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Eleni Gkika, Lukas Hallauer, Simon Kirste, Sonja Adebahr, Nico Bartl, Hannes Philipp Neeff, Ralph Fritsch, Volker Brass, Ursula Nestle, Anca Ligia Grosu, Thomas Baptist Brunner
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the role of ablative radiotherapy doses in the treatment of hilar or intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCC) using stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). METHODS: Consecutive patients treated from 2007 to 2016 with CCC were evaluated. Local control and toxicities were assessed every 3 months according to the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) and the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0, respectively. Overall survival (OS), local control (LC) and progression free survival were calculated from SBRT...
November 21, 2017: BMC Cancer
Fariba Fathi, Antonio Brun, Katherine H Rott, Paulo Falco Cobra, Marco Tonelli, Hamid R Eghbalnia, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal, William H Karasov, John L Markley
Metabolites present in liver provide important clues regarding the physiological state of an organism. The aim of this work was to evaluate a protocol for high-throughput NMR-based analysis of polar and non-polar metabolites from a small quantity of liver tissue. We extracted the tissue with a methanol/chloroform/water mixture and isolated the polar metabolites from the methanol/water layer and the non-polar metabolites from the chloroform layer. Following drying, we re-solubilized the fractions for analysis with a 600 MHz NMR spectrometer equipped with a 1...
November 16, 2017: Metabolites
L J Henderson, N P Evans, B J Heidinger, K A Herborn, K E Arnold
Glucocorticoids, including corticosterone (CORT), have been suggested to provide a physiological link between ecological conditions and fitness. Specifically, CORT, which is elevated in response to harsh conditions, is predicted to be correlated with reduced fitness. Yet, empirical studies show that CORT can be non-significantly, positively and negatively linked with fitness. Divergent environmental conditions between years or study systems may influence whether CORT is linked to fitness. To test this, we monitored free-living blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) during breeding over 3 years...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Pablo Sánchez-Virosta, Silvia Espín, Sandra Ruiz, Juha-Pekka Salminen, Antonio J García-Fernández, Tapio Eeva
Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous metalloid classified as one of the most hazardous substances, but information about its exposure and effects in free-living passerines is lacking. The aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of an As manipulation experiment on survival, growth and physiology of great tits (Parus major). Wild P. major nestlings inhabiting an unpolluted area were dosed with water, 0.2 or 1 μg g(-1) d(-1) of sodium arsenite (Control, Low and High As groups), whereas those living in a metal-polluted area were dosed with water (Smelter group)...
November 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Edwin R Price, Edward M Dzialowski
Endothermy is a conspicuous and important adaptation in birds. Even though juvenile and adult birds are endothermic and maintain a constant, high body temperature by means of internal heat production, they begin life expressing an ectothermic phenotype. Depending on where a species falls along a continuum of maturity at hatching, from precocial to altricial, they begin to express endothermic traits either close to the time of hatching or as nestlings over a period of 1-3 weeks. Developing endothermy requires attaining a high basal metabolic rate and associated aerobic scope to produce sufficient internal heat, insulation to retain the internally produced heat, and a thermostat that "turns on" heat production in response to cooling ambient temperatures...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
R Boonyarittichaikij, E Verbrugghe, D Dekeukeleire, R De Beelde, L O Rouffaer, R Haesendonck, D Strubbe, W Mattheus, S Bertrand, F Pasmans, D Bonte, K Verheyen, L Lens, A Martel
Endemic infections with the common avian pathogen Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) may incur a significant cost on the host population. In this study, we determined the potential of endemic Salmonella infections to reduce the reproductive success of blue (Cyanistes caeruleus) and great (Parus major) tits by correlating eggshell infection with reproductive parameters. The fifth egg of each clutch was collected from nest boxes in 19 deciduous forest fragments...
