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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531165/a-japanese-encephalitis-virus-vaccine-inducing-antibodies-strongly-enhancing-in-vitro-infection-is-protective-in-pigs
#1
Obdulio García-Nicolás, Meret E Ricklin, Matthias Liniger, Nathalie J Vielle, Sylvie Python, Philippe Souque, Pierre Charneau, Artur Summerfield
The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is responsible for zoonotic severe viral encephalitis transmitted by Culex mosquitoes. Although birds are reservoirs, pigs play a role as amplifying hosts, and are affected in particular through reproductive failure. Here, we show that a lentiviral JEV vector, expressing JEV prM and E proteins (TRIP/JEV.prME), but not JEV infection induces strong antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) activities for infection of macrophages. Such antibodies strongly promoted infection via Fc receptors...
May 22, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531117/immunobiology-of-newcastle-disease-virus-and-its-use-for-prophylactic-vaccination-in-poultry-and-as-adjuvant-for-therapeutic-vaccination-in-cancer-patients
#2
REVIEW
Volker Schirrmacher
Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important diseases of poultry worldwide. In the last decades, molecular research has gained a lot of new information about its causative agent, newcastledisease virus (NDV). In poultry industry, certain strains of NDV have been used for preventive vaccination for more than 60 years. NDV has also been applied to cancer patients with beneficial effects for about 50 years, but this is less well known. The molecular basis for these differential effects of NDV in birds and man have been elucidated in the last decades and are explained in this review...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529504/a-novel-avian-paramyxovirus-putative-serotype-15-isolated-from-wild-birds
#3
Hyun-Jeong Lee, Ji-Ye Kim, Youn-Jeong Lee, Eun-Kyung Lee, Byoung-Min Song, Hee-Soo Lee, Kang-Seuk Choi
In January 2014, a viral hemagglutinating agent named UPO216 was isolated from fecal droppings of wild birds at the UPO wetland in South Korea during an avian influenza surveillance program. Electron microscopy identified the UPO216 virus as an avian paramyxovirus (APMV). Pathogenicity tests and molecular pathotyping revealed that the virus was avirulent in chickens. The UPO216 virus was assigned to a serological group antigenically distinct from known serotypes of APMV (-1, -2, -3, -4, -6, -7, -8, and -9) by hemagglutination inhibition test, despite showing weak cross-reactivity with APMV-1 and APMV-9...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529384/the-pelskin-project-part-v-towards-the-control-of-the-flow-around-aerofoils-at-high-angle-of-attack-using-a-self-activated-deployable-flap
#4
Marco E Rosti, Laura Kamps, Christoph Bruecker, Mohammad Omidyeganeh, Alfredo Pinelli
During the flight of birds, it is often possible to notice that some of the primaries and covert feathers on the upper side of the wing pop-up under critical flight conditions, such as the landing approach or when stalking their prey (see Fig. 1) . It is often conjectured that the feathers pop up plays an aerodynamic role by limiting the spread of flow separation . A combined experimental and numerical study was conducted to shed some light on the physical mechanism determining the feathers self actuation and their effective role in controlling the flow field in nominally stalled conditions...
2017: Meccanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529085/variations-in-native-protein-glycation-and-plasma-antioxidants-in-several-birds-of-prey
#5
Tana Ingram, Jessica Zuck, Chad R Borges, Patrick Redig, Karen L Sweazea
Birds are an anomaly among vertebrates as they are remarkably long-lived despite having naturally high blood glucose and metabolic rates. For mammals, hyperglycemia leads to oxidative stress and protein glycation. In contrast, many studies have shown that domestic and wild birds are relatively resistant to these glucose-mediated pathologies. Surprisingly very little research has examined protein glycation in birds of prey, which by nature consume a diet high in protein and fat that promotes gluconeogenesis...
May 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528903/equilibrium-bird-species-diversity-in-atlantic-islands
#6
Luis Valente, Juan Carlos Illera, Katja Havenstein, Tamara Pallien, Rampal S Etienne, Ralph Tiedemann
Half a century ago, MacArthur and Wilson proposed that the number of species on islands tends toward a dynamic equilibrium diversity around which species richness fluctuates [1]. The current prevailing view in island biogeography accepts the fundamentals of MacArthur and Wilson's theory [2] but questions whether their prediction of equilibrium can be fulfilled over evolutionary timescales, given the unpredictable and ever-changing nature of island geological and biotic features [3-7]. Here we conduct a complete molecular phylogenetic survey of the terrestrial bird species from four oceanic archipelagos that make up the diverse Macaronesian bioregion-the Azores, the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, and Madeira [8, 9]...
May 15, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528893/body-temperature-responses-to-handling-stress-in-wintering-black-capped-chickadees-poecile-atricapillus-l
#7
Agnès Lewden, Andreas Nord, Magali Petit, François Vézina
Body temperature variation in response to acute stress is typically characterized by peripheral vasoconstriction and a concomitant increase in core body temperature (stress-induced hyperthermia). It is poorly understood how this response differs between species and within individuals of the same species, and how it is affected by the environment. We therefore investigated stress-induced body temperature changes in a non-model species, the Black-capped Chickadee, in two environmental conditions: outdoors in low ambient temperature (mean: -6...
