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Sonia M Hernandez, Catharine N Welch, Valerie E Peters, Erin K Lipp, Shannon Curry, Michael J Yabsley, Susan Sanchez, Andrea Presotto, Peter Gerner-Smidt, Kelley B Hise, Elizabeth Hammond, Whitney M Kistler, Marguerite Madden, April L Conway, Tiffany Kwan, John J Maurer
Worldwide, Salmonella spp. is a significant cause of disease for both humans and wildlife, with wild birds adapted to urban environments having different opportunities for pathogen exposure, infection, and transmission compared to their natural conspecifics. Food provisioning by people may influence these factors, especially when high-density mixed species flocks aggregate. White Ibises (Eudocimus albus), an iconic Everglades species in decline in Florida, are becoming increasingly common in urbanized areas of south Florida where most are hand-fed...
2016: PloS One
Nicole S Nicholas, Aikaterini Pipili, Michaela S Lesjak, Simon M Ameer-Beg, Jenny L C Geh, Ciaran Healy, Alistair D MacKenzie Ross, Maddy Parsons, Frank O Nestle, Katie E Lacy, Claire M Wells
Cancer cells are thought to use actin rich invadopodia to facilitate matrix degradation. Formation and maturation of invadopodia requires the co-ordained activity of Rho-GTPases, however the molecular mechanisms that underlie the invadopodia lifecycle are not fully elucidated. Previous work has suggested a formation and disassembly role for Rho family effector p-21 activated kinase 1 (PAK1) however, related family member PAK4 has not been explored. Systematic analysis of isoform specific depletion using in vitro and in vivo invasion assays revealed there are differential invadopodia-associated functions...
September 27, 2016: Oncotarget
Daryl C Yang, Jennifer R Deuis, Daniel Dashevsky, James Dobson, Timothy N W Jackson, Andreas Brust, Bing Xie, Ivan Koludarov, Jordan Debono, Iwan Hendrikx, Wayne C Hodgson, Peter Josh, Amanda Nouwens, Gregory J Baillie, Timothy J C Bruxner, Paul F Alewood, Kelvin Kok Peng Lim, Nathaniel Frank, Irina Vetter, Bryan G Fry
Millions of years of evolution have fine-tuned the ability of venom peptides to rapidly incapacitate both prey and potential predators. Toxicofera reptiles are characterized by serous-secreting mandibular or maxillary glands with heightened levels of protein expression. These glands are the core anatomical components of the toxicoferan venom system, which exists in myriad points along an evolutionary continuum. Neofunctionalisation of toxins is facilitated by positive selection at functional hotspots on the ancestral protein and venom proteins have undergone dynamic diversification in helodermatid and varanid lizards as well as advanced snakes...
October 18, 2016: Toxins
Thomas Raap, Giulia Casasole, David Costantini, Hamada AbdElgawad, Han Asard, Rianne Pinxten, Marcel Eens
Artificial light at night (ALAN), termed light pollution, is an increasingly important anthropogenic environmental pressure on wildlife. Exposure to unnatural lighting environments may have profound effects on animal physiology, particularly during early life. Here, we experimentally investigated for the first time the impact of ALAN on body mass and oxidative status during development, using nestlings of a free-living songbird, the great tit (Parus major), an important model species. Body mass and blood oxidative status were determined at baseline (=13 days after hatching) and again after a two night exposure to ALAN...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Peri E Bolton, Lee Ann Rollins, James Brazill-Boast, Kang-Wook Kim, Terry Burke, Simon C Griffith
In socially monogamous species, individuals can use extra-pair paternity and offspring sex allocation as adaptive strategies to ameliorate costs of genetic incompatibility with their partner. Previous studies on domesticated Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) demonstrated a genetic incompatibility between head colour morphs, the effects of which are more severe in female offspring. Domesticated females use differential sex allocation, and extra-pair paternity with males of compatible head colour, to reduce fitness costs associated with incompatibility in mixed-morph pairings...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Thomas B Brunner, Ursula Nestle, Sonja Adebahr, Eleni Gkika, Rolf Wiehle, Dimos Baltas, Anca-Ligia Grosu
OBJECTIVE: Stereotactic radiotherapy near serial organs at risk (OAR) requires special caution. A novel intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) prescription concept termed simultaneous integrated protection (SIP) for quantifiable and comparable dose prescription to targets very close to OAR is described. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An intersection volume of a planning risk volume (PRV) with the total planning target volume (PTV) defined the protection volume (PTVSIP)...
