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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102440/thyroid-hormones-retinol-and-clinical-parameters-in-relation-to-mercury-and-organohalogen-contaminants-in-great-blue-heron-ardea-herodias-nestlings-from-the-st-lawrence-river-qu%C3%A3-bec-canada
#1
Louise Champoux, Monique Boily, Guy Fitzgerald
The exposure and effects of persistent environmental contaminants were investigated in great blue heron (Ardea herodias) nestlings sampled in 2001, 2002, 2006, and 2007 in freshwater and estuarine heronries along the St. Lawrence River, Québec (Canada). Biomarkers (retinoids, thyroid hormones, and clinical parameters) and contaminants (organochlorine contaminants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), and mercury (Hg)) were analyzed in blood, and Hg was analyzed in feathers (generally 9 nestlings per colony and 4 colonies per year)...
January 19, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099076/extension-of-the-avian-host-range-of-collyriclosis-in-europe
#2
Stamatios A Tahas, Anastasia Diakou, Monika Dressel, Samuel Frei, Fábia M Pinto Azevedo, Maria V Mena Casero, Carla Maia, Paula Grest, Felix Grimm, Jiljí Sitko, Ivan Literak
We describe cases of collyriclosis in apodiform and passeriform birds in Portugal, Switzerland, and Germany. We extend the host range of Collyriculm faba to include apodiform birds ( Apus apus , Apus melba , and Apus pallidus ) and the passerine Sitta europaea (Eurasian Nuthatch). Infections varied in severity from an incidental finding to severe debilitation and death. The infection route remains unclear with the apparent absence from Germany, Portugal, and Switzerland of the first intermediate host of C. faba, the aquatic gastropod Bythinella austriaca, implying that other organisms might be involved in the parasite's life cycle...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096174/anti-folate-receptor-%C3%AE-ige-but-not-igg-recruits-macrophages-to-attack-tumors-via-tnf-%C3%AE-mcp-1-signaling
#3
Debra H Josephs, Heather J Bax, Tihomir Dodev, Mirella Georgouli, Mano Nakamura, Giulia Pellizzari, Louise Saul, Panagiotis Karagiannis, Anthony Cheung, Cecilia Herraiz, Kristina M Ilieva, Isabel Correa, Matthew Fittall, Silvia Crescioli, Patrycja Gazinska, Natalie Woodman, Silvia Mele, Giulia Chiaruttini, Amy E Gilbert, Alexander Koers, Marguerite Bracher, Christopher Selkirk, Heike Lentfer, Claire Barton, Elliott Lever, Gareth Muirhead, Sophia Tsoka, Silvana Canevari, Mariangela Figini, Ana Montes, Noel Downes, David Dombrowicz, Christopher Corrigan, Andrew J Beavil, Frank O Nestle, Paul S Jones, Hannah J Gould, Victoria Sanz-Moreno, Philip J Blower, James Spicer, Sophia N Karagiannis
IgE antibodies are key mediators of anti-parasitic immune responses, but their potential for cancer treatment via antibody-directed cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been little studied. Recently, tumor antigen-specific IgEs were reported to restrict cancer cell growth by engaging high-affinity Fc receptors on monocytes and macrophages, however, the underlying therapeutic mechanisms were undefined and in vivo proof-of-concept was limited. Here, an immunocompetent rat model was designed to recapitulate the human IgE-Fcε receptor system for cancer studies...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094324/early-life-adversity-accelerates-cellular-ageing-and-affects-adult-inflammation-experimental-evidence-from-the-european-starling
#4
Daniel Nettle, Clare Andrews, Sophie Reichert, Tom Bedford, Claire Kolenda, Craig Parker, Carmen Martin-Ruiz, Pat Monaghan, Melissa Bateson
Early-life adversity is associated with accelerated cellular ageing during development and increased inflammation during adulthood. However, human studies can only establish correlation, not causation, and existing experimental animal approaches alter multiple components of early-life adversity simultaneously. We developed a novel hand-rearing paradigm in European starling nestlings (Sturnus vulgaris), in which we separately manipulated nutritional shortfall and begging effort for a period of 10 days. The experimental treatments accelerated erythrocyte telomere attrition and increased DNA damage measured in the juvenile period...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091884/pre-mining-trace-element-and-radiation-exposure-to-biota-from-a-breccia-pipe-uranium-mine-in-the-grand-canyon-arizona-usa-watershed