May 18, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528860/purifying-selection-and-concerted-evolution-of-rna-sensing-toll-like-receptors-in-migratory-waders
#8
Nynke Raven, Simeon Lisovski, Marcel Klaassen, Nathan Lo, Thomas Madsen, Simon Y W Ho, Beata Ujvari
Migratory birds encounter a broad range of pathogens during their journeys, making them ideal models for studying immune gene evolution. Despite the potential value of these species to immunoecology and disease epidemiology, previous studies have typically focused on their adaptive immune gene repertoires. In this study, we examined the evolution of innate immune genes in three long-distance migratory waders (order Charadriiformes). We analysed two parts of the extracellular domains of two Toll-like receptors (TLR3 and TLR7) involved in virus recognition in the Sanderling (Calidris alba), Red-necked Stint (Calidris ruficollis), and Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres)...
May 18, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528556/proventriculitis-associated-with-cryptosporidium-baileyi-in-a-snowy-owl-bubo-scandiacus-and-its-epidemiological-investigation
#9
Shotaro Nakagun, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Miki Sugimoto, Sohei Tomikawa, Kenichi Watanabe, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi
We describe an unusual case of proventriculitis associated with Cryptosporidium baileyi in a 7-wk-old snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus) chick kept at a zoo. Necropsy of this animal revealed diffuse mucosal thickening of the proventriculus. Subsequent histopathological examinations of the proventriculus showed marked ductal epithelial hyperplasia with intestinal metaplasia and severe inflammatory cell infiltration in the lamina propria and submucosa. These lesions were associated with numerous periodic-acid-Schiff-positive cryptosporidia-like protozoan parasites...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528532/caged-young-pigeons-mortality-by-coleoptera-larvae
#10
Adele Magliano, Jiri Hava, Andrea Di Giulio, Antonino Barone, Claudio De Liberato
Dermestidae and Tenebrionidae are well known inhabitants of bird's nests and poultry farms, under favourable conditions they can be very abundant under favourable conditions. At times, their larvae shift from a scavenging behaviour to a parasitic/predatory one, entering nestling's plumage and feeding on skin and feathers, and nally provoking skin damages and blood losses. These episodes mainly involve species of the genus Dermestes, but the tenebrionid Alphitobius diaperinus h also been reported to be responsible of similar cases...
April 11, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528317/levels-of-blood-lead-in-griffon-vultures-from-a-wildlife-rehabilitation-center-in-spain
#11
Fernando González, Irene López, Laura Suarez, Virginia Moraleda, Casilda Rodríguez
Lead is considered a highly toxic contaminant with important impacts to bird wildlife. Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) are a sensitive indicator of the level of environmental contamination due to their position at the top of the food chain and their dependence on human activities. The aim of this study was to assess susceptibility to lead intoxication in Griffon vultures admitted to Wildlife Rehabilitation Centers (WRC), measuring blood lead levels and determining if blood lead concentrations are related to clinical signs, hematological, biochemical or radiographic findings...
May 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528261/perfluoroalkylated-acids-in-the-eggs-of-great-tits-parus-major-near-a-fluorochemical-plant-in-flanders-belgium
#12
Thimo Groffen, Ana Lopez-Antia, Wendy D'Hollander, Els Prinsen, Marcel Eens, Lieven Bervoets
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are highly persistent substances which have been detected in wildlife around the world, including birds. Although bird eggs have often been used to determine and monitor PFAAs levels in the marine environment, this has rarely been done in the terrestrial environment. In the present study we examined the concentrations and composition profile of 12 PFAAs (4 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and 8 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in the eggs of great tits (Parus major) collected at a fluorochemical plant and in three other areas, representing a gradient in distance from the pollution source (from 1 to 70 km), in Antwerp, Belgium...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528103/addition-of-exogenous-enzymes-to-diets-containing-grape-pomace-effects-on-intestinal-utilization-of-catechins-and-antioxidant-status-of-chickens
#13
S Chamorro, A Viveros, A Rebolé, I Arija, C Romero, I Alvarez, A Rey, A Brenes
Grape pomace (GP) is a rich source of polyphenols with antioxidant capacity. An experiment was conducted to study the effect of GP phenolic compounds included at 5 and 10%, and the addition (individually or combined) of hydrolyzing enzymes (carbohydrase enzyme complex and tannase at 500ppm) on intestinal utilization of catechins and antioxidant status in broiler chickens. A diet supplemented with 200ppm of α-tocopheryl acetate was also used. Our findings demonstrate the capacity of chickens to digest the monomeric (catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, and epicatechin-O-gallate) and dimeric (procyanidin B1 and procyanidin B2) catechins present in grape pomace...