October 18, 2016: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
Anne-Segolene Cottereau, Sebastien Hapdey, Loic Chartier, Romain Modzelewski, Olivier Casasnovas, Emmanuel Itti, Herve Tilly, Pierre Vera, Michel A Meignan, Stéphanie Becker
: To compare in a large series of Peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL), as a model of diffuse disease, the prognostic value of baseline Total Metabolic Tumor Volume (TMTV) measured on FDG-PET/CT with adaptive thresholding methods to TMTV measured with a fixed 41% SUVmax threshold method. METHODS: 106 patients with PTCL, staged with a PET/CT were enrolled from 5 LYSA centers. In this series TMTV computed with the 41% SUVmax threshold is a strong predictor of outcome (Ann Oncol, 2016)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Guillermo Blanco, Alexandra Junza, Dolores Barrón
Pharmaceuticals from veterinary treatments may enter terrestrial food webs when medicated livestock are available to wildlife in supplementary feeding stations aimed at the conservation of endangered scavengers. Here, we hypothesized that the exposure risk to livestock fluoroquinolones, as indicators of pharmaceutical burden in food, is related to the variable reliance of scavengers on domestic versus wild animal carcasses. Since the misuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics is a major predisposing factor for opportunistic mycoses, we evaluated disease signs potentially associated with diet-dependent drug exposure in nestlings of two threatened vultures...
October 14, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
D Caldwell Hahn, John C Wingfield, David M Fox, Brian G Walker, Jill E Thomley
In the coevolutionary dynamic of avian brood parasites and their hosts, maternal (or transgenerational) effects have rarely been investigated. We examined the potential role of elevated yolk testosterone in eggs of the principal brood parasite in North America, the brown-headed cowbird, and three of its frequent host species. Elevated maternal androgens in eggs are a common maternal effect observed in many avian species when breeding conditions are unfavorable. These steroids accelerate embryo development, shorten incubation period, increase nestling growth rate, and enhance begging vigor, all traits that can increase the survival of offspring...
October 13, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Lauren Peruffo, Janice D Boyd, Sharman Hoppes, Donald J Brightsmith
Blood biochemical values are useful as indicators of disease in veterinary practice and for health assessments of free-ranging animal populations. We analyzed blood biochemical values for free-living nestling and adult scarlet macaws ( Ara macao macao) in southeastern Peru with an Abaxis VetScan VS2 portable analyzer with Avian/Reptilian Profile Plus rotors. The resulting data were used to create provisional age-independent reference intervals for this instrument for wild scarlet macaw nestlings, calculate blood biochemical ranges for this instrument for wild adults, and examine age-related trends in nestlings...
September 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Arno Cimadom, Charlotte Causton, Dong H Cha, David Damiens, Birgit Fessl, Rebecca Hood-Nowotny, Piedad Lincango, Alejandro E Mieles, Erwin Nemeth, Elizabeth M Semler, Stephen A Teale, Sabine Tebbich
Darwin's finches are highly innovative. Recently we recorded for the first time a behavioural innovation in Darwin's finches outside the foraging context: individuals of four species rubbed leaves of the endemic tree Psidium galapageium on their feathers. We hypothesised that this behaviour serves to repel ectoparasites and tested the repellency of P. galapageium leaf extracts against parasites that negatively affect the fitness of Darwin's finches, namely mosquitoes and the invasive hematophagous fly Philornis downsi...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Oliver Oehlke, Michael Mix, Erika Graf, Tanja Schimek-Jasch, Ursula Nestle, Irina Götz, Sabine Schneider-Fuchs, Astrid Weyerbrock, Irina Mader, Brigitta G Baumert, Susan C Short, Philipp T Meyer, Wolfgang A Weber, Anca-Ligia Grosu
BACKGROUND: The higher specificity of amino-acid positron emission tomography (AA-PET) in the diagnosis of gliomas, as well as in the differentiation between recurrence and treatment-related alterations, in comparison to contrast enhancement in T1-weighted MRI was demonstrated in many studies and is the rationale for their implementation into radiation oncology treatment planning. Several clinical trials have demonstrated the significant differences between AA-PET and standard MRI concerning the definition of the gross tumor volume (GTV)...
October 5, 2016: BMC Cancer
Andrea Romano, Barbara De Giorgio, Marco Parolini, Chiara Favero, Cristina Daniela Possenti, Simona Iodice, Manuela Caprioli, Diego Rubolini, Roberto Ambrosini, Luca Gianfranceschi, Nicola Saino, Valentina Bollati
The consequences of exposure to particulate matter (PM) have been thoroughly investigated in humans and other model species, but there is a dearth of studies of the effects of PM on physiology and life-history traits of non-human organisms living in natural or semi-natural environments. Besides toxicological relevance, PM has been recently suggested to exert epigenetic effects by altering DNA methylation patterns. Here, we investigated for the first time the association between the exposure to free-air PM10 and DNA methylation at two loci ('poly-Q exon' and '5'-UTR') of the Clock gene in blood cells of the nestlings of a synanthropic passerine bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica)...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Hannah Watson, Mark Bolton, Britt J Heidinger, Winnie Boner, Pat Monaghan
Repeated exposure to elevated levels of glucocorticoids during development can have long-term detrimental effects on survival and fitness, potentially associated with increased telomere attrition. Nestling birds are regularly handled for ecological research, yet few authors have considered the potential for handling-induced stress to influence hormonally mediated phenotypic development or bias interpretations of subsequent focal measurements. We experimentally manipulated the handling experience of the semi-precocial nestlings of European Storm Petrel Hydrobates pelagicus to simulate handling in a typical field study and examined cumulative effects on physiology and condition in late postnatal development...
