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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322761/pre-gnrh-and-gnrh-induced-testosterone-levels-do-not-vary-across-behavioral-contexts-a-role-for-individual-variation
#1
Medhavi Ambardar, Jennifer L Grindstaff
Hormones can facilitate the expression of behavior, but relatively few studies have considered individual variation and repeatability in hormone-behavior relationships. Repeated measures of hormones are valuable because repeatability in hormone levels might be a mechanism that drives repeatability in behavior ("personality"). Testosterone is predicted to promote territorial aggression and suppress parental behaviors. In our population of eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis), parental care and nest defense aggression toward a heterospecific are repeatable...
March 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316079/insectivorous-birds-disrupt-biological-control-of-cereal-aphids
#2
Ingo Grass, Katrin Lehmann, Carsten Thies, Teja Tscharntke
Insect-feeding birds may interfere with trophic interactions in plant-insect food webs, which may be particularly important in agroecosystems. Here, we studied how Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) affect aphids and their predators in cereal fields using bird exclusion experiments. The tree sparrows fed their nestlings with aphid antagonists. Hoverflies and ladybird beetles accounted for 77% of the food for the nestlings during peak aphid density. When birds were excluded, densities of hoverfly larvae, which were the most abundant aphid predator group in the cereals, were 4% higher in wheat and 45% higher in oat, while aphid densities were 24% lower in wheat and 26% lower in oat...
March 17, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315893/ying-yang-bao-improving-complementary-feeding-for-chinese-infants-in-poor-regions
#3
Junsheng Huo
Ying Yang Bao (YYB), a complementary food supplement, has helped to rapidly improve the nutrition status of infants and young children in poor rural regions in China. The first YYB study was performed in 2001 by the International Life Sciences Institute, the Chinese Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Nestlé. In 2008, the establishment of national standards for complementary food supplements stimulated implementation of about 15 nutrition intervention projects in poor rural counties in which YYB was applied to infants and young children as home fortification for complementary feeding...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285377/concentrations-of-trace-elements-in-adult-and-nestling-black-tailed-gulls-larus-crassirostris
#4
Jungsoo Kim, Jong-Min Oh
Trace element concentrations (Cd, Pb, Cr, Al, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe) were measured in the liver of black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris) adults (n = 10) and nestlings (n = 10) collected at Chilsando Island, Jellanam-do, Korea, in June 2011. Adults gulls, when compared to nestlings, accumulated higher concentrations of all trace elements; Cd, 0.53 and 0.04 µg/g dry weight (dw), respectively, Pb, 0.47 and 0.21 µg/g dw, Cr, 0.08 and 0.05 µg/g dw, Al, 6.56 and 3.94 µg/g dw, Cu, 5.57 and 3.88 µg/g dw, Mn, 3...
March 11, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264124/incorrect-impressions-concerning-industry-sponsored-research-reply
#5
Marion Nestle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261449/happy-to-breed-in-the-city-urban-food-resources-limit-reproductive-output-in-western-jackdaws
#6
Eva Meyrier, Lukas Jenni, Yves Bötsch, Stephan Strebel, Bruno Erne, Zulima Tablado
Urban areas expand worldwide, transforming landscapes and creating new challenging habitats. Some bird species, mainly omnivorous feeding on human waste and cavity nesters, commonly breed in these habitats and are, therefore, regarded as urban-adapted. Although urban areas may provide new nesting sites and abundant human waste, the low breeding success found in some of these species suggests that the poor protein content in human waste might limit breeding parameters. We investigated whether the breeding success of a cavity nester and omnivorous species commonly breeding in urban areas, the Western Jackdaw (Corvus monedula), depended on the availability of good-quality non-urban food...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251300/a-test-of-the-nest-sanitation-hypothesis-for-the-evolution-of-foreign-egg-rejection-in-an-avian-brood-parasite-rejecter-host-species
#7
Alec B Luro, Mark E Hauber
Hosts of avian brood parasites have evolved diverse defenses to avoid the costs associated with raising brood parasite nestlings. In egg ejection, the host recognizes and removes foreign eggs laid in its nest. Nest sanitation, a behavior similar in motor pattern to egg ejection, has been proposed repeatedly as a potential pre-adaptation to egg ejection. Here, we separately placed blue 3D-printed, brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) eggs known to elicit interindividual variation in ejection responses and semi-natural leaves into American robins' (Turdus migratorius) nests to test proximate predictions that (1) rejecter hosts should sanitize debris from nests more frequently and consistently than accepter hosts and (2) hosts that sanitize their nests of debris prior to the presentation of a foreign egg will be more likely to eject the foreign egg...