#5
Jo Ellen Hinck, Danielle Cleveland, William G Brumbaugh, Greg Linder, Julia Lankton
The risks to wildlife and humans from uranium (U) mining in the Grand Canyon watershed are largely unknown. In addition to U, other co-occurring ore constituents contribute to risks to biological receptors depending on their toxicological profiles. This study characterizes the pre-mining concentrations of total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), thallium (Tl), U, and zinc (Zn); radiation levels; and histopathology in biota (vegetation, invertebrates, amphibians, birds, and mammals) at the Canyon Mine...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074936/hygroscopic-motions-of-fossil-conifer-cones
#6
Simon Poppinga, Nikolaus Nestle, Andrea Šandor, Bruno Reible, Tom Masselter, Bernd Bruchmann, Thomas Speck
Conifer cones represent natural, woody compliant structures which move their scales as passive responses to changes in environmental humidity. Here we report on water-driven opening and closing motions in coalified conifer cones from the Eemian Interglacial (approx. 126,000-113,000 years BP) and from the Middle Miocene (approx. 16.5 to 11.5 million years BP). These cones represent by far the oldest documented evidence of plant parts showing full functionality of such passive hydraulically actuated motion. The functional resilience of these structures is far beyond the biological purpose of seed dispersal and protection and is because of a low level of mineralization of the fossils...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070333/corticosterone-inflammation-immune-status-and-telomere-length-in-frigatebird-nestlings-facing-a-severe-herpesvirus-infection
#7
Manrico Sebastiano, Marcel Eens, Frederic Angelier, Kévin Pineau, Olivier Chastel, David Costantini
Herpesvirus outbreaks are common in natural animal populations, but little is known about factors that favour the infection and its consequences for the organism. In this study, we examined the pathophysiological consequences of a disease probably attributable to herpesvirus infection for several markers of immune function, corticosterone, telomere length and inflammation. In addition, we assessed whether any markers used in this study might be associated with the occurrence of visible clinical signs of the disease and its impact on short-term survival perspectives...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068581/vitamin-profiles-in-two-free-living-passerine-birds-under-a-metal-pollution-gradient-a-calcium-supplementation-experiment
#8
Sandra R Ruiz, Silvia Espín, Pablo Sánchez-Virosta, Juha-Pekka Salminen, Thomas M Lilley, Tapio Eeva
Vitamin and carotenoid deficiency may impair development in free-living vertebrates, because of the importance of these micronutrients to growth, antioxidant defense and calcium regulation. Micronutrient and calcium insufficiency can be intensified by metal pollution which can interfere with nutrient homeostasis or indirectly reduce food availability. Furthermore, absorption of dietary heavy metals is dependent on food calcium and vitamin levels. We investigated the effect of calcium on plasma vitamin and carotenoid profiles and how these affected growth and survival in two passerine birds with different calcium turnover living along a metal pollution gradient...
January 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068311/structural-and-functional-insights-into-asymmetric-enzymatic-dehydration-of-alkenols
#9
Bettina M Nestl, Christopher Geinitz, Stephanie Popa, Sari Rizek, Robert J Haselbeck, Rosary Stephen, Michael A Noble, Max-Philipp Fischer, Erik C Ralph, Hoi Ting Hau, Henry Man, Muhiadin Omar, Johan P Turkenburg, Stephen van Dien, Stephanie J Culler, Gideon Grogan, Bernhard Hauer
The asymmetric dehydration of alcohols is an important process for the direct synthesis of alkenes. We report the structure and substrate specificity of the bifunctional linalool dehydratase isomerase (LinD) from the bacterium Castellaniella defragrans that catalyzes in nature the hydration of β-myrcene to linalool and the subsequent isomerization to geraniol. Enzymatic kinetic resolutions of truncated and elongated aromatic and aliphatic tertiary alcohols (C5-C15) that contain a specific signature motif demonstrate the broad substrate specificity of LinD...
