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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548900/corticosterone-response-as-an-age-specific-mediator-of-nestling-body-mass-in-a-wild-passerine
#1
Vallo Tilgar, Marianne Lind, Jaanis Lodjak, Kadri Moks
The environment can affect individual performance directly via resource availability or indirectly through resource allocation among competing fitness components, such as body growth and maintenance activities related to short-term survival. Corticosterone (CORT), the main glucocorticoid in birds, may be an important mediator of energy allocation to different organismal functions, but its effect on the plasticity of fitness-related traits has rarely been investigated at different ontogenetic stages. Here, we evaluated the role of baseline and stress-induced CORT on nestling development of wild great tits (Parus major) under different growth conditions and at different developmental stages...
July 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528532/caged-young-pigeons-mortality-by-coleoptera-larvae
#2
Adele Magliano, Jiri Hava, Andrea Di Giulio, Antonino Barone, Claudio De Liberato
Dermestidae and Tenebrionidae are well known inhabitants of bird's nests and poultry farms, under favourable conditions they can be very abundant under favourable conditions. At times, their larvae shift from a scavenging behaviour to a parasitic/predatory one, entering nestling's plumage and feeding on skin and feathers, and nally provoking skin damages and blood losses. These episodes mainly involve species of the genus Dermestes, but the tenebrionid Alphitobius diaperinus h also been reported to be responsible of similar cases...
April 11, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515884/cooperative-breeding-shapes-post-fledging-survival-in-an-afrotropical-forest-bird
#3
Dries Van de Loock, Diederik Strubbe, Liesbeth De Neve, Mwangi Githiru, Erik Matthysen, Luc Lens
For avian group living to be evolutionary stable, multiple fitness benefits are expected. Yet, the difficulty of tracking fledglings, and thus estimating their survival rates, limits our knowledge on how such benefits may manifest postfledging. We radio-tagged breeding females of the Afrotropical cooperatively breeding Placid greenbul (Phyllastrephus placidus) during nesting. Tracking these females after fledging permitted us to locate juvenile birds, their parents, and any helpers present and to build individual fledgling resighting datasets without incurring mortality costs or causing premature fledging due to handling or transmitter effects...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499963/neither-artificial-light-at-night-anthropogenic-noise-nor-distance-from-roads-are-associated-with-oxidative-status-of-nestlings-in-an-urban-population-of-songbirds
#4
Giulia Casasole, Thomas Raap, David Costantini, Hamada AbdElgawad, Han Asard, Rianne Pinxten, Marcel Eens
Increasing urbanization is responsible for road-related pollutants and causes an unprecedented increase in light and noise pollution, with potential detrimental effects for individual animals, communities and ecosystems. These stressors rarely act in isolation but studies dissecting the effects of these multiple stressors are lacking. Moreover, studies on urban stressors have mainly focused on adults, while exposure in early-life may be detrimental but is largely ignored. To fill this important knowledge gap, we studied if artificial light at night, anthropogenic noise and road-related pollution (using distance from roads as a proxy) explain variation in oxidative status in great tit nestlings (Parus major) in an urban population...
May 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499128/stress-induced-by-heavy-metals-on-breeding-of-magpie-pica-pica-from-central-iran
#5
Mohammad Zarrintab, Rouhollah Mirzaei
The aim of this study was to address the impacts of some heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu) contamination on laying behavior, egg quality and breeding performance of Pica pica in north of Isfahan Province, Iran. During the breeding season of 2013, magpie's egg content and eggshell as well as nestling excrements and feathers were collected and total concentrations of heavy metals were measured by ICP-OES. Except for Zn in nestling feathers, the significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals were observed in nestling excrements than other samples...
May 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498636/study-protocol-evaluating-the-use-of-bowel-stimulation-before-loop-ileostomy-closure-to-reduce-postoperative-ileus-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Richard Garfinkle, Nora Trabulsi, Nancy Morin, Terry Phang, Sender Liberman, Liane Feldman, Gerald Fried, Marylise Boutros
AIM: Postoperative ileus is the most commonly observed morbidity following ileostomy closure. Studies have demonstrated that the defunctionalized bowel of a loop ileostomy undergoes a series of functional and structural changes, such as atrophy of the intestinal villi and muscular layers, which may contribute to ileus. A single-center study in Spain demonstrated that preoperative bowel stimulation via the distal limb of the loop ileostomy decreased postoperative ileus, length of stay, and time to gastrointestinal function...
