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Jimena López-Arrabé, Pat Monaghan, Alejandro Cantarero, Winnie Boner, Lorenzo Pérez-Rodríguez, Juan Moreno
Oxidative stress can contribute to an acceleration of telomere erosion, leading to cellular senescence and aging. Increased investment in reproduction is known to accelerate senescence, generally resulting in reduced future reproductive potential and survival. To better understand the role played by oxidative status and telomere dynamics in the conflict between maintenance and reproduction, it is important to determine how these factors are related in parents and their offspring. We investigated the relationship between oxidative status and telomere measurements in pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca)...
May 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Zuzanna A Jagiello, Łukasz Dylewski, Dominika Winiarska, Katarzyna M Zolnierowicz, Marcin Tobolka
Birds have been using anthropogenic materials for nest construction for the past few decades. However, there is a trade-off between the use of new nesting material, which is often linked to greater breeding success, and the higher risk of nestling mortality due to entanglement or ingestion of debris. Here, we investigate the incorporation of anthropogenic materials into nests of the white stork Ciconia ciconia, based on a long-term study of a population in Western Poland. We recorded at least one item of debris in 50 and 42% of nests at the egg and nestling stages, respectively...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Christine M Custer, Thomas W Custer, Matthew A Etterson, Paul M Dummer, Diana Goldberg, J Christian Franson
During 2010-2014, tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) reproductive success was monitored at 68 sites across all 5 Great Lakes, including 58 sites located within Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) and 10 non-AOCs. Sample eggs were collected from tree swallow clutches and analyzed for contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and 34 other organic compounds. Contaminant data were available for 360 of the clutches monitored. Markov chain multistate modeling was used to assess the importance of 5 ecological variables and 11 of the dominant contaminants in explaining the pattern of egg and nestling failure rates...
March 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Eleni Gkika, Oliver Oehlke, Hatice Bunea, Nicole Wiedenmann, Sonja Adebahr, Ursula Nestle, Constantinos Zamboglou, Simon Kirste, Jamina Fennell, Thomas Brunner, Mark Gainey, Dimos Baltas, Mathias Langer, Horst Urbach, Michael Bock, Philipp T Meyer, Anca-Ligia Grosu
Positron emission tomography and multiparametric MRI provide crucial information concerning tumor extent and normal tissue anatomy. Moreover, they are able to visualize biological characteristics of the tumor, which can be considered in the radiation treatment planning and monitoring. In this review we discuss the impact of biological imaging positron emission tomography and multiparametric MRI for radiation oncology, based on the data of the literature and on the experience of our own institution in this field...
March 9, 2018: Future Oncology
Katarzyna Bojarska, Ralph Kuehn, Małgorzata A Gazda, Nozomu J Sato, Yuji Okahisa, Keita D Tanaka, Alfredo Attisano, Roman Gula, Keisuke Ueda, Jörn Theuerkauf
Extra-pair copulation can increase genetic diversity and offspring fitness. However, it may also increase intra-nest variability in avian hosts of brood parasites, which can decrease the discrimination ability of host parents towards the parasite. In New Caledonia, the Fan-tailed Gerygone (Gerygone flavolateralis), which is parasitized by the Shining Bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites lucidus), has two nestling morphs, dark and bright, that can occur in monomorphic and polymorphic broods. Gerygone parents recognize and eject parasite nestlings from their nest, but the presence of polymorphic broods may increase the chances of recognition errors...
2018: PloS One
Elise R Morton, Michael J McGrady, Ian Newton, Chris J Rollie, George D Smith, Richard Mearns, Madan K Oli
Population density around the natal site is often invoked as an explanation for variation in dispersal distance, with the expectation that competition for limiting resources, coupled with increased intra-specific aggression at high densities, should drive changes in dispersal distances. However, tests of the density-dependent dispersal hypothesis in long-lived vertebrates have yielded mixed results. Furthermore, conclusions from dispersal studies may depend on the spatial and temporal scales at which density and dispersal patterns are examined, yet multi-scale studies of dispersal are rare...