April 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246967/the-cognitive-role-of-the-globus-pallidus-interna-insights-from-disease-states
#8
M J Gillies, J A Hyam, A R Weiss, C A Antoniades, R Bogacz, J J Fitzgerald, T Z Aziz, M A Whittington, Alexander L Green
The motor symptoms of both Parkinson's disease and focal dystonia arise from dysfunction of the basal ganglia, and are improved by pallidotomy or deep brain stimulation of the Globus Pallidus interna (GPi). However, Parkinson's disease is associated with a greater degree of basal ganglia-dependent learning impairment than dystonia. We attempt to understand this observation in terms of a comparison of the electrophysiology of the output of the basal ganglia between the two conditions. We use the natural experiment offered by Deep Brain Stimulation to compare GPi local field potential responses in subjects with Parkinson's disease compared to subjects with dystonia performing a forced-choice decision-making task with sensory feedback...
February 28, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243927/topical-treatment-of-rosacea-with-ivermectin-inhibits-gene-expression-of-cathelicidin-innate-immune-mediators-ll-37-and-klk5-in-reconstructed-and-ex-vivo-skin-models
#9
Séverine Thibaut de Ménonville, Carine Rosignoli, Estelle Soares, Manon Roquet, Béatrice Bertino, Jean-Paul Chappuis, Claire Defoin-Platel/Chaussade, David Piwnica
INTRODUCTION: Numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors have been associated with the pathophysiology of rosacea, including dysregulation of innate immunity. A high level of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides (e.g., LL-37) has been shown in the facial skin of patients with rosacea. Excessive production of both LL-37 and KLK5, the serine protease responsible for its cleavage, has been suggested to play a role in the pathophysiology of rosacea. Ivermectin 10 mg/g cream, indicated for the treatment of inflammatory lesions of rosacea, is reported to have dual anti-parasitic and anti-inflammatory properties...
February 27, 2017: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238305/polyomavirus-infection-in-gouldian-finches-erythrura-gouldiae-and-other-pet-birds-of-the-family-estrildidae
#10
E Circella, A Caroli, M Marino, M Legretto, N Pugliese, G Bozzo, G Cocciolo, D Dibari, A Camarda
A syndrome characterized by apathy, diarrhoea and high mortality of nestlings was observed in a flock of pet birds of the family Estrildidae. Enlargement of the liver, pulmonary congestion and urate accretions in the kidney were observed. Microscopically, there was glomerular atrophy, oedema and congestion of the lungs and necrosis and fibrosis of the liver. Cowdry type B intranuclear inclusion bodies were detected in the tissues. Polyomavirus was detected by polymerase chain reaction. The entire genome of the virus was amplified and sequenced, revealing 99 % identity to the sequence of finch polyomavirus isolated from the Eurasian bullfinch (family Fringillidae)...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202934/the-food-industry-and-conflicts-of-interest-in-nutrition-research-a-latin-american-perspective
#11
Joaquin Barnoya, Marion Nestle
Conflicts of interest arise when corporations marketing harmful products establish financial relationships with research institutions, researchers, or public health organizations. As obesity becomes a worldwide epidemic, such relationships threaten to jeopardize the integrity of scientific research. Latin America, a region undergoing rapid development, is particularly vulnerable to such conflicts. Here, we provide examples of how food and beverage companies are funding nutrition-focused research and institutions in Latin America, putting their credibility at risk...
December 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202814/early-mortality-saves-energy-estimating-the-energetic-cost-of-excess-offspring-in-a-seabird
#12
Oscar Vedder, He Zhang, Sandra Bouwhuis
Offspring are often produced in excess as insurance against stochastic events or unpredictable resources. This strategy may result in high early-life mortality, yet age-specific mortality before offspring independence and its associated costs have rarely been quantified. In this study, we modelled age-specific survival from hatching to fledging using 24 years of data on hatching order (HO), growth and age of mortality of more than 15 000 common tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks. We found that mortality peaked directly after hatching, after which it declined rapidly...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187938/occurrence-of-veterinary-pharmaceuticals-in-golden-eagle-nestlings-unnoticed-scavenging-on-livestock-carcasses-and-other-potential-exposure-routes
#13
Guillermo Blanco, Alexandra Junza, Dolores Barrón
Wildlife exposure to pharmaceuticals can occur through contaminated water, and through the excreta and carcasses of medicated livestock, with potential for bioaccumulation and transfer through food webs. We evaluated whether nestling exposure to pharmaceuticals can occur from food delivered to nests in the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), a top predator and facultative scavenger. Despite the fact that diet analysis suggests an apparently low dependence on livestock carcasses reduced to two piglets remains (1...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151077/an-atypical-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-isolate-with-possible-human-and-domestic-animal-origin-from-a-free-living-lear-s-macaw-anodorhynchus-leari
#14
André B S Saidenberg, Terezinha Knöbl, Priscilla A Melville, Eveline Zuniga, Sandra R S Salaberry, Nilson R Benites, Paulo E Brandão
An atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli was isolated from an asymptomatic nestling of the endangered Lear's Macaw. Phylogenetically, it was identical to bovine and human strains and highly similar to other human and domestic animal isolates. We discuss potential routes of transmission and risks to conservation of this species.
