 21, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634326/a-chrysoporthe-cubensis-enzyme-cocktail-produced-from-a-low-cost-carbon-source-with-high-biomass-hydrolysis-efficiency
#7
Thiago Rodrigues Dutra, Valéria Monteze Guimarães, Ednilson Mascarenhas Varela, Lílian da Silva Fialho, Adriane Maria Ferreira Milagres, Daniel Luciano Falkoski, José Cola Zanuncio, Sebastião Tavares de Rezende
Low cost and high efficiency cellulolytic cocktails can consolidate lignocellulosic ethanol technologies. Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) is a low cost agro-industrial residue, and its use as a carbon source can reduce the costs of fungi cultivation for enzyme production. Chrysoporthe cubensis grown under solid state fermentation (SSF) with wheat bran has potential to produce efficient enzymatic extracts for SCB saccharification. This fungus was grown under submersed fermentation (SmF) and SSF with in natura SCB, pretreated with acid or alkali and with others carbon sources...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633643/enhancement-of-thermoalkaliphilic-xylanase-production-by-pichia-pastoris-through-novel-fed-batch-strategy-in-high-cell-density-fermentation
#8
Tingting Shang, Dayong Si, Dongyan Zhang, Xuhui Liu, Longmei Zhao, Cong Hu, Yu Fu, Rijun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Xylanase degrades xylan into monomers of various sizes by catalyzing the endohydrolysis of the 1,4-β-D-xylosidic linkage randomly, possessing potential in wide industrial applications. Most of xylanases are susceptible to be inactive when suffering high temperature and high alkaline process. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a high amount of effective thermoalkaliphilic xylanases. This study aims to enhance thermoalkaliphilic xylanase production in Pichia pastoris through fermentation parameters optimization and novel efficient fed-batch strategy in high cell-density fermentation...
June 21, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626590/antiglycemic-effect-of-water-extractable-arabinoxylan-from-wheat-aleurone-and-bran
#9
Lovemore Nkhata Malunga, Marta Izydorczyk, Trust Beta
The studies on the effects of arabinoxylan (AX) polysaccharides on postprandial glucose response have resulted in contrasting results owing to the diversity in AX structures. Four water extractable AX (WEAX) extracts obtained from wheat aleurone and bran were used to investigate (a) the effect of AX on activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, (b) influence of AX chemical composition on their inhibition potency, and (c) kinetics of enzyme inhibition. α-Amylase activity was not significantly affected by the presence WEAX fractions regardless of type or concentration...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624092/study-on-the-effects-of-wheat-bran-incorporation-on-water-mobility-and-biopolymer-behavior-during-bread-making-and-storage-using-time-domain-1-h-nmr-relaxometry
#10
S Hemdane, P J Jacobs, G M Bosmans, J Verspreet, J A Delcour, C M Courtin
Water binding is suggested to be key in the deleterious effect of wheat bran on bread quality. This study investigates water mobility and biopolymer behavior during bran-rich bread making and storage, using (1)H NMR. Coarse, ground, and pericarp-enriched bran were incorporated in bread dough, and their impact on freshly baked and stored bread properties was assessed. Compared to wheat flour control dough, bran incorporation resulted in a progressive immobilization of water during dough resting, which could be linked to changes in evolution of dough height during fermentation and oven rise...
December 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624091/study-of-biopolymer-mobility-and-water-dynamics-in-wheat-bran-using-time-domain-1-h-nmr-relaxometry
#11
S Hemdane, P J Jacobs, G M Bosmans, J Verspreet, J A Delcour, C M Courtin
In this study, the molecular mobility of water and biopolymers in coarse, ground, and pericarp-enriched (PE) wheat bran and refined flour was investigated using time-domain proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry, and related to their hydration properties. Several specific proton populations were present in the bran samples but not in flour. These populations were mainly assigned to protons of bran-related compounds such as arabinoxylan, cellulose, and lipids. All bran samples showed similar proton distributions at a 44% moisture level, although the chemical composition of coarse/ground bran and PE bran differed...
