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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779007/is-oral-dexamethasone-as-good-as-oral-prednisolone-for-childhood-wheeze-requiring-steroids
#1
Jiske Steensma, Chris Bird
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778954/ionizing-radiation-and-taxonomic-functional-and-evolutionary-diversity-of-bird-communities
#2
Federico Morelli, Yanina Benedetti, Timothy A Mousseau, Anders Pape Møller
Ionizing radiation from nuclear accidents at Chernobyl, Fukushima and elsewhere has reduced the abundance, species richness and diversity of ecosystems. Here we analyzed the taxonomic, functional and evolutionary diversity of bird communities in forested areas around Chernobyl. Species richness decreased with increasing radiation, mainly in 2007. Functional richness, but not functional evenness and divergence, decreased with increasing level of ionizing radiation. Evolutionary distinctiveness of bird communities was higher in areas with higher levels of ionizing radiation...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778799/physiological-vagility-affects-population-genetic-structure-and-dispersal-and-enables-migratory-capacity-in-vertebrates
#3
Thomas V Hancock, Michael S Hedrick
Vagility is defined as the relative capacity for movement. We developed previously a quantitative metric in vertebrates for physiological vagility (PV), the speed at which an animal can move sustainably, incorporating aerobic capacity, body size, body temperature, and transport costs, allowing quantitative tests of whether PV can explain variation in interclass population genetic structure and behaviors involved in dispersal. We found that PV increased with body mass, correlated with maximal dispersal distances, and was inversely related to genetic structure in multiple vertebrate groups...
May 17, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778784/food-choice-considerations-among-american-indians-living-in-rural-oklahoma-the-thrive-study
#4
Marianna S Wetherill, Mary B Williams, Micah L Hartwell, Alicia L Salvatore, Tvli Jacob, Tamela K Cannady, Joy Standridge, Jill Fox, Jennifer Spiegel, Natia Anderson, Valarie Blue Bird Jernigan
In rural American Indian (AI) communities, access to affordable, healthy foods is often limited. Understanding AI food choice considerations when selecting foods, such as sensory appeal, cost, or health, is an important yet understudied topic for eliminating persistent AI health disparities. In partnership with the Chickasaw Nation and Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, we administered a modified version of the Food Choice Values (FCV) Questionnaire to a cross-sectional sample of 83 AI patrons shopping at tribally-owned convenience stores ≥3 times per week...
May 17, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778767/molecular-morphological-and-experimental-assessment-of-the-life-cycle-of-posthodiplostomum-nanum-trematoda-diplostomidae-from-brazil-with-phylogenetic-evidence-of-the-paraphyly-of-the-genus-posthodiplostomum-dubois-1936
#5
Danimar López-Hernández, Sean A Locke, Alan Lane de Melo, Élida Mara Leite Rabelo, Hudson Alves Pinto
Species of the genus Posthodiplostomum are intestinal parasites of piscivorous birds with worldwide distribution. Recent molecular surveys have focused on developmental stages from vertebrate hosts, with few sequences from larvae found in molluscs. Moreover, most published molecular data are from collections in North America, Europe and Asia, and there are no data for South American species. In the present study, cercariae found in the freshwater limpet Gundlachia ticaga from Brazil were used for morphological, experimental and molecular studies...
May 17, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778701/natural-history-of-avian-papillomaviruses
#6
REVIEW
Daniel A Truchado, Richard A J Williams, Laura Benítez
Papillomaviruses (Family: Papillomaviridae) are small non-enveloped viruses that cause skin and mucosa infections in diverse vertebrates. The vast majority have been detected in mammals. However, the number of papillomaviruses described in birds is growing, especially because of metagenomic studies. Seven complete genomes and one partial sequence have been described, corresponding to five papillomavirus genera. These have been detected from various sample types, including skin, internal epithelium, and faecal material, from seven highly diverse wild and captive avian species...
