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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731798/most-colorful-example-of-genetic-assimilation-exploring-the-evolutionary-destiny-of-recurrent-phenotypic-accommodation
#1
Alexander V Badyaev, Ahva L Potticary, Erin S Morrison
Evolution of adaptation requires both generation of novel phenotypic variation and retention of a locally beneficial subset of this variation. Such retention can be facilitated by genetic assimilation, the accumulation of genetic and molecular mechanisms that stabilize induced phenotypes and assume progressively greater control over their reliable production. A particularly strong inference into genetic assimilation as an evolutionary process requires a system where it is possible to directly evaluate the extent to which an induced phenotype is progressively incorporated into preexisting developmental pathways...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731522/wildlife-species-benefitting-from-a-greener-arctic-are-most-sensitive-to-shrub-cover-at-leading-range-edges
#2
Helen C Wheeler, Toke T Høye, Jens-Christian Svenning
Widespread expansion of shrubs is occurring across the Arctic. Shrub expansion will substantially alter arctic wildlife habitats. Identifying which wildlife species are most affected by shrubification is central to predicting future arctic community composition. Through meta-analysis, we synthesized the published evidence for effects of canopy-forming shrubs on birds and mammals in the Arctic and Subarctic. We examined variation in species behaviour, distribution and population dynamics in birds and mammals in response to shrub cover (including shrub cover indicators such as shrub occurrence, extent, density and height)...
July 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731415/eosinophilic-esophagitis-after-egg-oral-immunotherapy-in-an-adult-with-egg-allergy-and-egg-bird-syndrome
#3
R García Rodríguez, Y Méndez Díaz, L Moreno Lozano, A Extremera Ortega, E Gómez Torrijos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730757/psoriatic-arthritis-treatment-regimens-therapy-duration-and-reasons-for-cessation-in-the-biologics-era-a-multi-centre-australian-study
#4
Kathleen Tymms, Ayano Kelly, Paul Bird, Hedley Griffiths, Julien de Jager, Geoff Littlejohn, Sandra Louw, Lynden Roberts, Peter Youssef, Jane Zochling, Dave Nichols
AIM: To describe the treatment regimens, duration of therapy and reasons for disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) cessation in a large psoriatic arthritis (PsA) cohort. METHODS: A retrospective non-interventional multi-centre study using Audit4 electronic medical records, with de-identified, routinely collected clinical data from rheumatology practices in the OPAL consortium (Optimising Patient outcomes in Australian rheumatoLogy) during November 2015. Baseline characteristics, type and duration of conventional and biologic DMARDs (cDMARD and bDMARD, respectively), disease activity (Disease Activity Score of 28 joints C-reactive protein [DAS28-CRP]), and reasons for treatment cessation were recorded...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728428/consequence-of-dopamine-d2-receptor-blockade-on-the-hyperphagic-effect-induced-by-cannabinoid-cb1-and-cb2-receptors-in-layers
#5
M Khodadadi, M Zendehdel, A Baghbanzadeh, V Babapour
1. Endocannabinoids (ECBs) and their receptors play a regulatory function on several physiological processes such as feed intake behaviour, mainly in the brain. This study was carried out in order to investigate the effects of the dopaminergic D1 and D2 receptors on CB1/CB2 ECB receptor induced hyperphagia in 3-h feed-deprived (FD3) neonatal layer chickens. 2. A total of 8 experiments were designed to explore the interplay of these two modulatory systems on feed intake in neonatal chickens. In Experiment 1, chickens were intracerebroventricular (ICV) injected with control solution, L-DOPA (levo-dihydroxyphenylalanine as precursor of dopamine; 125 nmol), 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol as CB1 receptor agonist; 2 µg) and co-adminstration of L-DOPA (125 nmol) plus 2-AG (2 µg)...
July 21, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728369/estimation-of-heritability-and-genetic-correlation-of-body-weight-gain-and-growth-curve-parameters-in-korean-native-chicken
#6
Prabuddha Manjula, Hee-Bok Park, Dongwon Seo, Nuri Choi, Shil Jin, Sung Jin Ahn, Kang Nyeong Heo, Bo Seok Kang, Jun Heon Lee
Objective: The aim of this present study was to estimate genetic parameters for body weight gain and growth curve parameter traits in Korean Native Chicken (KNC). Methods: A total of 585 F1 chickens were used along with 88 of their F0 birds. Body weights were measured every 2 weeks from hatching to 20 weeks of age to measure weight gain at 2-week intervals. For each individual, a logistic growth curve model was fitted to the longitudinal growth dataset to obtain three growth curve parameters (α: asymptotic final body weight, β: inflection point, and γ: constant scale that was proportional to the overall growth rate)...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728131/the-distribution-of-organochlorine-pesticides-in-sediments-from-isimangaliso-wetland-park-ecological-risks-and-implications-for-conservation-in-a-biodiversity-hotspot
#7
Archibold Buah-Kwofie, Marc S Humphries
The iSimangaliso Wetland Park World Heritage site, located on the east coast of South Africa, spans ∼3300 km(2) and constitutes the largest protected estuarine environment for hippopotami, crocodiles and aquatic birds in Africa. Given the ecological importance of this site and continued use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the region, this study focused on the nature, distribution and potential sources of organochlorine contamination within iSimangaliso Wetland Park. OCPs were widely distributed in surface sediment samples obtained from the four main Ramsar wetland systems within the park (Lake St Lucia, Mkhuze, Lake Sibaya and Kosi Bay)...