May 12, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495873/intestinal-digestive-enzyme-modulation-in-house-sparrow-nestlings-occurs-within-24-hours-of-a-change-in-diet-composition
#7
Katherine H Rott, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal, William H Karasov
Nestling house sparrows near fledging age (12 days) were previously found to reversibly modulate the activity of their intestinal digestive enzymes in response to changes in diet composition. However, it is not known how quickly nestlings can adjust to new diets with different substrate compositions, nor is it known how early in life nestlings can modulate their enzyme activity in response to changes in diet. In the current study, 3-day-old nestlings were captured from the wild and fed and switched among contrasting diets - one high in protein and low in carbohydrate and another higher in carbohydrate and with lower but adequate protein - in order to determine (1) how quickly house sparrow nestlings could adjust to changes in diet composition, (2) how early in life nestlings could modulate their digestive enzyme activity in response to these changes, and (3) which digestive enzymes could be modulated in house sparrow nestlings earlier in life...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493488/seasonality-of-odonate-mediated-methyl-mercury-flux-from-permanent-and-semi-permanent-ponds-and-potential-risk-to-red-winged-blackbirds-agelaius-phoeniceus
#8
Edward B Williams, Matthew M Chumchal, Ray W Drenner, James H Kennedy
Methyl mercury (MeHg) is an aquatic contaminant that can be transferred to terrestrial predators by emergent aquatic insects such as odonates (dragonflies and damselflies). We assessed the effects of month and pond permanence on odonate-mediated MeHg flux (calculated as emergent odonate biomass x MeHg concentration) in 10 experimental ponds and the potential risk to nestling red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) posed by consuming MeHg-contaminated odonates. Emergent odonates were collected weekly from permanent ponds with bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) (n = 5) and semi-permanent ponds without fish (n = 5) over an 8-month period (January - August, 2015)...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487518/oxidative-stress-biomarkers-are-associated-with-visible-clinical-signs-of-a-disease-in-frigatebird-nestlings
#9
Manrico Sebastiano, Marcel Eens, Hamada Abd Elgawad, Benoît de Thoisy, Vincent Lacoste, Kévin Pineau, Han Asard, Olivier Chastel, David Costantini
Infectious diseases are one of the most common threats for both domestic and wild animals, but little is known about the effects on the physiological condition and survival of wild animals. Here, we have tested for the first time in a wild vertebrate facing a viral disease possibly due to herpesvirus (i) whether nestlings with either low levels of oxidative damage or high levels of antioxidant protection are less susceptible to develop visible clinical signs, (ii) whether the disease is associated with the nestlings' oxidative status, (iii) whether the association between the disease and oxidative status is similar between males and females (iv), and whether cloacal and tracheal swabs might be used to detect herpesvirus...
May 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483864/multiple-extreme-climatic-events-strengthen-selection-for-earlier-breeding-in-a-wild-passerine
#10
Pascal Marrot, Dany Garant, Anne Charmantier
Global climate warming results in an increase in mean temperatures and in the frequency of extreme climatic events (ECEs), which could both strongly impact ecosystems and populations. Most studies assessing the impact of global warming on ecosystems have focused on warming trends while neglecting ECEs. In particular, the effects of multiple ECEs on fitness, and their consequences for selection, are still missing. Here we explored the effects of daily extreme rainfalls, as well as the occurrence of extremely hot and cold days, on clutch size and laying date in a wild blue tit population (Cyanistes caeruleus) monitored over 25 years...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483429/melanism-is-related-to-behavioural-lateralization-in-nestling-barn-owls
#11
Maryline Gaillard, Madeleine F Scriba, Alexandre Roulin
Behavioural laterality is a commonly observed phenomenon in many species suggesting there might be an advantage of using dominantly one side over the other for certain tasks. Indeed, lateralized individuals were often shown to be more successful in cognitive tasks compared to non-lateralized conspecifics. However, stressed individuals are also often, but not always, more strongly lateralized. Because barn owl (Tyto alba) females displaying larger black spots on the tip of their ventral feathers produce offspring that are more resistant to a variety of environmental stressful factors, we examined whether laterality is associated with melanin-based coloration...
May 5, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480002/reduced-reproductive-performance-associated-with-warmer-ambient-temperatures-during-incubation-in-a-winter-breeding-food-storing-passerine
#12
Shannon Whelan, Dan Strickland, Julie Morand-Ferron, D Ryan Norris
Timing of reproduction can influence individual fitness whereby early breeders tend to have higher reproductive success than late breeders. However, the fitness consequences of timing of breeding may also be influenced by environmental conditions after the commencement of breeding. We tested whether ambient temperatures during the incubation and early nestling periods modulated the effect of laying date on brood size and dominant juvenile survival in gray jays (Perisoreus canadensis), a sedentary boreal species whose late winter nesting depends, in part, on caches of perishable food...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468913/does-oxidative-stress-shorten-telomeres
#13
Jelle J Boonekamp, Christina Bauch, Ellis Mulder, Simon Verhulst
Oxidative stress shortens telomeres in cell culture, but whether oxidative stress explains variation in telomere shortening in vivo at physiological oxidative stress levels is not well known. We therefore tested for correlations between six oxidative stress markers and telomere attrition in nestling birds (jackdaws Corvus monedula) that show a high rate of telomere attrition in early life. Telomere attrition was measured between ages 5 and 30 days, and was highly variable (average telomere loss: 323 bp, CV = 45%)...
May 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460236/trophic-ecology-drives-contaminant-concentrations-within-a-tropical-seabird-community
#14
Manrico Sebastiano, Paco Bustamante, Igor Eulaers, Govindan Malarvannan, Paula Mendez-Fernandez, Carine Churlaud, Pierre Blévin, Antoine Hauselmann, Adrian Covaci, Marcel Eens, David Costantini, Olivier Chastel
To support environmental management programs, there is an urgent need to know about the presence and understand the dynamics of major contaminants in seabird communities of key marine ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the concentrations and trophodynamics of trace elements in six seabird species and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in three seabird species breeding on Grand Connétable Island (French Guiana), an area where the increase in human population and mining activities has raised concerns in recent years...
