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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811198/house-sparrows-mitigate-growth-effects-of-post-natal-glucocorticoid-exposure-at-the-expense-of-longevity
#1
Jacquelyn K Grace, Louise Froud, Alizée Meillère, Frédéric Angelier
Acute, short-term effects of early-life stress and associated glucocorticoid upregulation on physiology and survival are widely documented across vertebrates. However, the persistence and severity of these effects are largely unknown, especially through the adult stage and for natural systems. Here, we investigate physiological, morphological, and survival effects of post-natal glucocorticoid upregulation across the nestling, juvenile, and adult life stages in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We manipulate circulating corticosterone concentration in wild, free-living house sparrow nestlings and monitor body size, size-corrected mass, two measures of health (hematocrit and phytohemagglutinin-induced skin swelling), and survival in a captive environment until adulthood...
August 12, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805337/genetic-favoring-of-pheomelanin-based-pigmentation-limits-physiological-benefits-of-coloniality-in-lesser-kestrels-falco-naumanni
#2
Ismael Galván, Virginia Moraleda, Ignacio Otero, Ernesto Álvarez, Ângela Inácio
Pheomelanin contributes to the pigmentation phenotype of animals by producing orange and light brown colors in the integument. However, pheomelanin synthesis in melanocytes requires consumption of glutathione (GSH), the most important intracellular antioxidant. Therefore, a genetic control favoring the production of large amounts of pheomelanin for pigmentation may lead to physiological costs under environmental conditions that promote oxidative stress. We investigated this possibility in the context of breeding coloniality, a reproductive strategy that may affect oxidative stress...
August 14, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803937/annual-variation-in-the-reproductive-hormone-and-behavior-rhythm-in-a-population-of-the-asian-short-toed-lark-can-spring-temperature-influence-activation-of-the-hpg-axis-of-wild-birds
#3
Shuping Zhang, Xianglong Xu, Weiwei Wang, Lidan Zhao, Lijun Gao, Wenyu Yang
Although a number of studies have demonstrated a correlation between ambient temperature and the timing of reproductive behavior in many bird species, the relationships between temperature, activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis, laying, and hatching in free-living birds, remain unclear. We investigated the relationships between spring temperature, reproductive hormones, and behavior, in a population of the Asian short-toed lark (Calandrella cheleensis) on the Inner Mongolian Grasslands in 2014, 2015 and 2016...
August 10, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783753/is-telomere-length-associated-with-mate-choice-in-a-songbird-with-a-high-rate-of-extra-pair-paternity
#4
Arild Johnsen, Angela Pauliny, Jan T Lifjeld, Donald Blomqvist
Telomere length is related to aging in many eukaryotes and the rate of telomere attrition has been suggested to reflect individual genetic quality. Telomere length could thus have implications for mate choice. We investigated telomere length variation in bluethroat Luscinia svecica families with mixed paternity, including social parents, extra-pair fathers and nestlings, testing whether telomere length is associated with social and/or extra-pair mate choice through assortative mating or selection of mates with relatively long telomeres...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747735/major-histocompatibility-complex-genes-partly-explain-early-survival-in-house-sparrows
#5
B Lukasch, H Westerdahl, M Strandh, F Knauer, H Winkler, Y Moodley, H Hoi
Environmental factors and genetic incompatibilities between parents have been suggested as important determinants for embryonic mortality and survival. The genetic set-up of the immune system, specifically the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) may also influence individual resistance to infections. MHC proteins are important for an appropriate adaptive immune response and enable T-cells to separate 'self' from 'non-self'. Here we investigate the importance of MHC functional diversity for early development in birds, more specifically, if offspring survival and body mass or size depends on number of different functional MHC alleles, specific functional MHC alleles or similarity of MHC alleles in the parents...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747694/decreasing-parental-task-specialization-promotes-conditional-cooperation
#6
Arne Iserbyt, Nolwenn Fresneau, Tiffanie Kortenhoff, Marcel Eens, Wendt Müller
How much to invest in parental care and by who remain puzzling questions fomented by a sexual conflict between parents. Negotiation that facilitates coordinated parental behaviour may be key to ease this costly conflict. However, understanding cooperation requires that the temporal and sex-specific variation in parental care, as well as its multivariate nature is considered. Using a biparental bird species and repeated sampling of behavioural activities throughout a major part of reproduction, we show a clear division of tasks between males and females in provisioning, brooding and foraging...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742822/metal-ion-coordination-in-the-e-coli-nudix-hydrolase-dihydroneopterin-triphosphate-pyrophosphatase-new-clues-into-catalytic-mechanism
#7
Shannon E Hill, Elaine Nguyen, Chiamaka U Ukachukwu, Dana M Freeman, Stephen Quirk, Raquel L Lieberman
Dihydroneopterin triphosphate pyrophosphatase (DHNTPase), a member of the Mg2+ dependent Nudix hydrolase superfamily, is the recently-discovered enzyme that functions in the second step of the pterin branch of the folate biosynthetic pathway in E. coli. DHNTPase is of interest because inhibition of enzymes in bacterial folate biosynthetic pathways is a strategy for antibiotic development. We determined crystal structures of DHNTPase with and without activating, Mg2+-mimicking metals Co2+ and Ni2+. Four metal ions, identified by anomalous scattering, and stoichiometrically confirmed in solution by isothermal titration calorimetry, are held in place by Glu56 and Glu60 within the Nudix sequence motif, Glu117, waters, and a sulfate ion, of which the latter is further stabilized by a salt bridge with Lys7...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736461/behavioral-plasticity-in-response-to-perceived-predation-risk-in-breeding-house-wrens
#8
Erin E Dorset, Scott K Sakaluk, Charles F Thompson
Predation is a significant cause of nest failure in passerine birds, and, thus, natural selection is expected to favor behavioral plasticity to allow birds to respond to perceived changes in predation risk. However, behavioral plasticity in response to perceived predation risk, and its potential fitness-related costs, are understudied. In a wild population of breeding house wrens (Troglodytes aedon), we tested the hypotheses that (1) birds show behavioral plasticity in response to perceived nest-predation risk to reduce self-risk or risk to offspring, but (2) this plasticity incurs fitness-related costs...
