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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786974/embryonic-exposure-to-environmentally-relevant-concentrations-of-a-brominated-flame-retardant-reduces-the-size-of-song-control-nuclei-in-a-songbird
#1
Margaret L Eng, Viktoria Winter, John E Elliott, Scott A MacDougall-Shackleton, Tony D Williams
Environmental contaminants have the potential to act as developmental stressors and impair development of song and the brain of songbirds, but they have been largely unstudied in this context. 2,2',4,4',5-Pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) is a brominated flame retardant congener that has demonstrated endocrine disrupting effects, and has pervaded the global environment. We assessed the effects of in ovo exposure to environmentally relevant levels of BDE-99 on the neuroanatomy of the song-control system in a model songbird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)...
May 22, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769793/a-marker-of-biological-ageing-predicts-adult-risk-preference-in-european-starlings-sturnus-vulgaris
#2
Clare Andrews, Daniel Nettle, Sophie Reichert, Tom Bedford, Pat Monaghan, Melissa Bateson
Why are some individuals more prone to gamble than others? Animals often show preferences between 2 foraging options with the same mean reward but different degrees of variability in the reward, and such risk preferences vary between individuals. Previous attempts to explain variation in risk preference have focused on energy budgets, but with limited empirical support. Here, we consider whether biological ageing, which affects mortality and residual reproductive value, predicts risk preference. We studied a cohort of European starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris ) in which we had previously measured developmental erythrocyte telomere attrition, an established integrative biomarker of biological ageing...
May 2018: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769365/testing-the-heat-dissipation-limit-theory-in-a-breeding-passerine
#3
Jan-Åke Nilsson, Andreas Nord
The maximum work rate of animals has recently been suggested to be determined by the rate at which excess metabolic heat generated during work can be dissipated (heat dissipation limitation (HDL) theory). As a first step towards testing this theory in wild animals, we experimentally manipulated brood size in breeding marsh tits ( Poecile palustris ) to change their work rate. Parents feeding nestlings generally operated at above-normal body temperatures. Body temperature in both males and females increased with maximum ambient temperature and with manipulated work rate, sometimes even exceeding 45°C, which is close to suggested lethal levels for birds...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761591/psychological-distress-in-lung-cancer-survivors-at-least-one-year-after-diagnosis-results-of-a-german-multicenter-cross-sectional-study
#4
Martin Eichler, Marlene Hechtner, Beatrice Wehler, Roland Buhl, Jan Stratmann, Martin Sebastian, Heinz Schmidberger, Jessica Peuser, Cornelius Kortsik, Ursula Nestle, Sebastian Wiesemann, Hubert Wirtz, Thomas Wehler, Maria Blettner, Susanne Singer
OBJECTIVE: Despite the high incidence of lung cancer, little is known about distress in lung cancer survivors and patients who have survived diagnose for at least one year. We investigated distress prevalence and associated factors. METHODS: We performed a multicenter (n=6 hospitals) cross-sectional study. Data were collected using medical records, questionnaires, and a telephone interview. Distress was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4). Odds ratios (OR) for factors potentially associated with distress were calculated using multivariable logistic regression...
May 14, 2018: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761484/inbreeding-inbreeding-depression-and-infidelity-in-a-cooperatively-breeding-bird
#5
Gabriela K Hajduk, Andrew Cockburn, Nicolas Margraf, Helen L Osmond, Craig A Walling, Loeske E B Kruuk
Inbreeding depression plays a major role in shaping mating systems: in particular, inbreeding avoidance is often proposed as a mechanism explaining extra-pair reproduction in socially-monogamous species. This suggestion relies on assumptions which are rarely comprehensively tested: that inbreeding depression is present, that higher kinship between social partners increases infidelity, and that infidelity reduces the frequency of inbreeding. Here, we test these assumptions using 26 years of data for a cooperatively-breeding, socially-monogamous bird with high female infidelity, the superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus)...