April 28, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457648/circulating-testosterone-and-its-feather-gene-expression-of-receptors-and-metabolic-enzymes-in-relation-to-melanin-based-coloration-in-the-barn-owl
#15
Paul Béziers, Anne-Lyse Ducrest, Céline Simon, Alexandre Roulin
Knowledge of how and why secondary sexual characters are associated with sex hormones is important to understand their signalling function. Such a link can occur if testosterone participates in the elaboration of sex-traits, if the display of an ornament triggers behavioural response in conspecifics that induce a rise in testosterone or if genes implicated in the elaboration of a sex-trait pleiotropically regulate testosterone physiology. To evaluate the origin of the covariation between melanism and testosterone we measured this hormone and the expression of enzymes involved in its metabolism in feathers of barn owl (Tyto alba) nestlings at the time of melanogenesis and in adults outside the period of melanogenesis...
April 27, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453564/the-influence-of-climatic-variation-and-density-on-the-survival-of-an-insular-passerine-zosterops-lateralis
#16
Erik M Sandvig, Tim Coulson, Jiro Kikkawa, Sonya M Clegg
Understanding the influence of environmental factors on population dynamics is fundamental to many areas in biology. Survival is a key factor of population biology, as it is thought to be the predominant driver of growth in long-lived passerines, which can be influenced by both biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. We used mark-recapture methods and generalized linear mixed models to test the influence of density and climatic variation, measured at a regional and local scale (Southern Oscillation Index [SOI] and rainfall, respectively), on seasonal variation in survival rates of an insular population of Silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis chlorocephalus), during a 15-year study period, off the east coast of Australia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451434/a-few-long-versus-many-short-foraging-trips-different-foraging-strategies-of-lesser-kestrel-sexes-during-breeding
#17
Jesús Hernández-Pliego, Carlos Rodríguez, Javier Bustamante
BACKGROUND: In species with biparental care both members of the breeding pair cooperate to raise the offspring either by assisting each other in every reproductive task or by specializing in different ones. The latter case is known as reproductive role specialization. Raptors are considered one of the most role-specialized groups, but little is known about parental behavior away from the nest. Until the advent of biologgers, avian role specialization was traditionally studied with direct observations at the nest because of the difficulties of following and recording the behavior of free-ranging individuals...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433469/delayed-effect-of-early-life-corticosterone-treatment-on-adult-anti-predator-behavior-in-a-common-passerine
#18
Jacquelyn K Grace, Laure Martin-Gousset, Frédéric Angelier
Acute, short-term effects of early-life stress and associated glucocorticoid upregulation on behavior are widely documented across vertebrates. However, the persistence and severity of these effects are largely unknown, especially through the adult stage and in wild species. Here, we investigate long-term effects of experimental post-natal increases in a circulating glucocorticoid on antipredator behavior in wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus) tested in captivity. We manipulate circulating corticosterone concentration in wild, free-living nestlings, transfer fledglings to captivity, and test juveniles and adults for two measures of antipredator behavior: evasiveness during a direct human encounter, and propensity to escape from a risky environment...
April 19, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431743/opportunistic-sampling-to-quantify-plastics-in-the-diet-of-unfledged-black-legged-kittiwakes-rissa-tridactyla-northern-fulmars-fulmarus-glacialis-and-great-cormorants-phalacrocorax-carbo
#19
Heidi Acampora, Stephen Newton, Ian O'Connor
Seabirds can interact with marine litter, mainly by entanglement or ingestion. The ingestion of plastics can lead to starvation or physical damage to the digestive tract. For chicks, it could additionally lead to reduced growth, affecting survival and fledging. This study quantified the ingestion of plastics by seabird chicks via an opportunistic sampling strategy. When ringing is carried out at colonies, birds may spontaneously regurgitate their stomach contents due to the stress or as a defence mechanism...
April 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430118/testing-the-capacity-of-a-multi-nutrient-profiling-system-to-guide-food-and-beverage-reformulation-results-from-five-national-food-composition-databases
#20
Emilie Combet, Antonis Vlassopoulos, Famke Mölenberg, Mathilde Gressier, Lisa Privet, Craig Wratten, Sahar Sharif, Florent Vieux, Undine Lehmann, Gabriel Masset
Nutrient profiling ranks foods based on their nutrient composition, with applications in multiple aspects of food policy. We tested the capacity of a category-specific model developed for product reformulation to improve the average nutrient content of foods, using five national food composition datasets (UK, US, China, Brazil, France). Products (n = 7183) were split into 35 categories based on the Nestlé Nutritional Profiling Systems (NNPS) and were then classified as NNPS 'Pass' if all nutrient targets were met (energy (E), total fat (TF), saturated fat (SFA), sodium (Na), added sugars (AS), protein, calcium)...
April 21, 2017: Nutrients
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