June 2017: Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730346/gyrfalcons-falco-rusticolus-adjust-ctns-expression-to-food-abundance-a-possible-contribution-to-cysteine-homeostasis
#9
Ismael Galván, Ângela Inácio, Ólafur K Nielsen
Melanins form the basis of animal pigmentation. When the sulphurated form of melanin, termed pheomelanin, is synthesized, the sulfhydryl group of cysteine is incorporated to the pigment structure. This may constrain physiological performance because it consumes the most important intracellular antioxidant (i.e., glutathione, GSH), of which cysteine is a constitutive amino acid. However, this may also help avoid excess cysteine, which is toxic. Pheomelanin synthesis is regulated by several genes, some of them exerting this regulation by controlling the transport of cysteine in melanocytes...
July 20, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725413/prothonotary-warbler-nestling-growth-and-condition-in-response-to-variation-in-aquatic-and-terrestrial-prey-availability
#10
Jenna C Dodson, Nicholas J Moy, Lesley P Bulluck
Aquatic prey subsidies entering terrestrial habitats are well documented, but little is known about the degree to which these resources provide fitness benefits to riparian consumers. Riparian species take advantage of seasonal pulses of both terrestrial and aquatic prey, although aquatic resources are often overlooked in studies of how diet influences the reproductive ecology of these organisms. Ideally, the timing of resource pulses should occur at the time of highest reproductive demand. This study investigates the availability of aquatic (mayfly) and terrestrial (caterpillar) prey resources as well as the nestling diet of the prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) at two sites along the lower James River in Virginia during the 2014 breeding season...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715294/avian-pox-discovered-in-the-critically-endangered-waved-albatross-phoebastria-irrorata-from-the-gal%C3%A3-pagos-islands-ecuador
#11
Emily M Tompkins, David J Anderson, Kristy L Pabilonia, Kathryn P Huyvaert
The Waved Albatross (Phoebastria irrorata) is a critically endangered seabird in a rapidly shrinking population in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. The introduction of novel pathogens and parasites poses a threat to population persistence. Monitoring disease prevalence and guarding against the spread of such agents in endemic taxa are conservation priorities for the Galápagos, where recent increases in the prevalence of avian pox may have contributed to population declines and range contractions in other bird species...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710659/comparison-of-the-effect-of-skin-preparation-pads-on-transepidermal-water-loss-in-ex-vivo-human-skin
#12
Hanan Osman-Ponchet, Alexandre Gaborit, Magali Kouidhi, Sandrine Anglars, Jeanne Marceau-Suissa, Orla Duffy-Roger, Jean-Michel Linget, Claire E Wilson
INTRODUCTION: Pre-treatment of the skin to remove scales and crusts prior to photodynamic therapy (PDT) is essential to enhance the uptake of topically applied methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) and to improve treatment efficacy. This study compared the effect of two different skin preparation pads on skin integrity in ex vivo human skin. METHODS: Ex vivo human skin samples from three donors were pre-treated in triplicates with PREPSTER™ (PR) skin preparation pad (6, 8, and 10 passages) or Ambu Unilect™ (A-UN) skin preparation pad (6, 8, and 10 passages)...
July 14, 2017: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701219/excellent-local-control-and-tolerance-profile-after-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-of-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
Eleni Gkika, Michael Schultheiss, Dominik Bettinger, Lars Maruschke, Hannes Philipp Neeff, Michaela Schulenburg, Sonja Adebahr, Simon Kirste, Ursula Nestle, Robert Thimme, Anca-Ligia Grosu, Thomas Baptist Brunner
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with large HCCs (median diameter 7 cm, IQR 5-10 cm) with a Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score A (60%) or B (40%) and Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification stage B or C were treated with 3 to 12 fractions to allow personalized treatment according to the size of the lesions and the proximity of the lesions to the organs at risk aiming to give high biologically equivalent doses assuming an α/β ratio of 10 Gy for HCC...