July 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727808/automatic-mouse-ultrasound-detector-a-mud-a-new-tool-for-processing-rodent-vocalizations
#8
Sarah M Zala, Doris Reitschmidt, Anton Noll, Peter Balazs, Dustin J Penn
House mice (Mus musculus) emit complex ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during social and sexual interactions, which have features similar to bird song (i.e., they are composed of several different types of syllables, uttered in succession over time to form a pattern of sequences). Manually processing complex vocalization data is time-consuming and potentially subjective, and therefore, we developed an algorithm that automatically detects mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (Automatic Mouse Ultrasound Detector or A-MUD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727200/landscape-genetic-analyses-reveal-fine-scale-effects-of-forest-fragmentation-in-an-insular-tropical-bird
#9
Aurélie Khimoun, William Peterman, Cyril Eraud, Bruno Faivre, Nicolas Navarro, Stéphane Garnier
Within the framework of landscape genetics, resistance surface modelling is particularly relevant to explicitly test competing hypotheses about landscape effects on gene flow. To investigate how fragmentation of tropical forest affects population connectivity in a forest-specialist bird species, we optimized resistance surfaces without a priori specification, using least-cost (LCP) or resistance (IBR) distances. We implemented a two-step procedure in order i) to objectively define the landscape thematic resolution (level of detail in classification scheme to describe landscape variables) and spatial extent (area within the landscape boundaries) and then ii) to test the relative role of several landscape features (elevation, roads, land cover) in genetic differentiation in the Plumbeous Warbler (Setophaga plumbea)...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727082/comparison-of-amino-acid-digestibility-in-full-fat-soybean-two-soybean-meals-and-peanut-flour-between-broiler-chickens-and-growing-pigs
#10
C S Park, A Helmbrecht, J K Htoo, O Adeola
The aim of this study was to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in full-fat soybean (FFSB), solvent-extracted soybean meal containing 430 g/kg CP (SBM-43), solvent-extracted soybean meal containing 470 g/kg CP (SBM-47), and peanut flour (PNF) fed to broiler chickens and pigs and to compare the digestibility of CP and AA between broiler chickens and pigs. Four diets were prepared to contain FFSB, SBM-43, SBM-47, and PNF as the sole source of N...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725417/reduced-inflammation-in-expanding-populations-of-a-neotropical-bird-species
#11
Juliette Bailly, Stéphane Garnier, Aurélie Khimoun, Emilie Arnoux, Cyril Eraud, Jean-Yves Goret, Thomas Luglia, Philippe Gaucher, Bruno Faivre
The loss of regulating agents such as parasites is among the most important changes in biotic interactions experienced by populations established in newly colonized areas. Under a relaxed parasite pressure, individuals investing less in costly immune mechanisms might experience a selective advantage and become successful colonizers as they re-allocate resources to other fitness-related traits. Accordingly, a refinement of the evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis proposed that immunity of invasive populations has evolved toward a reduced investment in innate immunity, the most costly component of immunity, and an increased humoral immunity that is less costly...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725416/contrasting-patterns-of-selection-between-mhc-i-and-ii-across-populations-of-humboldt-and-magellanic-penguins
#12
Nicole Sallaberry-Pincheira, Daniel González-Acuña, Pamela Padilla, Gisele P M Dantas, Guillermo Luna-Jorquera, Esteban Frere, Armando Valdés-Velásquez, Juliana A Vianna
The evolutionary and adaptive potential of populations or species facing an emerging infectious disease depends on their genetic diversity in genes, such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In birds, MHC class I deals predominantly with intracellular infections (e.g., viruses) and MHC class II with extracellular infections (e.g., bacteria). Therefore, patterns of MHC I and II diversity may differ between species and across populations of species depending on the relative effect of local and global environmental selective pressures, genetic drift, and gene flow...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725414/snps-across-time-and-space-population-genomic-signatures-of-founder-events-and-epizootics-in-the-house-finch-haemorhous-mexicanus
#13
Allison J Shultz, Allan J Baker, Geoffrey E Hill, Paul M Nolan, Scott V Edwards
Identifying genomic signatures of natural selection can be challenging against a background of demographic changes such as bottlenecks and population expansions. Here, we disentangle the effects of demography from selection in the House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) using samples collected before and after a pathogen-induced selection event. Using ddRADseq, we genotyped over 18,000 SNPs across the genome in native pre-epizootic western US birds, introduced birds from Hawaii and the eastern United States, post-epizootic eastern birds, and western birds sampled across a similar time span...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725413/prothonotary-warbler-nestling-growth-and-condition-in-response-to-variation-in-aquatic-and-terrestrial-prey-availability
#14
Jenna C Dodson, Nicholas J Moy, Lesley P Bulluck