May 15, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760898/difference-in-plasticity-of-resting-metabolic-rate-the-proximate-explanation-to-different-niche-breadth-in-sympatric-ficedula-flycatchers
#6
S Eryn McFarlane, Murielle Ålund, Päivi M Sirkiä, Anna Qvarnström
Variation in relative fitness of competing recently formed species across heterogeneous environments promotes coexistence. However, the physiological traits mediating such variation in relative fitness have rarely been identified. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is tightly associated with life history strategies, thermoregulation, diet use, and inhabited latitude and could therefore moderate differences in fitness responses to fluctuations in local environments, particularly when species have adapted to different climates in allopatry...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743657/synchronisation-of-parental-behaviours-reduces-the-risk-of-nest-predation-in-a-socially-monogamous-passerine-bird
#7
K Leniowski, E Węgrzyn
Social monogamy with bi-parental care is the most common breeding pattern in birds, yet cooperation between mates has not been intensively studied to date. In this study we investigate synchronisation of parental behaviours in the blackcap Sylvia atricapilla, a species characterized by bi-parental care and high nest predation. We test the hypothesis that mates synchronize their behaviours to decrease total activity at the nest, which is known to affect predation rate in birds. We examine if blackcap parents synchronise their feeding trips more when nestlings are at the poikilothermic stage, and they may be more vulnerable to nest predation due to their inability to escape and survive outside the nest without parental brooding...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733377/new-imine-reducing-enzymes-from-%C3%AE-hydroxyacid-dehydrogenases-by-single-amino-acid-substitutions
#8
Maike Lenz, Silvia Fademrecht, Mahima Sharma, Jürgen Pleiss, Gideon Grogan, Bettina M Nestl
We report the exploration of the evolutionary relationship between imine reductases (IREDs) and other dehydrogenases. This approach is informed by the sequence similarity between these enzyme families and the recently described promiscuous activity of IREDs for the highly reactive carbonyl compound 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone. Using the structure of the R-selective IRED from Streptosporangium roseum (R-IRED-Sr) as a model, β-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases (βHADs) were identified as the dehydrogenases most similar to IREDs...
May 3, 2018: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716645/effects-of-habitat-suitability-for-vectors-environmental-factors-and-host-characteristics-on-the-spatial-distribution-of-the-diversity-and-prevalence-of-haemosporidians-in-waterbirds-from-three-brazilian-wetlands
#9
Samira Chahad-Ehlers, Angela Terumi Fushita, Gustavo Augusto Lacorte, Pamela Carla Pereira de Assis, Silvia Nassif Del Lama
BACKGROUND: Wetlands are ecosystems in which vectors of avian haemosporidians live and reproduce and where waterbirds join to breed in colonies. Brazil has wetlands at different latitudes, which enables testing the influence of the ecological factors on the prevalence and diversity of haemosporidians. We identified avian haemosporidians in waterbird species in three wetlands and investigated the effects of vector habitat suitability, landscape and host characteristics on the diversity and prevalence of these parasites...
May 2, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705046/estimating-degradation-related-settlement-in-two-landfill-reclaimed-soils-by-sand-salt-analogues
#10
J R McDougall, I R Fleming, R Thiel, P Dewaele, D Parker, D Kelly
Landfill reclaimed soil here refers to largely degraded materials excavated from old landfill sites, which after processing can be reinstated as more competent fill, thereby restoring the former landfill space. The success of the process depends on the presence of remaining degradable particles and their influence on settlement. Tests on salt-sand mixtures, from which the salt is removed, have been used to quantify the impact of particle loss on settlement. Where the amount of particle loss is small, say 10% by mass or less, settlements are small and apparently independent of lost particle size...
April 25, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686942/reproductive-success-of-whiskered-tern-chlidonias-hybrida-in-eastern-spain-in-relation-to-water-level-variation
#11
Álvaro Ortiz Lledó, Javier Vidal Mateo, Vicente Urios Moliner
Background: A study on the Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida was carried out between 2002 and 2009 in wetlands of eastern Spain to evaluate how water level fluctuation affects its reproductive success (hatching, fledgling and breeding success). This species is catalogued as Vulnerable in Spain and has an unfavorable conservation status in Europe. Methods: Our study includes 18 sampling areas from five wetlands, covering a total of 663 nests, 1,618 eggs, 777 nestlings and 225 fledglings...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686235/tritrophic-phenological-match-mismatch-in-space-and-time
#12
Malcolm D Burgess, Ken W Smith, Karl L Evans, Dave Leech, James W Pearce-Higgins, Claire J Branston, Kevin Briggs, John R Clark, Chris R du Feu, Kate Lewthwaite, Ruedi G Nager, Ben C Sheldon, Jeremy A Smith, Robin C Whytock, Stephen G Willis, Albert B Phillimore
Increasing temperatures associated with climate change may generate phenological mismatches that disrupt previously synchronous trophic interactions. Most work on mismatch has focused on temporal trends, whereas spatial variation in the degree of trophic synchrony has largely been neglected, even though the degree to which mismatch varies in space has implications for meso-scale population dynamics and evolution. Here we quantify latitudinal trends in phenological mismatch, using phenological data on an oak-caterpillar-bird system from across the UK...