March 6, 2018: Ecology
Yantao Luo, Long Zhang, Zhidong Teng, Donald L DeAngelis
In this paper, a parasitism-mutualism-predation model is proposed to investigate the dynamics of multi-interactions among cuckoos, crows and cats with stage-structure and maturation time delays on cuckoos and crows. The crows permit the cuckoos to parasitize their nestlings (eggs) on the crow chicks (eggs). In return, the cuckoo nestlings produce a malodorous cloacal secretion to protect the crow chicks from predation by the cats, which is apparently beneficial to both the crow and cuckoo population. The multi-interactions, i...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
József Garay, Villő Csiszár, Tamás F Móri, András Szilágyi, Zoltán Varga, Szabolcs Számadó
Parent-offspring communication remains an unresolved challenge for biologist. The difficulty of the challenge comes from the fact that it is a multifaceted problem with connections to life-history evolution, parent-offspring conflict, kin selection and signalling. Previous efforts mainly focused on modelling resource allocation at the expense of the dynamic interaction during a reproductive season. Here we present a two-stage model of begging where the first stage models the interaction between nestlings and parents within a nest and the second stage models the life-history trade-offs...
2018: PloS One
Edwin R Price, Tushar S Sirsat, Sarah K G Sirsat, Thomas Curran, Barney J Venables, Edward M Dzialowski
The 'membrane pacemaker' hypothesis proposes a biochemical explanation for among-species variation in resting metabolism, based on the positive correlation between membrane docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and metabolic rate. We tested this hypothesis using a novel model, altricial red-winged blackbird nestlings, predicting that the proportion of DHA in muscle and liver membranes should increase with the increasing metabolic rate of the nestling as it develops endothermy. We also used a dietary manipulation, supplementing the natural diet with fish oil (high DHA) or sunflower oil (high linoleic acid) to alter membrane composition and then assessed metabolic rate...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Thomas Raap, Rianne Pinxten, Marcel Eens
Artificial light at night (ALAN) is a widespread and increasing environmental pollutant with known negative impacts on animal physiology and development. Physiological effects could occur through sleep disruption and deprivation, but this is difficult to quantify, especially in small developing birds. Sleep loss can potentially be quantified by using oxalate, a biomarker for sleep debt in adult humans and rats. We examined the effect of ALAN on oxalate in free-living developing great tits ( Parus major ) as effects during early-life could have long-lasting and irreversible consequences...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Montserrat Carles, Thomas Bach, Irene Torres-Espallardo, Dimos Baltas, Ursula Nestle, Luis Martí-Bonmatí
In lung cancer, quantification by Positron-Emission-Tomography/Computed-Tomography (PET/CT) imaging presents challenges due to respiratory movement. Our primary aim was to study the impact of the compensation of motion implied by retrospectively gated (4D)-PET/CT on the variability of PET quantitative parameters. Its significance was evaluated by comparison with respect to the variability due to (i) the voxel size comprised by image reconstruction and (ii) the voxel size in image post-resampling. The method employed for features extraction was chosen based on the analysis of: (i) the effect of the standardized-uptake-value (SUV) discretization on the complementarity between texture features (TF) and the conventional indexes; (ii) the impact of the segmentation method on image features variability and (iii) the variability of image features across the time frames of 4D-PET...
February 22, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Agnes Csanadi, Annika Oser, Konrad Aumann, Vera Gumpp, Justyna Rawluk, Ursula Nestle, Claudia Kayser, Sebastian Wiesemann, Martin Werner, Gian Kayser
Despite recent advances in therapeutic options, lung cancer is the leading cause of death among malignant diseases worldwide. Glutamine-dependence is an established attribute in cancer tissue with emerging importance as a diagnostic and therapeutic target. We analysed the expression of SLC1a5, a major glutamine transporter, in the primary tumour and corresponding nodal metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to investigate its biological impact. Expression of SLC1a5 was analysed by immunohistochemistry in 259 NSCLC and in 142 nodal metastases and correlated with clinicopathological parameters including overall survival...