2017: PloS One
Shuping Zhang, Xianglong Xu, Weiwei Wang, Wenyu Yang, Wei Liang
Within year individual variation in the timing of seasonal reproduction within wild bird populations in highly seasonal environments can be pronounced, but the molecular and physiological mechanisms responsible for this variation are unclear. We investigated the relationship between Clock gene poly-Q length, activation of the HPG endocrine axis, and the timing of breeding behavior, in a wild population of the Asian short-toed lark (Calandrella cheleensis) in Inner Mongolia, China. Six variants of Clock gene poly-Q alleles were identified in this population...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Vikki Neville, Clare Andrews, Daniel Nettle, Melissa Bateson
Early-life adversity is associated with increased vulnerability to depression in humans, and depression-like phenotypes in animals. However, different types of adverse experience may leave different signatures in adulthood. We experimentally manipulated the Amount of food delivered to European starling nestlings and the begging Effort required to obtain food during early development. Here, we report behavioural data in adulthood from a task that assessed sensitivity to shifts in reward magnitude characteristic of depression-like low mood...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Matthias Schlachter, Tobias Fechter, Sonja Adebahr, Tanja Schimek-Jasch, Ursula Nestle, Katja Bühler
PURPOSE: To explore the benefit of using 4D multimodal visualization and interaction techniques for defined radiotherapy planning tasks over a treatment planning system used in clinical routine (C-TPS) without dedicated 4D visualization. METHODS: We developed a 4D visualization system (4D-VS) with dedicated rendering and fusion of 4D multimodal imaging data based on a list of requirements developed in collaboration with radiation oncologists. We conducted a user evaluation in which the benefits of our approach were evaluated in comparison to C-TPS for three specific tasks: assessment of internal target volume (ITV) delineation, classification of tumor location in peripheral or central, and assessment of dose distribution...
October 29, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Sabrina M McNew, Dale H Clayton
The muscid genus Philornis comprises approximately 50 described species of flies, nearly all of which are obligate parasites of nestling birds. Philornis species are native to the Neotropics and widely distributed from Florida to Argentina. Most research on this group has focused on P. downsi, which was introduced to the Gal´apagos Islands in the late twentieth century. Although Philornis parasitism kills nestlings in several native host species, nowhere do the effects seem more severe than in P. downsi in the Galápagos...
October 20, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
Alyxandra E Pikus, Sarah Guindre-Parker, Dustin R Rubenstein
The steroid hormone testosterone not only plays an important role in gamete production, but also influences social and aggressive behavior. Testosterone varies seasonally, peaking when competition for mates is high and declining during parental care. Surprisingly, little is known about how testosterone mediates social conflict and parental care behavior in highly social species like cooperative breeders, where group members compete for breeding opportunities and provide parental or alloparental care. We examined how testosterone differs across breeding roles in the tropical cooperatively breeding superb starling, Lamprotornis superbus...
November 13, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
Chia-Fang Ho, Shr-Wei Huang, Kun-Wei Chan, Jian-Shin Wu, Shu-Ping Chang, Chi-Young Wang
Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) is characterised by degenerative feather, feather dystrophy, and beak deformity. Sometimes acute forms can lead to fatal cases in nestlings. The worldwide distribution of this disease affects numerous species of parrots with an average prevalence of 40%, including in Taiwan. The pathogen of PBFD is beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), which is a single-stranded circular DNA virus, circovirus. To date, hemagglutination and PCR assays have been routinely used to detect this virus...
October 19, 2017: Archives of Virology
Åsa M M Berglund
Birds are widely used to assess metal contamination in the environment and there are different approaches to determine the exposure level in individuals, some being destructive (collection of soft tissues) and some non-destructive (blood, feathers and excrement). The use of blood to detect internal concentrations of metals is an acknowledged method, but to what extent blood can predict the concentrations in soft tissues has been less well evaluated in wild terrestrial birds. The same is true for excrements...