October 2016: Ibis
Edward M Dzialowski, Tushar S Sirsat, Sarah K G Sirsat, Edwin Rockwell Price
Altricial bird species, like red-winged blackbirds, hatch at an immature state of functional maturity with limited aerobic capacity and no endothermic capacity. Over the next 10-12 days in the nest, red-winged blackbirds develop increased metabolic capacity before fledging. Although ontogeny of respiration has been described in precocial birds, ontogeny of ventilatory chemosensitivity is unknown in altricial species. Here we examined developmental changes in chemosensitivity of tidal volume (VT), breathing frequency (ƒ), minute ventilation (VE), and whole-animal oxygen consumption (Vo2) from hatching to just before fledging in red-winged blackbirds on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 post-hatching (dph) in response to hypercapnia (2 and 4% CO2) and hypoxia (15 and 10% O2)...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Sarah C Marteinson, Igor Eulaers, Veerle L B Jaspers, Adrian Covaci, Marcel Eens, Robert J Letcher, Kim J Fernie
Feathers are useful for monitoring contaminants in wild birds and are increasingly used to determine persistent organic pollutants. However, few studies have been conducted on birds with known exposure levels. We aimed to determine how well nestling feather concentrations reflect in ovo exposure to hexabromocyclododecane (α-, β- and γ-HBCDD), and to determine if feather concentrations are related to physiological biomarkers. Captive kestrels (n = 11) were exposed in ovo to maternally transferred HBCDD-isomers at concentrations of 127, 12 and 2 ng/g wet weight of α-, β- and γ-HBCDD (measured in sibling eggs), respectively, and compared to controls (n = 6)...
October 1, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Julio Blas, Teresa Abaurrea, Marcello D'Amico, Francesca Barcellona, Eloy Revilla, Jacinto Román, Martina Carrete
Traffic is often acknowledged as a threat to biodiversity, but its effects have been mostly studied on roads subjected to high traffic intensity. The impact of lower traffic intensity such as those affecting protected areas is generally neglected, but conservation-oriented activities entailing motorized traffic could paradoxically transform suitable habitats into ecological traps. Here we questioned whether roadside-nesting bee-eaters Merops apiaster perceived low traffic intensity as a stressor eliciting risk-avoidance behaviors (alarm calls and flock flushes) and reducing parental care...
2016: PloS One
Gabriel Masset, Kevin C Mathias, Antonis Vlassopoulos, Famke Mölenberg, Undine Lehmann, Mike Gibney, Adam Drewnowski
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Approximately 20% of US children and adolescents consume pizza on any given day; and pizza intake is associated with higher intakes of energy, sodium, and saturated fat. The reformulation of pizza products has yet to be evaluated as a viable option to improve diets of the US youth. This study modeled the effect on nutrient intakes of two potential pizza reformulation strategies based on the standards established by the Nestlé Nutritional Profiling System (NNPS)...
2016: PloS One
Gin S Malhi, Yulisha Byrow, Frederick Cassidy, Andrea Cipriani, Koen Demyttenaere, Mark A Frye, Michael Gitlin, Sidney H Kennedy, Terence A Ketter, Raymond W Lam, Rupert McShane, Alex J Mitchell, Michael J Ostacher, Sakina J Rizvi, Michael E Thase, Mauricio Tohen
SUMMARY: The appeal of ketamine - in promptly ameliorating depressive symptoms even in those with non-response - has led to a dramatic increase in its off-label use. Initial promising results await robust corroboration and key questions remain, particularly concerning its long-term administration. It is, therefore, timely to review the opinions of mood disorder experts worldwide pertaining to ketamine's potential as an option for treating depression and provide a synthesis of perspectives - derived from evidence and clinical experience - and to consider strategies for future investigations...
May 2016: BJPsych Open
Frederico F Vaz, Rosangela Locatelli-Dittrich, Olair C Beltrame, Elenise A B Sipinski, Maria C Abbud, Rafael M Sezerban
BACKGROUND: The Red-Tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) is an endangered species of the Psittaciformes. There is little information about hematologic and biochemical variables of this species. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine hematologic and biochemical RIs for free-living A brasiliensis nestlings on Rasa Island, Paraná, Brazil, and to compare the results between sexes. METHODS: Thirty-seven parrots were taken from their nests and physically restrained for clinical examination and blood collection...
October 4, 2016: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
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