February 15, 2018: Pathology
Claudia Gatica-Sosa, Pawel Brzęk, Melisa Magallanes, William H Karasov, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal
We describe developmental changes in maltasic activity and its mRNA through adulthood, and in response to increase in dietary starch. We studied house sparrows (HOSP; Passer domesticus L.), which undergo a natural switch from insects to starch-containing seed diet during development, and zebra finch (ZEBF; Taeniopygia guttata V.), which have a relatively fixed starchy-seed diet during development. In ZEBF, in whom maltasic activity increased with age but not with dietary starch, α -glycosidase (AG) mRNA was not affected by either age or dietary starch level...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Jaana-Maija Koivisto, Leena Hannula, Rikke Buus Bøje, Stephen Prescott, Andrew Bland, Leena Rekola, Päivi Haho
The purpose of this article is to introduce the concept of design-based research, its appropriateness in creating education-based models, and to describe the process of developing such a model. The model was designed as part of the Nurse Educator Simulation based learning project, funded by the EU's Lifelong Learning program (2013-1-DK1-LEO05-07053). The project partners were VIA University College, Denmark, the University of Huddersfield, UK and Metropolia University of Applied Sciences, Finland. As an outcome of the development process, "the NESTLED model for educating simulation facilitators" (NESTLED model) was generated...
February 7, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
Ricardo J G Pereira, Mauricio D Christofoletti, Marcel H Blank, José Mauricio B Duarte
Despite Psitaciformes (parrots) being the third largest nonpasserine order (398 species), it currently ranks second in number of threatened species (28%) according to the Internatinal Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria. Since most of the literature concerning reproductive endocrinology in avian species derives from domestic and song birds, it is puzzling that advances in reproductive science for the Psitaciformes order lags far behind, in spite of the growing threats against them. In order to expand our knowledge of Neotropical parrots (Psittacidae), we examined annual changes in urofecal sex steroid metabolites of Blue-fronted amazon pairs (Amazona aestiva) exhibiting successful (nestlings) and unsuccessful breeding (infertile or no eggs)...
February 7, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Hilary Green, Pierre Broun, Douglas Cook, Karen Cooper, Adam Drewnowski, Jessica Fanzo, Duncan Pollard, Gary Sweeney, Anne Roulin
Global food systems will face unprecedented challenges in the coming years. They will need to meet the nutritional needs of a growing population and feed an expanding demand for proteins. This is against a backdrop of increasing environmental challenges (water resources, climate change, soil health), and the need to improve farming livelihoods. Collaborative efforts by a variety of stakeholders are needed to ensure that future generations have access to healthy and sustainable diets. Food will play an increasingly important role in the global discourse on health...
February 10, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Petra Sumasgutner, Marius Adrion, Anita Gamauf
As the world experiences rapid urban expansion, natural landscapes are being transformed into cities at an alarming rate. Consequently, urbanization is identified as one of the biggest environmental challenges of our time, yet we lack a clear understanding of how urbanization affects free-living organisms. Urbanization leads to habitat fragmentation and increased impervious surfaces affecting for example availability and quality of food. Urbanization is also associated with increased pollution levels that can affect organisms directly, via ecophysiological constraints and indirectly by disrupting trophic interactions in multi-species networks...
2018: PloS One
Marion Nestle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Charles C Wykoff, W Lloyd Clark, Jared S Nielsen, Joel V Brill, Laurence S Greene, Cherilyn L Heggen
BACKGROUND: The introduction of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) drugs to ophthalmology has revolutionized the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Despite this significant progress, gaps and challenges persist in the diagnosis of nAMD, initiation of treatment, and management of frequent intravitreal injections. Thus, nAMD remains a leading cause of blindness in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To present current knowledge, evidence, and expert perspectives on anti-VEGF therapies in nAMD to support managed care professionals and providers in decision making and collaborative strategies to overcome barriers to optimize anti-VEGF treatment outcomes among nAMD patients...
February 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Marta Maziarz, Charlotte Piggott, Malcolm Burgess
Birds often engage in nest defence against predators to improve breeding success, but defence efficiency requires the capability to assess the threat level posed by potential predators. For species with low breeding-site tenacity, which may encounter varying occurrence and density of predators in different areas, threat recognition could be compromised due to naivety, and so predator recognition may focus on broad key features to diminish the risk of misidentification. We experimentally tested this hypothesis by recording behavioural reactions of the nomadic wood warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix to objects reflecting various levels of threat: least weasel and Eurasian jay taxidermy mounts, an inanimate object and an empty display mount...
2018: Acta Ethologica
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