October 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Isabel S Winney, Julia Schroeder, Shinichi Nakagawa, Yu-Hsun Hsu, Mirre Jp Simons, Alfredo Sánchez-Tójar, Maria-Elena Mannarelli, Terry Burke
How has evolution led to the variation in behavioural phenotypes (personalities) in a population? Knowledge of whether personality is heritable, and to what degree it is influenced by the social environment, is crucial to understanding its evolutionary significance, yet few estimates are available from natural populations. We tracked three behavioural traits during different life-history stages in a pedigreed population of wild house sparrows. Using a quantitative genetic approach, we demonstrated heritability in adult exploration, and in nestling activity after accounting for fixed effects, but not in adult boldness...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Thomas W Custer, Christine M Custer, Paul M Dummer, Emilie Bigorgne, Elias M Oziolor, Natalie Karouna-Renier, Sandra Schultz, Richard A Erickson, Kevin Aagaard, Cole W Matson
Tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor, nestlings were collected from 60 sites in the Great Lakes, which included multiple sites within 27 Areas of Concern (AOCs) and six sites not listed as AOCs from 2010 to 2014. Nestlings, approximately 12 days-of-age, were evaluated for ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity, chromosomal damage, and six measures of oxidative stress. Data on each of these biomarkers were divided into four equal numbered groups from the highest to lowest values and the groups were compared to contaminant concentrations using multivariate analysis...
October 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Thomas G Bean, Barnett A Rattner, Rebecca S Lazarus, Daniel D Day, S Rebekah Burket, Bryan W Brooks, Samuel P Haddad, William W Bowerman
Exposure of wildlife to Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) is likely to occur but studies of risk are limited. One exposure pathway that has received attention is trophic transfer of APIs in a water-fish-osprey food chain. Samples of water, fish plasma and osprey plasma were collected from Delaware River and Bay, and analyzed for 21 APIs. Only 2 of 21 analytes exceeded method detection limits in osprey plasma (acetaminophen and diclofenac) with plasma levels typically 2-3 orders of magnitude below human therapeutic concentrations (HTC)...
October 9, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Sueppong Gowachirapant, Nidhi Jaiswal, Alida Melse-Boonstra, Valeria Galetti, Sara Stinca, Ian Mackenzie, Susan Thomas, Tinku Thomas, Pattanee Winichagoon, Krishnamachari Srinivasan, Michael B Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency during pregnancy might be associated with reduced intelligence quotient (IQ) score in offspring. We assessed the effect of iodine supplementation in mildly iodine-deficient pregnant women on neurodevelopment of their offspring in areas where schoolchildren were iodine sufficient. METHODS: In this randomised, placebo-controlled trial, pregnant women in Bangalore, India, and Bangkok, Thailand, were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 200 μg iodine orally once a day or placebo until delivery...
November 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Timothy Myhill, Warwick Coulson, Paul Nixon, Simon Royal, Terry McCormack, Nabil Kerrouche
INTRODUCTION: Poor adherence to acne treatment may lead to unnecessary treatments, increased healthcare costs, and reduced quality of life (QoL). This multicenter study evaluated the effect of supplementary patient education material (SEM) (a short video, information card, and additional information available online) on treatment adherence and satisfaction among acne patients treated with the fixed-dose combination adapalene 0.1%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel (A/BPO) in primary care clinics versus (1) standard-of-care patient education (SOCPE) (package insert and oral instruction) and (2) SOCPE plus more frequent clinic visits...
December 2017: Dermatology and Therapy
Stephanie Y Chin, William A Hopkins, Daniel A Cristol
Mercury is an environmental contaminant that impairs avian reproduction, but the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying this effect are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifetime dietary exposure to mercury (1.2 µg/g wet weight in food) impacted avian parental behaviors, and how this might influence reproductive success. To distinguish between the direct effects of mercury on parents and offspring, we created four treatment groups of captive-bred zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), with control and mercury-exposed adults raising cross-fostered control or mercury-exposed eggs (from maternal transfer)...
November 2017: Ecotoxicology
Maike Lenz, Niels Borlinghaus, Leonie Weinmann, Bettina M Nestl
Imine reductases are nicotinamide-dependent enzymes that catalyze the asymmetric reduction of various imines to the corresponding amine products. Owing to the increasing roles of chiral amines and heterocyclic compounds as intermediates for pharmaceuticals, the demand for novel selective synthesis strategies is vitally important. Recent studies have demonstrated the discovery and structural characterization of a number of stereoselective imine reductase enzymes. Here, we highlight recent progress in applying imine reductases for the formation of chiral amines and heterocycles...
October 11, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
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