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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636480/the-emerging-role-of-pimavanserin-in-the-management-of-parkinson-s-disease-psychosis
#1
Neal Hermanowicz, Gustavo Alva, Fernando Pagan, Alberto J Espay, Amita Patel, Katya Cruz Madrid, Daniel Kremens, Jim Kenney, Sheila Arquette, Gary Tereso, Maria Lopes, Carolyn Farnum
A panel of experts drawn from neurology, psychiatry, geropsychiatry, geriatrics, and pharmacy representatives of 3 health plans convened in New York City on July 30, 2016, with the objective of sharing opinions, ideas, and information regarding the optimal management of Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP). Three key points emerged from the discussion: (1) Because of the nature of Parkinson's disease and PDP, finding appropriate treatment can prove challenging; (2) emerging therapies may present an opportunity for effective disease management; and (3) moving forward, provider and patient education regarding PDP and available treatment options is essential for well-managed symptoms and better quality of life...
June 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629971/survey-of-pathogens-in-threatened-wild-red-tailed-amazon-parrot-amazona-brasiliensis-nestlings-in-rasa-island-brazil
#2
Frederico Fontanelli Vaz, Patrícia Pereira Serafini, Rosangela Locatelli-Dittrich, Rafael Meurer, Edison Luiz Durigon, Jansen de Araújo, Luciano Matsumiya Thomazelli, Tatiana Ometto, Elenise Angelotti Bastos Sipinski, Rafael Meirelles Sezerban, Maria Cecília Abbud, Tânia Freitas Raso
The red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) is a threatened species of psittacine bird that inhabit coastal regions of Brazil. In view of the threat of this species, the aim of this study was to perform a health evaluation in wild nestlings in Rasa Island, determining the prevalence of enterobacteria and infectious agents according to type of nest. Blood samples were collected from 64 birds and evaluated for antibodies of Chlamydia psittaci by commercial dot-blot ELISA. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs samples were collected from 23 birds from artificial wooden nests, 15 birds from PVC nests and 2 birds from natural nests for microbiological analysis...
June 3, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629327/female-begging-calls-reflect-nutritional-need-of-nestlings-in-the-hen-harrier-circus-cyaneus
#3
Steve Redpath, Alex Thompson, Arjun Amar
BACKGROUND: Most birds exhibit bi-parental care with both sexes providing food for their young. Nestling signal food needs through begging. However, for some species, males rarely visit the nest, so have limited opportunity for gaining information directly from the chicks. Instead, females beg when males deliver food. We tested whether this calling signalled nutritional need and specifically the needs of the female (Breeder Need hypothesis) or that of their chicks (Offspring Need hypothesis)...
June 19, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628821/pollutants-and-diet-influence-carotenoid-levels-and-integument-coloration-in-nestlings-of-an-endangered-raptor
#4
Marie-Sophie García-Heras, Beatriz Arroyo, Robert E Simmons, Pablo R Camarero, Rafael Mateo, Jesús T García, Francois Mougeot
Carotenoid-based traits or ornaments, such as yellow-red integuments (feathers, beaks, legs or eye-rings) displayed by birds, play key roles in social communication by reliably advertising an individual's quality or health. In some species, these traits are displayed not only by adults but also by nestlings, and function in parent-offspring communication or sibling competition by advertising an individual's physical or physiological condition. Pollutants such as organochlorine compounds (OCs) could have disruptive effects on the coloration of these traits, thereby interfering with communication processes...
June 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625618/low-incidence-of-plastics-in-food-loads-delivered-to-nestlings-by-a-zooplanktivorous-seabird-over-a-21-year-period
#5
J M Hipfner, K R Studholme, M Galbraith
We quantified the amount of plastic found in food loads delivered to nestlings in Cassin's Auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus), a small, zooplanktivorous seabird, on Triangle Island, British Columbia, in 1996-2016. The density of plastic in surrounding waters is moderately high, yet few food loads contained any plastic (3 of 850), and none more than two pieces. That result accords well with previous observations on the other four North Pacific auklets (Aethia spp.), leading us to conclude that true auklets rarely transfer plastic to nestlings...