December 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619635/production-and-characterization-of-polyhydroxyalkanoic-acid-from-bacillus-thuringiensis-using-different-carbon-substrates
#12
Olubusola A Odeniyi, Olakunle J Adeola
Polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA) are biodegradable microbially synthesised polymers which can act as alternatives to conventional petrochemical based plastics. Bacterial isolates from soil and sewage samples were screened for the ability to accumulate PHA using Sudan Black B dye, and growth conditions of the best PHA accumulating bacterium was optimized. The PHA produced was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. Eight PHA-producing bacteria were isolated and isolate SBC4 which had the highest percentage accumulation of 30% was genotypically identified as Bacillus thuringiensis and selected for further studies...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618173/inter-individual-differences-determine-the-outcome-of-wheat-bran-colonization-by-the-human-gut-microbiome
#13
Kim De Paepe, Frederiek-Maarten Kerckhof, Joran Verspreet, Christophe M Courtin, Tom Van de Wiele
Gut microbiota research reveals a vital role for the luminal and mucosal gut microbiota in human health. Fewer studies, however, have characterized the microbiome associated with undigested, insoluble dietary particles in the gut. These particles can act as a food source for bacteria and offer a physical platform to which they can attach. In this study, the microbiome colonizing wheat bran particles was analyzed. In a batch experiment, wheat bran particles were separately incubated with the fecal microbiota derived from ten donors and washed after 48h to remove loosely attached bacteria...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614737/glucose-triggers-the-cytotoxicity-of-citrobacter-sp-r1-against-microcystis-aeruginosa
#14
Pengfei Sun, Sofia Esquivel-Elizondo, Yuhua Zhao, Yonghong Wu
Algicidal bacteria offer a promising option for killing Microcystis aeruginosa, one notorious cyanobacteria causing harmful algal blooms. In this study, Citrobacter sp. R1 presented high algicidal activity (81.6±2.2%, 72h) against M. aeruginosa when cultured using glucose, while it showed no algicidal activity (0±3.4%) when cultured using wheat bran, suggesting that appropriate carbon source is crucial for algicidal bacteria in killing M. aeruginosa. The underlying algicidal mechanism of strain R1 was explored by studying the effect of different carbon sources (glucose and wheat bran) on its key algicidal gene expression and total protein translation...
June 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614592/the-heat-is-on-genetic-adaptation-to-urbanization-mediated-by-thermal-tolerance-and-body-size
#15
Kristien I Brans, Mieke Jansen, Joost Vanoverbeke, Nedim Tüzün, Robby Stoks, Luc De Meester
Worldwide, urbanization leads to tremendous anthropogenic environmental alterations, causing strong selection pressures on populations of animals and plants. Although a key feature of urban areas is their higher temperature ("urban heat islands"), adaptive thermal evolution in organisms inhabiting urban areas has rarely been studied. We tested for evolution of a higher heat tolerance (CTMAX ) in urban populations of the water flea Daphnia magna, a keystone grazer in freshwater ecosystems, by carrying out a common garden experiment at two temperatures (20 °C and 24 °C) with genotypes of 13 natural populations ordered along a well-defined urbanization gradient...
June 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604589/fibre-related-dietary-patterns-socioeconomic-barriers-to-adequate-fibre-intake-in-polish-adolescents-a-short-report
#16
Beata Krusinska, Joanna Kowalkowska, Lidia Wadolowska, Justyna Weronika Wuenstel, Malgorzata Anna Slowinska, Ewa Niedzwiedzka
There is no complete explanation for the association between socioeconomic status (SES), fibre, and whole diet described by dietary patterns. The aim of this short report was to increase the understanding of adolescent dietary patterns related to fibre in their social context. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 1176 adolescents aged 13-18 years from central and north-eastern Poland. The overall SES was composed of five single factors: place of residence, self-declared economic situation of family, self-declared economic situation of household, paternal and maternal education...