May 17, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778221/morphology-and-toxicity-of-pseudo-nitzschia-species-in-the-northern-benguela-upwelling-system
#7
Deon C Louw, Gregory J Doucette, Nina Lundholm
The Benguela upwelling system, considered the world's most productive marine ecosystem, has a long record of potentially toxic diatoms belonging to the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Species of Pseudo-nitzschia were reported as early as 1936 from the northern Benguela upwelling system (nBUS). For the current study, long-term phytoplankton monitoring data (2004-2011) for the Namibian coast were analysed to examine inshore and offshore temporal distribution of Pseudo-nitzschia species, their diversity and ultrastructure...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778197/genetic-analysis-and-biological-characteristics-of-different-internal-gene-origin-h5n6-reassortment-avian-influenza-virus-in-china-in-2016
#8
Wenqiang Sun, Jiaxin Li, Jiao Hu, Daxiu Jiang, Chaonan Xing, Tiansong Zhan, Xiufan Liu
Clade 2.3.4.4 of H5N6 subtype Avian Influenza Viruses (AIVs) has become dominant clade in South-East Asia. So far, a total of 16 cases of human infection, including 6 deaths, have been confirmed since 2014. In this study, we systematically investigated the genetic evolution and biological characteristics of these viruses. We first carried out phylogenetic and statistical analysis of all H5N6 viruses that were downloaded from Influenza Research Database, GISAID and isolates from our lab. We found that H5N6 AIVs continued to reassort with other AIVs subtypes since 2014...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778195/antigenicity-characterization-of-four-representative-natural-reassortment-ibdvs-isolated-from-commercial-three-yellow-chickens-from-southern-china-reveals-different-subtypes-co-prevalent-in-the-field
#9
Guo Chen, Xiumiao He, Lin Yang, Ping Wei
The antigenic relationships between the natural reassortment field strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), and between the field strains and the vaccine strains are poorly understood. In the present study, the antigenicity of four representative natural reassortment IBDV isolates designated JS7, GD10111, NN1005 and NN1172 from southern China during the years 2005-2011 and their antigenic relationship with the most commonly used vaccine strain B87 were investigated in vivo. For this purpose, cross-challenge studies were performed on 28-day-old birds, which were 2 weeks post-vaccination by oil-emulsion vaccines (OEVs) prepared from the four field viruses and B87, respectively...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778080/atrazine-xenobiotic-nuclear-receptor-interactions-induce-cardiac-inflammation-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-quail-coturnix-coturnix-coturnix
#10
Xue-Nan Li, Yu-Zhu Zuo, Lei Qin, Wei Liu, Yan-Hua Li, Jin-Long Li
Atrazine (ATR) is one of the most extensively used herbicide that eventually leaches into groundwater and surface water from agricultural areas. Exposure to ATR does harm to the health of human and animals, especially the heart. However, ATR exposure caused cardiotoxicity in bird remains unclear. To evaluate ATR-exerted potential cardiotoxicity in heart, quail were exposed with 0, 50, 250, and 500 mg/kg BW/day ATR by gavage treatment for 45 days. Cardiac histopathological alternation was observed in ATR-induced quail...
May 9, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777375/a-comparison-of-the-effects-of-antibiotics-probiotics-synbiotics-and-prebiotics-on-the-performance-and-carcass-characteristics-of-broilers
#11
Vahid Tayeri, Alireza Seidavi, Leila Asadpour, Clive J C Phillips
Routine use of the antibiotic flavomycin in broiler production may lead to resistance, and alternative growth promoters are used to enhance performance. Two hundred day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were allocated to five dietary supplements included from d 1-42: flavomycin, three possible alternatives, a probiotic, prebiotic and a synbiotic, as well as a control treatment. There were four replicate cages of 10 birds each in each treatment. Compared with the control and antibiotics treatments, the probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic treatments increased (p = 0...
May 18, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777088/ten-minute-chat
#12
(no author information available yet)
Tariq Abou-Zahr is an exotics resident at Great Western Exotics, Swindon - a centre of excellence for avian and exotic pets. Having kept birds and reptiles since he was a child, he has a keen interest in unusual species.