January 9, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054551/innate-and-adaptive-immune-traits-are-differentially-affected-by-genetic-and-environmental-factors
#10
Massimo Mangino, Mario Roederer, Margaret H Beddall, Frank O Nestle, Tim D Spector
The diversity and activity of leukocytes is controlled by genetic and environmental influences to maintain balanced immune responses. However, the relative contribution of environmental compared with genetic factors that affect variations in immune traits is unknown. Here we analyse 23,394 immune phenotypes in 497 adult female twins. 76% of these traits show a predominantly heritable influence, whereas 24% are mostly influenced by environment. These data highlight the importance of shared childhood environmental influences such as diet, infections or microbes in shaping immune homeostasis for monocytes, B1 cells, γδ T cells and NKT cells, whereas dendritic cells, B2 cells, CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cells are more influenced by genetics...
January 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051945/sex-specific-effects-of-high-yolk-androgen-levels-on-constitutive-and-cell-mediated-immune-responses-in-nestlings-of-an-altricial-passerine
#11
Jaime Muriel, Lorenzo Pérez-Rodríguez, Manuel E Ortiz-Santaliestra, Marisa Puerta, Diego Gil
Avian embryos are exposed to yolk androgens that are incorporated into the egg by the ovulating female. These steroids can affect several aspects of embryo development, often resulting in increases in overall size or the speed of growth of different traits. However, several studies suggest that they also entail immune costs to the offspring. In this study, we explored whether variation in yolk androgen concentration affected several measures of the constitutive and cell-mediated immune axes in the spotless starling (Sturnus unicolor)...
January 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049755/prevention-of-diabetes-in-mexico-pragmatic-solutions-for-a-complex-problem
#12
Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas, Hector Bourges Rodriguez, Ernestina Polo Oteyza
The Tenth Nestlé Nutrition Conference, held in Mexico City in November 2014, focused on prevention of type 2 diabetes considering environment, lifestyles, and nutrition. Based on the evidence and recommendations presented during the conference, which are summarized in another article within this supplemental issue, a series of pragmatic proposals to address the environmental, social, and medical factors that have contributed to the growing prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Mexico was formulated. For this article, the actions were organized into 2 conceptual models: one that is applicable for the whole population and the other for at-risk individuals...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049744/prevention-of-diabetes-in-mexico-summary-of-evidence-on-preventive-interventions-presented-at-the-2014-nestle-nutrition-conference
#13
Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas, Hector Bourges-Rodriguez, Ernestina Polo-Oteyza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033121/evaluation-of-pet-texture-features-with-heterogeneous-phantoms-complementarity-and-effect-of-motion-and-segmentation-method
#14
M Carles, I Torres-Espallardo, A Alberich-Bayarri, C Olivas, P Bello, U Nestle, L Martí-Bonmatí
A major source of error in quantitative PET/CT scans of lung cancer tumors is respiratory motion. Regarding the variability of PET texture features (TF), the impact of respiratory motion has not been properly studied with experimental phantoms. The primary aim of this work was to evaluate the current use of PET texture analysis for heterogeneity characterization in lesions affected by respiratory motion. Twenty-eight heterogeneous lesions were simulated by a mixture of alginate and (18) F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)...
December 29, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028377/adult-helpers-increase-the-recruitment-of-closely-related-offspring-in-the-cooperatively-breeding-rifleman
#15
Stephanie A J Preston, James V Briskie, Ben J Hatchwell
Indirect fitness benefits gained through kin-selected helping are widely invoked to explain the evolution of cooperative breeding behavior in birds. However, the impact of helpers on productivity of helped broods can be difficult to determine if the effects are confounded by territory quality or if the benefit of helpers is apparent only in the long term. In riflemen Acanthisitta chloris, helping and group membership are effectively decoupled as adult helpers are individuals that have dispersed from their natal territory and live independently from breeders in "kin neighborhoods...