June 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623803/oxidative-status-in-relation-to-metal-pollution-and-calcium-availability-in-pied-flycatcher-nestlings-a-calcium-manipulation-experiment
#6
Silvia Espín, Sandra Ruiz, Pablo Sánchez-Virosta, Thomas Lilley, Tapio Eeva
Metal exposure can produce oxidative stress by disrupting the prooxidant/antioxidant balance. It has been suggested that calcium (Ca) may provide protection against metal toxicity in the organism. The objective of this study is to explore the effects of Ca availability and metal pollution on oxidative stress biomarkers in pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings. For this purpose, we performed a Ca-supplementation experiment with birds inhabiting a Ca-poor and metal-polluted area in SW Finland. An array of oxidative stress biomarkers (GSH, GSH:GSSG ratio, GPx, GST, CAT, SOD, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation) was measured in red blood cells...
June 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599194/spatiotemporal-patterns-and-relationships-among-the-diet-biochemistry-and-exposure-to-flame-retardants-in-an-apex-avian-predator-the-peregrine-falcon
#7
Kim J Fernie, Dominique Chabot, Louise Champoux, Samantha Brimble, Mehran Alaee, Sarah Marteinson, Da Chen, Vince Palace, David M Bird, Robert J Letcher
Flame retardants (FR) are industrial chemicals and some are proven environmental contaminants that accumulate in predatory birds. Few studies have examined the influence of diet on FR profiles in nestling raptors and the possible physiological implications of such FR exposure. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine spatial patterns of ≤ 48 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and ≤ 26 non-PBDE FRs, including organophosphate esters (OPEs), in nestling peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) across the Canadian Great Lakes-St...
June 6, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592599/modeled-dietary-impact-of-industry-wide-food-and-beverage-reformulations-in-the-united-states-and-france
#8
Mathilde Gressier, Lisa Privet, Kevin Clark Mathias, Antonis Vlassopoulos, Florent Vieux, Gabriel Masset
Background: Food reformulation has been identified as a strategy to improve nutritional intakes; however, little is known about the potential impact of industry-wide reformulations.Objective: The aim of the study was to model the dietary impact of food and beverage reformulation following the Nestlé Nutritional Profiling System (NNPS) standards for children, adolescents, and adults in the United States and France.Design: Dietary intakes of individuals aged ≥4 y were retrieved from nationally representative surveys: the US NHANES 2011-2012 (n = 7456) and the French Individual and National Survey on Food Consumption (n = 3330)...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584270/ambient-anthropogenic-noise-but-not-light-is-associated-with-the-ecophysiology-of-free-living-songbird-nestlings
#9
Thomas Raap, Rianne Pinxten, Giulia Casasole, Nina Dehnhard, Marcel Eens
Urbanization is associated with dramatic increases in noise and light pollution, which affect animal behaviour, physiology and fitness. However, few studies have examined these stressors simultaneously. Moreover, effects of urbanization during early-life may be detrimental but are largely unknown. In developing great tits (Parus major), a frequently-used model species, we determined important indicators of immunity and physiological condition: plasma haptoglobin (Hp) and nitric oxide (NOx) concentration. We also determined fledging mass, an indicator for current health and survival...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579698/size-of-nest-cavity-entrance-influences-male-attractiveness-and-paternal-provisioning-in-house-wrens
#10
Darren S Will, Erin E Dorset, Charles F Thompson, Scott K Sakaluk, E Keith Bowers
In altricial birds, parental provisioning is plastic and can respond to a variety of environmental stimuli. In this study, we manipulated the size of entrances into artificial nest cavities (i.e., nestboxes) in a population of house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) as a means of manipulating a male's sexual attractiveness, and examined changes in parental provisioning. Nest cavities with large entrances are less desirable as nesting sites, and the males at these sites are less attractive to females. Therefore, we predicted that males at boxes that had large entrances would invest more in parental care (i...