June 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526756/restricted-intra-embryonic-origin-of-bona-fide-hematopoietic-stem-cells-in-the-chicken
#14
Laurent Yvernogeau, Catherine Robin
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), responsible for blood cell production, are generated during embryonic development. Human and chicken embryos share features that pose the chicken as a reliable and accessible alternative model to study developmental hematopoiesis. However, the existence of HSCs has never been formally proven in chicken embryos. Here, we established a complete cartography and quantification of hematopoietic cells in the aorta during development. We demonstrated the existence of bona fide HSCs, originating from the chicken embryo aorta (and not the yolk sac, allantois or head), through an in vivo transplantation assay...
May 19, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526685/differences-in-molecular-mechanisms-of-k-clearance-in-the-auditory-sensory-epithelium-of-birds-and-mammals
#15
Viviane Wilms, Chris Söffgen, Hans Gerd Nothwang
Mechanoelectrical transduction in the vertebrate inner ear is a highly conserved mechanism depending on K(+) influx into hair cells. Here, we investigated the molecular underpinnings of subsequent K(+) recycling in the chicken basilar papilla and compared it with those in the mammalian auditory sensory epithelium. Like mammals, the avian auditory hair cell uses KCNQ4, KCNMA1, and KCNMB1 as K(+) efflux systems. Expression of KCNQ1 and KCNE1 suggests an additional efflux apparatus in avian hair cells. Marked differences were observed for K(+) clearance...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526197/towards-a-quantitative-indicator-of-feather-disruption-following-the-cleansing-of-oiled-birds
#16
Stephen W Bigger, Lawrence N Ngeh, Peter Dann, John D Orbell
A computer-based imaging method for determining feather microstructure coherency following a cleansing treatment, was developed, calibrated and trialled on Mallard Duck (Anas platyrhyhchos) feathers. The feathers were initially contaminated with a light crude oil and then cleansed by either detergent (Deacon 90) treatment or, alternatively, by magnetic particle technology (MPT) using iron powder. The imaging method provides a single quantitative parameter for the coherence of feather microstructure and the results confirm that MPT treatment imparts less disruption to the feather microstructure than detergent treatment...
May 16, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526170/body-mass-change-in-flying-homing-pigeons-externally-exposed-to-deepwater-horizon-crude-oil
#17
Cristina R Perez, John K Moye, Dave Cacela, Karen M Dean, Chris A Pritsos
The Deepwater Horizon oil spill contaminated thousands of miles of habitat valuable to hundreds of species of migratory and resident birds of the Gulf of Mexico. Many birds died as a direct result of the oil spill; however, the indirect effects of oil exposure on the flight ability and body condition of birds are difficult to assess in situ. This study utilizes the homing pigeon as a surrogate species for migratory birds to investigate the effect of multiple external oil exposures on the flight performance and body mass change of birds over a series of repeated flights from 136...
May 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525805/typical-integration-of-emotion-cues-from-bodies-and-faces-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Rebecca Brewer, Federica Biotti, Geoffrey Bird, Richard Cook
Contextual cues derived from body postures bias how typical observers categorize facial emotion; the same facial expression may be perceived as anger or disgust when aligned with angry and disgusted body postures. Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are thought to have difficulties integrating information from disparate visual regions to form unitary percepts, and may be less susceptible to visual illusions induced by context. The current study investigated whether individuals with ASD exhibit diminished integration of emotion cues extracted from faces and bodies...
May 16, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525340/detection-of-bordetella-avium-by-taqman-real-time-pcr-in-tracheal-swabs-from-wildlife-birds
#19
T Stenzel, D Pestka, B Tykałowski, M Śmiałek, A Koncicki, A Bancerz-Kisiel
Bordetella avium, the causing agent of bordetellosis, a highly contagious infection of the respiratory tract in young poultry, causes significant losses in poultry farming throughout the world. Wildlife birds can be a reservoir of various pathogens that infect farm animals. For this reason the studies were conducted to estimate the prevalence of Bordetella avium in wildlife birds in Poland. Tracheal swab samples were collected from 650 birds representing 27 species. The bacterial DNA was isolated directly from the swabs and screened for Bordetella avium by TaqMan real-time PCR...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524869/characterising-and-predicting-cyanobacterial-blooms-in-an-8-year-amplicon-sequencing-time-course
#20
Nicolas Tromas, Nathalie Fortin, Larbi Bedrani, Yves Terrat, Pedro Cardoso, David Bird, Charles W Greer, B Jesse Shapiro
Cyanobacterial blooms occur in lakes worldwide, producing toxins that pose a serious public health threat. Eutrophication caused by human activities and warmer temperatures both contribute to blooms, but it is still difficult to predict precisely when and where blooms will occur. One reason that prediction is so difficult is that blooms can be caused by different species or genera of cyanobacteria, which may interact with other bacteria and respond to a variety of environmental cues. Here we used a deep 16S amplicon sequencing approach to profile the bacterial community in eutrophic Lake Champlain over time, to characterise the composition and repeatability of cyanobacterial blooms, and to determine the potential for blooms to be predicted based on time course sequence data...
May 19, 2017: ISME Journal
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