April 23, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684897/reproductive-and-developmental-changes-in-tree-swallows-tachycineta-bicolor-are-influenced-by-multiple-stressors-including-polycyclic-aromatic-compounds-in-the-athabasca-oil-sands
#13
K J Fernie, S C Marteinson, C Soos, D Chen, L Cruz-Martinez, J E G Smits
Mining in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) has contributed extensively to increased exposure of wildlife to naturally occurring polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), yet little is known about the toxicity of PACs to wildlife in this region. We identified reproductive and developmental changes in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding in close proximity to mining-related activities in the AOSR, and determined these changes in relation to the birds' exposure and accumulation of 41 PACs (parent-, alkylated-PAHs), dibenzothiophenes (DBTs; previously published), diet (carbon (δ13 C), nitrogen (δ15 N)), volatile organic compounds, and weather variables...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679462/impact-of-urbanization-on-abundance-and-phenology-of-caterpillars-and-consequences-for-breeding-in-an-insectivorous-bird
#14
Gábor Seress, Tamás Hammer, Veronika Bókony, Ernő Vincze, Bálint Preiszner, Ivett Pipoly, Csenge Sinkovics, Karl L Evans, András Liker
Urbanization can have marked effects on plant and animal populations' phenology, population size, predator-prey interactions and reproductive success. These aspects are rarely studied simultaneously in a single system, and some are rarely investigated, e.g. how insect phenology responds to urban development. Here, we study a tri-trophic system of trees - phytophagous insects (caterpillars) - insectivorous birds (great tits) to assess how urbanization influences i) the phenology of each component of this system, ii) insect abundance and iii) avian reproductive success...
April 20, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674671/characteristics-determining-host-suitability-for-a-generalist-parasite
#15
Bård G Stokke, Irja I Ratikainen, Arne Moksnes, Eivin Røskaft, Karl Schulze-Hagen, David I Leech, Anders Pape Møller, Frode Fossøy
Host quality is critical for parasites. The common cuckoo Cuculus canorus is a generalist avian brood parasite, but individual females show strong preference for a specific host species. Here, we use three extensive datasets to investigate different host characteristics determining cuckoo host selection at the species level: (i) 1871 population-specific parasitism rates collected across Europe; (ii) 14 K cases of parasitism in the United Kingdom; and (iii) 16 K cases of parasitism in Germany, with data collected during the period 1735-2013...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666198/nest-predation-risk-modifies-nestlings-immune-function-depending-on-the-level-of-threat
#16
G Roncalli, E Colombo, M Soler, B I Tieleman, M A Versteegh, F Ruiz-Raya, M Gómez Samblas, J D Ibáñez-Álamo
Predation risk is thought to modify prey's physiology mainly through the stress response. However, little is known about its potential effects on the immunity of animals, particularly in young individuals, despite the importance to overcome wounding and pathogen aggression following a predator attack. We investigated the effect of four progressive levels of nest predation risk on several components of the immune system in common blackbird ( Turdus merula ) nestlings by presenting them with four different calls during 1h: non-predator calls, predator calls, parental alarm calls and conspecific distress calls to induce a null, moderate, high and extreme level of risk, respectively...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659690/perspective-challenges-and-controversial-issues-in-the-dietary-guidelines-for-americans-1980-2015
#17
Marion Nestle
Since 1980, every edition of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs) has recommended increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, but reduced consumption of saturated fat, sugars, and sodium and, therefore, their primary food sources. Every edition has generated controversy, mainly from producers of foods affected by "eat less" recommendations, particularly meat. Objections to the 2015 DGAs focused on environmental as well as scientific issues, but also on purported conflicts of interest among members of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642515/biocatalyst-screening-with-a-twist-application-of-oxygen-sensors-integrated-in-microchannels-for-screening-whole-cell-biocatalyst-variants
#18
Ana C Fernandes, Julia M Halder, Bettina M Nestl, Bernhard Hauer, Krist V Gernaey, Ulrich Krühne
Selective oxidative functionalization of molecules is a highly relevant and often demanding reaction in organic chemistry. The use of biocatalysts allows the stereo- and regioselective introduction of oxygen molecules in organic compounds at milder conditions and avoids the use of complex group-protection schemes and toxic compounds usually applied in conventional organic chemistry. The identification of enzymes with the adequate properties for the target reaction and/or substrate requires better and faster screening strategies...
April 9, 2018: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628923/evaluation-of-antigen-conjugated-fluorescent-beads-to-identify-antigen-specific-b-cells
#19
Isabel Correa, Kristina M Ilieva, Silvia Crescioli, Sara Lombardi, Mariangela Figini, Anthony Cheung, James F Spicer, Andrew N J Tutt, Frank O Nestle, Panagiotis Karagiannis, Katie E Lacy, Sophia N Karagiannis
Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα) as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1) specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624598/high-costs-of-infection-alphavirus-infection-reduces-digestive-function-and-bone-and-feather-growth-in-nestling-house-sparrows-passer-domesticus
#20
Carol A Fassbinder-Orth, Tess L Killpack, Dylan S Goto, Ellecia L Rainwater, Valerie I Shearn-Bochsler
Increasingly, ecoimmunology studies aim to use relevant pathogen exposure to examine the impacts of infection on physiological processes in wild animals. Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne, single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses ("arboviruses") responsible for millions of cases of human illnesses each year. Buggy Creek virus (BCRV) is a unique alphavirus that is transmitted by a cimicid insect, the swallow bug, and is amplified in two avian species: the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota)...
2018: PloS One
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