May 2017: Journal of Zoology: Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577897/time-as-tyrant-the-minute-hour-and-day-make-a-difference-for-corticosterone-concentrations-in-wild-nestlings
#11
Amy E M Newman, Helmi Hess, Bradley K Woodworth, D Ryan Norris
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been studied extensively in adults, but the HPA axis in early life is not well characterized, and there is an immense amount of unexplained variation in glucocorticoid levels during early life, especially in wild animals. To characterize population-wide natural variation in early-life HPA axis function, we compared plasma corticosterone levels (at baseline and after 30min acute restraint-stress) from seven-day-old nestlings (n=123) from a free-living, marked population of Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis)...
May 31, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567503/planning-benchmark-study-for-sbrt-of-early-stage-nsclc-results-of-the-degro-working-group-stereotactic-radiotherapy
#12
Christos Moustakis, Oliver Blanck, Fatemeh Ebrahimi Tazehmahalleh, Mark Ka Heng Chan, Iris Ernst, Thomas Krieger, Marciana-Nona Duma, Markus Oechsner, Ute Ganswindt, Christian Heinz, Horst Alheit, Hilbert Blank, Ursula Nestle, Rolf Wiehle, Christine Kornhuber, Christian Ostheimer, Cordula Petersen, Gerhard Pollul, Wolfgang Baus, Georg Altenstein, Eric Beckers, Katrin Jurianz, Florian Sterzing, Matthias Kretschmer, Heinrich Seegenschmiedt, Torsten Maass, Stefan Droege, Ulrich Wolf, Juergen Schoeffler, Uwe Haverkamp, Hans Theodor Eich, Matthias Guckenberger
PURPOSE: The aim was to evaluate stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatment planning variability for early stage nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with respect to the published guidelines of the Stereotactic Radiotherapy Working Group of the German Society for Radiation Oncology (DEGRO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Planning computed tomography (CT) scan and the structure sets (planning target volume, PTV; organs at risk, OARs) of 3 patients with early stage NSCLC were sent to 22 radiotherapy departments with SBRT experience: each department was asked to prepare a treatment plan according to the DEGRO guidelines...
May 31, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559918/geographical-and-temporal-variation-in-environmental-conditions-affects-nestling-growth-but-not-immune-function-in-a-year-round-breeding-equatorial-lark
#13
Henry K Ndithia, Samuel N Bakari, Kevin D Matson, Muchane Muchai, B Irene Tieleman
BACKGROUND: Variation in growth and immune function within and among populations is often associated with specific environmental conditions. We compared growth and immune function in nestlings of year-round breeding equatorial Red-capped Lark Calandrella cinerea from South Kinangop, North Kinangop and Kedong (Kenya), three locations that are geographically close but climatically distinct. In addition, we studied growth and immune function of lark nestlings as a function of year-round variation in breeding intensity and rain within one location...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552347/regulatory-t-cells-in-skin-facilitate-epithelial-stem-cell-differentiation
#14
Niwa Ali, Bahar Zirak, Robert Sanchez Rodriguez, Mariela L Pauli, Hong-An Truong, Kevin Lai, Richard Ahn, Kaitlin Corbin, Margaret M Lowe, Tiffany C Scharschmidt, Keyon Taravati, Madeleine R Tan, Roberto R Ricardo-Gonzalez, Audrey Nosbaum, Marta Bertolini, Wilson Liao, Frank O Nestle, Ralf Paus, George Cotsarelis, Abul K Abbas, Michael D Rosenblum
The maintenance of tissue homeostasis is critically dependent on the function of tissue-resident immune cells and the differentiation capacity of tissue-resident stem cells (SCs). How immune cells influence the function of SCs is largely unknown. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) in skin preferentially localize to hair follicles (HFs), which house a major subset of skin SCs (HFSCs). Here, we mechanistically dissect the role of Tregs in HF and HFSC biology. Lineage-specific cell depletion revealed that Tregs promote HF regeneration by augmenting HFSC proliferation and differentiation...