Aquatic prey subsidies entering terrestrial habitats are well documented, but little is known about the degree to which these resources provide fitness benefits to riparian consumers. Riparian species take advantage of seasonal pulses of both terrestrial and aquatic prey, although aquatic resources are often overlooked in studies of how diet influences the reproductive ecology of these organisms. Ideally, the timing of resource pulses should occur at the time of highest reproductive demand. This study investigates the availability of aquatic (mayfly) and terrestrial (caterpillar) prey resources as well as the nestling diet of the prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) at two sites along the lower James River in Virginia during the 2014 breeding season...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725401/sky-island-bird-populations-isolated-by-ancient-genetic-barriers-are-characterized-by-different-song-traits-than-those-isolated-by-recent-deforestation
#15
Chetana B Purushotham, V V Robin
Various mechanisms of isolation can structure populations and result in cultural and genetic differentiation. Similar to genetic markers, for songbirds, culturally transmitted sexual signals such as breeding song can be used as a measure of differentiation as songs can also be impacted by geographic isolation resulting in population-level differences in song structure. Several studies have found differences in song structure either across ancient geographic barriers or across contemporary habitat barriers owing to deforestation...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725390/grazed-wet-meadows-are-sink-habitats-for-the-southern-dunlin-calidris-alpina-schinzii-due-to-nest-trampling-by-cattle
#16
Veli-Matti Pakanen, Sami Aikio, Aappo Luukkonen, Kari Koivula
The effect of habitat management is commonly evaluated by measuring population growth, which does not distinguish changes in reproductive success from changes in survival or the effects of immigration or emigration. Management has rarely been evaluated considering complete life cycle of the target organisms, including also possible negative impacts from management. We evaluated the effectiveness of cattle grazing in the restoration of coastal meadows as a breeding habitat for small and medium-sized ground-nesting birds by examining the size and demography of a southern dunlin (Calidris alpina schinzii) breeding population...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725381/extending-bioacoustic-monitoring-of-birds-aloft-through-flight-call-localization-with-a-three-dimensional-microphone-array
#17
Phillip M Stepanian, Kyle G Horton, David C Hille, Charlotte E Wainwright, Phillip B Chilson, Jeffrey F Kelly
Bioacoustic localization of bird vocalizations provides unattended observations of the location of calling individuals in many field applications. While this technique has been successful in monitoring terrestrial distributions of calling birds, no published study has applied these methods to migrating birds in flight. The value of nocturnal flight call recordings can increase with the addition of three-dimensional position retrievals, which can be achieved with adjustments to existing localization techniques...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725370/emlen-funnel-experiments-revisited-methods-update-for-studying-compass-orientation-in-songbirds
#18
Giuseppe Bianco, Mihaela Ilieva, Clas Veibäck, Kristoffer Öfjäll, Alicja Gadomska, Gustaf Hendeby, Michael Felsberg, Fredrik Gustafsson, Susanne Åkesson
Migratory songbirds carry an inherited capacity to migrate several thousand kilometers each year crossing continental landmasses and barriers between distant breeding sites and wintering areas. How individual songbirds manage with extreme precision to find their way is still largely unknown. The functional characteristics of biological compasses used by songbird migrants has mainly been investigated by recording the birds directed migratory activity in circular cages, so-called Emlen funnels. This method is 50 years old and has not received major updates over the past decades...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725369/adding-energy-gradients-and-long-distance-dispersal-to-a-neutral-model-improves-predictions-of-madagascan-bird-diversity
#19
Falko T Buschke, Luc Brendonck, Bram Vanschoenwinkel
Macroecological patterns are likely the result of both stochastically neutral mechanisms and deterministic differences between species. In Madagascar, the simplest stochastically neutral hypothesis - the mid-domain effects (MDE) hypothesis - has already been rejected. However, rejecting the MDE hypothesis does not necessarily refute the existence of all other neutral mechanisms. Here, we test whether adding complexity to a basic neutral model improves predictions of biodiversity patterns. The simplest MDE model assumes that: (1) species' ranges are continuous and unfragmented, (2) are randomly located throughout the landscape, and (3) can be stacked independently and indefinitely...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725363/bridging-two-scholarly-islands-enriches-both-coi-dna-barcodes-for-species-identification-versus-human-mitochondrial-variation-for-the-study-of-migrations-and-pathologies
#20
David S Thaler, Mark Y Stoeckle
DNA barcodes for species identification and the analysis of human mitochondrial variation have developed as independent fields even though both are based on sequences from animal mitochondria. This study finds questions within each field that can be addressed by reference to the other. DNA barcodes are based on a 648-bp segment of the mitochondrially encoded cytochrome oxidase I. From most species, this segment is the only sequence available. It is impossible to know whether it fairly represents overall mitochondrial variation...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
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