February 2, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138949/stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-sbrt-in-recurrent-or-oligometastatic-pancreatic-cancer-a%C3%A2-toxicity-review-of-simultaneous-integrated-protection-sip-versus-conventional-sbrt
#15
E Gkika, S Adebahr, S Kirste, T Schimek-Jasch, R Wiehle, R Claus, U Wittel, U Nestle, D Baltas, A L Grosu, T B Brunner
BACKGROUND: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in pancreatic cancer can be limited by its proximity to organs at risk (OAR). In this analysis, we evaluated the toxicity and efficacy of two different treatment approaches in patients with locally recurrent or oligometastatic pancreatic cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: According to the prescription method, patients were divided in two cohorts (C1 and C2). The planning target volume (PTV) was created through a 4 mm expansion of the internal target volume...
January 30, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137535/an-experimental-test-of-the-effect-of-brood-size-on-glucocorticoid-responses-parental-investment-and-offspring-phenotype
#16
Maren N Vitousek, Brittany R Jenkins, Joanna K Hubbard, Sara A Kaiser, Rebecca J Safran
Because elevated glucocorticoid levels can impair reproduction, populations or species that engage in particularly valuable reproductive attempts may down-regulate the glucocorticoid stress response during reproduction (the brood value hypothesis). It is not clear, however, whether individuals rapidly modulate glucocorticoid responses based on shifting cues about the likelihood of reproductive success. By manipulating brood size to create broods that differed in potential value, we tested whether female barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) rapidly modulated the glucocorticoid stress response to promote investment in high-value broods, and whether nestling phenotype was influenced by treatment...
January 28, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132106/reproductive-consequences-of-farmland-heterogeneity-in-little-owls-athene-noctua
#17
Vanja T Michel, Beat Naef-Daenzer, Herbert Keil, Martin U Grüebler
The amount of high-quality habitat patches, their distribution, and the resource accessibility therein play a key role in regulating habitat effects on reproductive success. Heterogeneous habitats offer non-substitutable resources (e.g. nest sites and food) and substitutable resources (e.g. different types of food) in close proximity, thereby facilitating landscape complementation and supplementation. However, it remains poorly understood how spatial resource separation in homogeneous agricultural landscapes affects reproductive success...
April 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120467/classification-and-evaluation-strategies-of-auto-segmentation-approaches-for-pet-report-of-aapm-task-group-no-211
#18
Mathieu Hatt, John Lee, Charles R Schmidtlein, Issam El Naqa, Curtis Caldwell, Elisabetta De Bernardi, Wei Lu, Shiva Das, Xavier Geets, Vincent Gregoire, Robert Jeraj, Michael P MacManus, Osama R Mawlawi, Ursula Nestle, Andrei B Pugachev, Heiko Schöder, Tony Shepherd, Emiliano Spezi, Dimitris Visvikis, Habib Zaidi, Assen S Kirov
PURPOSE: The purpose of this educational report is to provide an overview of the present state-of-the-art PET auto-segmentation (PET-AS) algorithms and their respective validation, with an emphasis on providing the user with help in understanding the challenges and pitfalls associated with selecting and implementing a PET-AS algorithm for a particular application. APPROACH: A brief description of the different types of PET-AS algorithms is provided using a classification based on method complexity and type...
January 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113548/visualization-of-deformable-image-registration-quality-using-local-image-dissimilarity
#19
Matthias Schlachter, Tobias Fechter, Miro Jurisic, Tanja Schimek-Jasch, Oliver Oehlke, Sonja Adebahr, Wolfgang Birkfellner, Ursula Nestle, Katja Buhler
Deformable image registration (DIR) has the potential to improve modern radiotherapy in many aspects, including volume definition, treatment planning and image-guided adaptive radiotherapy. Studies have shown its possible clinical benefits. However, measuring DIR accuracy is difficult without known ground truth, but necessary before integration in the radiotherapy workflow. Visual assessment is an important step towards clinical acceptance. We propose a visualization framework which supports the exploration and the assessment of DIR accuracy...
April 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107063/hematologic-and-biochemical-values-of-wild-red-tailed-amazon-parrot-amazona-brasiliensis-nestlings-with-abnormal-clinical-examination-in-rasa-island-brazil
#20
Frederico Fontanelli Vaz, Rosangela Locatelli-Dittrich, Olair Carlos Beltrame, Elenise Angelotti Bastos Sipinski, Maria Cecília Abbud, Rafael Meirelles Sezerban
The red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) is an endangered psittacine species, but little information is available about abnormal clinical findings and hematologic and biochemical values of this species, which are important for monitoring the health of this population. To determine hematologic and biochemical values for wild red-tailed parrot nestlings exhibiting abnormal clinical findings, 31 nestlings from the Rasa Island (Paraná State, Southern Brazil) were physically restrained for clinical examination and blood sample collection...
December 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
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