June 1, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548900/corticosterone-response-as-an-age-specific-mediator-of-nestling-body-mass-in-a-wild-passerine
#15
Vallo Tilgar, Marianne Lind, Jaanis Lodjak, Kadri Moks
The environment can affect individual performance directly via resource availability or indirectly through resource allocation among competing fitness components, such as body growth and maintenance activities related to short-term survival. Corticosterone (CORT), the main glucocorticoid in birds, may be an important mediator of energy allocation to different organismal functions, but its effect on the plasticity of fitness-related traits has rarely been investigated at different ontogenetic stages. Here, we evaluated the role of baseline and stress-induced CORT on nestling development of wild great tits (Parus major) under different growth conditions and at different developmental stages...
July 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528532/caged-young-pigeons-mortality-by-coleoptera-larvae
#16
Adele Magliano, Jiri Hava, Andrea Di Giulio, Antonino Barone, Claudio De Liberato
Dermestidae and Tenebrionidae are well known inhabitants of bird's nests and poultry farms, under favourable conditions they can be very abundant under favourable conditions. At times, their larvae shift from a scavenging behaviour to a parasitic/predatory one, entering nestling's plumage and feeding on skin and feathers, and nally provoking skin damages and blood losses. These episodes mainly involve species of the genus Dermestes, but the tenebrionid Alphitobius diaperinus h also been reported to be responsible of similar cases...
April 11, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515884/cooperative-breeding-shapes-post-fledging-survival-in-an-afrotropical-forest-bird
#17
Dries Van de Loock, Diederik Strubbe, Liesbeth De Neve, Mwangi Githiru, Erik Matthysen, Luc Lens
For avian group living to be evolutionary stable, multiple fitness benefits are expected. Yet, the difficulty of tracking fledglings, and thus estimating their survival rates, limits our knowledge on how such benefits may manifest postfledging. We radio-tagged breeding females of the Afrotropical cooperatively breeding Placid greenbul (Phyllastrephus placidus) during nesting. Tracking these females after fledging permitted us to locate juvenile birds, their parents, and any helpers present and to build individual fledgling resighting datasets without incurring mortality costs or causing premature fledging due to handling or transmitter effects...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499963/neither-artificial-light-at-night-anthropogenic-noise-nor-distance-from-roads-are-associated-with-oxidative-status-of-nestlings-in-an-urban-population-of-songbirds
#18
Giulia Casasole, Thomas Raap, David Costantini, Hamada AbdElgawad, Han Asard, Rianne Pinxten, Marcel Eens
Increasing urbanization is responsible for road-related pollutants and causes an unprecedented increase in light and noise pollution, with potential detrimental effects for individual animals, communities and ecosystems. These stressors rarely act in isolation but studies dissecting the effects of these multiple stressors are lacking. Moreover, studies on urban stressors have mainly focused on adults, while exposure in early-life may be detrimental but is largely ignored. To fill this important knowledge gap, we studied if artificial light at night, anthropogenic noise and road-related pollution (using distance from roads as a proxy) explain variation in oxidative status in great tit nestlings (Parus major) in an urban population...
August 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499128/stress-induced-by-heavy-metals-on-breeding-of-magpie-pica-pica-from-central-iran
#19
Mohammad Zarrintab, Rouhollah Mirzaei
The aim of this study was to address the impacts of some heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu) contamination on laying behavior, egg quality and breeding performance of Pica pica in north of Isfahan Province, Iran. During the breeding season of 2013, magpie's egg content and eggshell as well as nestling excrements and feathers were collected and total concentrations of heavy metals were measured by ICP-OES. Except for Zn in nestling feathers, the significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals were observed in nestling excrements than other samples...
May 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498636/study-protocol-evaluating-the-use-of-bowel-stimulation-before-loop-ileostomy-closure-to-reduce-postoperative-ileus-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Richard Garfinkle, Nora Trabulsi, Nancy Morin, Terry Phang, Sender Liberman, Liane Feldman, Gerald Fried, Marylise Boutros
AIM: Postoperative ileus is the most commonly observed morbidity following ileostomy closure. Studies have demonstrated that the defunctionalized bowel of a loop ileostomy undergoes a series of functional and structural changes, such as atrophy of the intestinal villi and muscular layers, which may contribute to ileus. A single-center study in Spain demonstrated that preoperative bowel stimulation via the distal limb of the loop ileostomy decreased postoperative ileus, length of stay, and time to gastrointestinal function...
May 12, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
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