June 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597211/characterization-and-use-of-equine-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-equine-cartilage-engineering-study-of-their-hyaline-cartilage-forming-potential-when-cultured-under-hypoxia-within-a-biomaterial-in-the-presence-of-bmp-2-and-tgf-%C3%A3-1
#17
Thomas Branly, Lélia Bertoni, Romain Contentin, Rodolphe Rakic, Tangni Gomez-Leduc, Mélanie Desancé, Magalie Hervieu, Florence Legendre, Sandrine Jacquet, Fabrice Audigié, Jean-Marie Denoix, Magali Demoor, Philippe Galéra
Articular cartilage presents a poor capacity for self-repair. Its structure-function are frequently disrupted or damaged upon physical trauma or osteoarthritis in humans. Similar musculoskeletal disorders also affect horses and are the leading cause of poor performance or early retirement of sport- and racehorses. To develop a therapeutic solution for horses, we tested the autologous chondrocyte implantation technique developed on human bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on horse BM-MSCs. This technique involves BM-MSC chondrogenesis using a combinatory approach based on the association of 3D-culture in collagen sponges, under hypoxia in the presence of chondrogenic factors (BMP-2 + TGF-β1) and siRNA to knockdown collagen I and HtrA1...
June 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593519/solid-state-fermentation-for-production-of-a-bioherbicide-from-diaporthe-sp-and-its-formulation-to-enhance-the-efficacy
#18
Bruna de Oliveira Bastos, Gabriel Antônio Deobald, Thiarles Brun, Valéria Dal Prá, Emanuele Junges, Raquel C Kuhn, Aniela Kempka Pinto, Marcio A Mazutti
In this study, a bioherbicide was produced by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using Diaporthe sp. Adjuvants were employed in a formulation to enhance the herbicidal activity towards the target (Cucumis sativus). The study was divided into two steps: (1) the fermentation condition for bioherbicide production was assessed; (2) evaluation of different formulations containing palm oil, Tween(®) 80 and Span(®) 80, in order to increase phytotoxicity. In step 1, the maximum herbicidal activity (1.23% of the leaves had lesions) was obtained at 25 °C, moisture content of 50 wt%, supplemented with 10 wt% of corn steep liquor and soybean bran and inoculum density of 15 wt%...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591592/recombinant-thermo-alkali-stable-endoglucanase-of-myceliopthora-thermophila-bja-rmt-egl-biochemical-characteristics-and-applicability-in-enzymatic-saccharification-of-agro-residues
#19
Priya Phadtare, Swati Joshi, T Satyanarayana
Codon adaptation index (CAI) of a 1263bp long endoglucanase encoding gene from the thermophilic mould Myceliopthora thermophile BJA has been improved from 0.44 to 0.76 by in vitro gene synthesis. The codon optimized endoglucanase gene (Mt-egl) has been constitutively expressed in Pichia pastoris under the regulation of GAP promoter. Recombinant endoglucanase (rMt-egl), purified by size exclusion chromatography, has been confirmed to be a monomeric protein of ∼47kDa. rMt-egl is optimally active at pH 10 and 50°C, displaying stability in broad pH and temperature ranges, with a t1/2 of 60 and 15min at 90 and 100°C, respectively...
June 4, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590158/relationship-between-total-polar-components-and-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-fried-edible-oil
#20
Ke-Jing An, Yu-Lan Liu, Hai-Lan Liu
Deep-fried dough sticks (a Chinese traditional breakfast) were fried individually in peanut, sunflower, rapeseed, rice bran, soybean and palm oil without any time lag for 32 h (64 batches fried, each for 30 min) and fried oil samples were obtained every 2 h. The frying-induced changes in the levels of total polar compounds (TPC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated by edible oil polar compounds (EOPC) fast separation chromatographic system and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively...
June 20, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
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