November 2016: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007663/dynamic-interactions-between-corticosterone-corticosteroid-binding-globulin-and-testosterone-in-response-to-capture-stress-in-male-breeding-eurasian-tree-sparrows
#16
Yaqing Li, Yanfeng Sun, Jesse S Krause, Mo Li, Xuelu Liu, Weiwei Zhu, Yao Yao, Yuefeng Wu, Dongming Li
In birds, corticosterone (CORT), testosterone (T), and corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) are involved in modulating the trade-off between reproduction and survival. In response to acute stress, increased total plasma CORT is a ubiquitous phenomenon while T levels can decrease, or remain unchanged. Since CORT and T bind competitively with CBG in birds, the underlying regulatory mechanisms and consequences of their dynamic interactions remain largely unknown. Here, we studied the dynamic changes of total CORT, T, and CBG, and estimated free and bound CORT and T in response to capture stress in male Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) across the nest building, egg-laying, and nestling stages...
December 19, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000316/evolutionary-potential-of-morphological-traits-across-different-life-history-stages
#17
Audrey Bourret, Marc Bélisle, Fanie Pelletier, Dany Garant
Despite accumulating examples of selection acting on heritable traits in the wild, predicted evolutionary responses are often different from observed phenotypic trends. Various explanations have been suggested for these mismatches. These include within-individual changes across lifespan that can create important variation in genetic architecture of traits and selection acting on them, but also potential problems with the methodological approach used to predict evolutionary responses of traits. Here, we used an 8-year dataset on Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) to first assess the effects of differences among three nestling life-history stages on the genetic (co)variances of two morphological traits (body mass and primary feather length) and the selection acting on them over three generations...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973549/diurnal-and-reproductive-stage-dependent-variation-of-parental-behaviour-in-captive-zebra-finches
#18
Boglárka Morvai, Sabine Nanuru, Douwe Mul, Nina Kusche, Gregory Milne, Tamás Székely, Jan Komdeur, Ádám Miklósi, Ákos Pogány
Parental care plays a key role in ontogeny, life-history trade-offs, sexual selection and intra-familial conflict. Studies focusing on understanding causes and consequences of variation in parental effort need to quantify parental behaviour accurately. The applied methods are, however, diverse even for a given species and type of parental effort, and rarely validated for accuracy. Here we focus on variability of parental behaviour from a methodological perspective to investigate the effect of different samplings on various estimates of parental effort...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957336/physical-condition-and-stress-levels-during-early-development-reflect-feeding-rates-and-predict-pre-and-post-fledging-survival-in-a-nearshore-seabird
#19
Juliet S Lamb, Kathleen M O'Reilly, Patrick G R Jodice
The effects of acute environmental stressors on reproduction in wildlife are often difficult to measure because of the labour and disturbance involved in collecting accurate reproductive data. Stress hormones represent a promising option for assessing the effects of environmental perturbations on altricial young; however, it is necessary first to establish how stress levels are affected by environmental conditions during development and whether elevated stress results in reduced survival and recruitment rates...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942006/ground-squirrel-shooting-and-potential-lead-exposure-in-breeding-avian-scavengers
#20
Garth Herring, Collin A Eagles-Smith, Mason T Wagner
Recreational ground squirrel shooting is a popular activity throughout the western United States and serves as a tool for managing ground squirrel populations in agricultural regions. Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) are routinely shot in California, Nevada, and Oregon across habitats that overlap with breeding avian scavengers. Ground squirrels shot with lead (Pb)-based bullets may pose a risk to avian scavengers if they consume carcasses containing Pb fragments. To assess the potential risk to breeding avian scavengers we developed a model to estimate the number, mass, and distribution of Pb fragments in shot ground squirrels using radiographic images...
2016: PloS One
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