July 12, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695316/interobserver-variability-in-target-volume-delineation-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-an-analysis-of-the-working-group-stereotactic-radiotherapy-of-the-german-society-for-radiation-oncology-degro
#14
E Gkika, S Tanadini-Lang, S Kirste, P A Holzner, H P Neeff, H C Rischke, T Reese, F Lohaus, M N Duma, K Dieckmann, R Semrau, M Stockinger, D Imhoff, N Kremers, M F Häfner, N Andratschke, U Nestle, A L Grosu, M Guckenberger, T B Brunner
BACKGROUND: Definition of gross tumor volume (GTV) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) requires dedicated imaging in multiple contrast medium phases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interobserver agreement (IOA) in gross tumor delineation of HCC in a multicenter panel. METHODS: The analysis was performed within the "Stereotactic Radiotherapy" working group of the German Society for Radiation Oncology (DEGRO). The GTVs of three anonymized HCC cases were delineated by 16 physicians from nine centers using multiphasic CT scans...
July 10, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694437/integrated-behavioural-and-stable-isotope-data-reveal-altered-diet-linked-to-low-breeding-success-in-urban-dwelling-blue-tits-cyanistes-caeruleus
#15
Christopher J Pollock, Pablo Capilla-Lasheras, Rona A R McGill, Barbara Helm, Davide M Dominoni
Animals often show reduced reproductive success in urban compared to adjacent natural areas. The lower availability and quality of natural food in cities is suggested as one key limiting factor. However, only few studies have provided conclusive support by simultaneously assessing food availability, diet and fitness. We consolidate this evidence by taking a holistic approach, comparing blue tits breeding in forest, suburban and urban areas. We (a) assessed arthropod availability, (b) investigated parental provisioning behaviour, (c) inferred diet through stable isotope analysis, and (d) measured reproductive success...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688358/trace-element-concentrations-in-feathers-and-blood-of-northern-goshawk-accipiter-gentilis-nestlings-from-norway-and-spain
#16
Kevin J Dolan, Tomasz M Ciesielski, Syverin Lierhagen, Igor Eulaers, Torgeir Nygård, Trond V Johnsen, Pilar Gómez-Ramírez, Antonio J García-Fernández, Jan O Bustnes, Manuel E Ortiz-Santaliestra, Veerle L B Jaspers
Information on trace element pollution in the terrestrial environment and its biota is limited compared to the marine environment. In the present study, we collected body feathers and blood of 37 Northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) nestlings from Tromsø (northern Norway), Trondheim (central Norway), and Murcia (southeastern Spain) to study regional exposure, hypothesizing the potential health risks of metals and other trace elements. Blood and body feathers were analyzed by a high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS) for aluminum (Al), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb)...
July 5, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681098/-good-radiance-bad-radiance
#17
EDITORIAL
S Delorme, R Loose, U Nestle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668984/intra-individual-changes-in-haemosporidian-infections-over-the-nesting-period-in-great-tit-females
#18
Anna Dubiec, Edyta Podmokła, Lars Gustafsson
Prevalence of haemosporidian parasites in bird populations varies temporally both between years and within a year. In contrast to variation at the population level, relatively little is known about variation in infection attributes at the individual level, especially in non-migratory species. We examined intra-individual changes in the presence and identity of haemosporidian parasites (genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) over the course of the nesting period in females of great tits (Parus major)-a species considered to be resident over much of its distribution range...
July 1, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666551/european-organization-for-research-and-treatment-of-cancer-eortc-recommendations-for-planning-and-delivery-of-high-dose-high-precision-radiotherapy-for-lung-cancer
#19
Dirk De Ruysscher, Corinne Faivre-Finn, Ditte Moeller, Ursula Nestle, Coen W Hurkmans, Cécile Le Péchoux, José Belderbos, Matthias Guckenberger, Suresh Senan
PURPOSE: To update literature-based recommendations for techniques used in high-precision thoracic radiotherapy for lung cancer, in both routine practice and clinical trials. METHODS: A literature search was performed to identify published articles that were considered clinically relevant and practical to use. Recommendations were categorised under the following headings: patient positioning and immobilisation, Tumour and nodal changes, CT and FDG-PET imaging, target volumes definition, radiotherapy treatment planning and treatment delivery...
June 27, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664982/host-specific-associations-affect-the-microbiome-of-philornis-downsi-an-introduced-parasite-to-the-gal%C3%A3-pagos-islands
#20
Michael Ben-Yosef, Doron S Y Zaada, Rachael Y Dudaniec, Zohar Pasternak, Edouard Jurkevitch, Renee J Smith, Charlotte E Causton, M Piedad Lincango, Shanan S Tobe, James G Mitchell, Sonia Kleindorfer, Boaz Yuval
The composition and diversity of bacteria forming the microbiome of parasitic organisms have implications for differential host pathogenicity and host-parasite co-evolutionary interactions. The microbiome of pathogens can therefore have consequences that are relevant for managing disease prevalence and impact in affected hosts. Here we investigate the microbiome of an invasive parasitic fly Philornis downsi, recently introduced to the Galápagos Islands, where it poses extinction threat to Darwin's finches and other land birds...
June 30, 2017: Molecular Ecology
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