May 19, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776998/visual-field-shape-and-foraging-ecology-in-diurnal-raptors
#13
Simon Potier, Olivier Duriez, Gregory B Cunningham, Vincent Bonhomme, Colleen O'Rourke, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Francesco Bonadonna
Birds, particularly raptors, are believed to forage primarily using visual cues. However, raptor foraging tactics are highly diverse - from chasing mobile prey to scavenging - which may reflect adaptations of their visual systems. To investigate this, we studied the visual field configuration of 15 species of diurnal Accipitriformes that differ in such tactics, first focusing on the binocular field and blind area by using a single traits approach, and then exploring the shape of the binocular field with morphometric approaches...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776995/kinematic-control-of-male-allen-s-hummingbird-wing-trill-over-a-range-of-flight-speeds
#14
Christopher J Clark, Emily A Mistick
Wing trills are pulsed sounds produced by modified wing feathers at one or more specific points in time during a wingbeat. Male Allen's Hummingbird ( Selasphorus sasin ) produce a sexually dimorphic 9 kHz wing trill in flight. Here we investigate the kinematic basis for trill production. The wingtip velocity hypothesis posits that trill production is modulated by the airspeed of the wingtip at some point during the wingbeat, whereas the wing rotation hypothesis posits that trill production is instead modulated by wing rotation kinematics...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776127/collective-conflict-resolution-in-groups-on-the-move
#15
Itai Pinkoviezky, Iain D Couzin, Nir S Gov
Collective decision-making regarding direction of travel is observed during natural motion of animal and cellular groups. This phenomenon is exemplified, in the simplest case, by a group that contains two informed subgroups that hold conflicting preferred directions of motion. Under such circumstances, simulations, subsequently supported by experimental data with birds and primates, have demonstrated that the resulting motion is either towards a compromise direction or towards one of the preferred targets (even when the two subgroups are equal in size)...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776078/critical-properties-of-unlimited-gliding-unexpected-flocking-behavior-driven-by-the-exchange-of-information
#16
Marta Bigus-Kwiatkowska, Agata Fronczak, Piotr Fronczak
Inspired by albatrosses that use thermal lifts to fly across oceans we develop a simple model of gliders that serves us to study theoretical limitations of unlimited exploration of the Earth. Our studies, grounded in physical theory of continuous percolation and biased random walks, allow us to identify a variety of percolation transitions, which are understood as providing potentially unlimited movement through a space in a specified direction. We discover an unexpected phenomenon of self-organization of gliders in clusters, which resembles the flock organization of birds...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775726/pathological-effects-of-concurrent-administration-of-aflatoxin-b-1-and-fowl-adenovirus-4-in-broiler-chicks
#17
Muhammad Noman Naseem, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi, Ahrar Khan, Aisha Khatoon, Shafia Tehseen Gul, Farzana Rizvi, Ijaz Ahmad, Ahad Fayyaz
The current study was designed to investigate pathological effects fowl adenovirus in broilers exposed to aflatoxin B1 . Fowl Adenovirus-4 (FAdV-4) infection is remerging in all types of poultry birds in Pakistan. Poultry feed contamination with mycotoxin (aflatoxin) is another important global issue. A total of 125 a-day old broiler birds were divided into six equal groups. Group A served as control. B and C groups were administered with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) 100 and 200 μg/kg feed. Group D was infected with FAdV-4 while groups E and F administered with both AFB1 (100 & 200 μg/kg) along with FAdV-4...
May 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775631/effect-of-central-injection-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-like-cytokine-1a-and-interferons-on-food-intake-in-chicks
#18
Tetsuya Tachibana, Yoko Ishimaru, Ryosuke Makino, Sakirul Islam Khan, Mark A Cline
In mammals, anorexia accompanying infection is thought to be mediated via cytokines including interleukins, interferons (IFNs), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). However, there is a lack of related knowledge on birds. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine if cytokines are associated with reduced food intake in chicks (Gallus gallus). Specifically, we evaluated the effects of TNF-like cytokine 1A (TL1A), a member of the TNF family, interferon-α (IFN-α), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) on food intake...
May 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775563/anolis-carolinensis-as-a-model-to-understand-molecular-and-cellular-basis-of-foveal-development
#19
Naif S Sannan, Xianghong Shan, Kevin Gregory-Evans, Kenro Kusumi, Cheryl Y Gregory-Evans
The fovea is an anatomical specialization of the central retina containing closely packed cone-photoreceptors providing an area of high acuity vision in humans and primates. Despite its key role in the clarity of vision, little is known about the molecular and cellular basis of foveal development, due to the absence of a foveal structure in commonly used laboratory animal models. Of the amniotes the retina in birds of prey and some reptiles do exhibit a typical foveal structure, but they have not been studied in the context of foveal development due to lack of availability of embryonic tissue, lack of captive breeding programs, and limited genomic information...
May 15, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775483/ldha-gene-is-associated-with-pigeon-survivability-during-racing-competitions
#20
Sherif Ramadan, Takeshi Miyake, Junichi Yamaura, Miho Inoue-Murayama
Pigeon racing is a popular sport worldwide. Pigeons are under continuous selection to improve speed, spatial orientation, and endurance during long flights. However, numerous genetic and non-genetic factors affect survivability and homing ability, making such traits difficult for breeders to control. Polymorphisms in the lactate dehydrogenase A gene (LDHA) likely affects pigeon racing and homing abilities, due to its role in physical and mental performance. Additionally, the adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 gene (ADCYAP1) has been associated with physiological and behavioral shifts that occur during avian migration...
2018: PloS One
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