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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327322/molecular-characterization-of-avian-malaria-in-the-spotless-starling-sturnus-unicolor
#1
Jaime Muriel, Jeff A Graves, Diego Gil, S Magallanes, Concepción Salaberria, Miriam Casal-López, Alfonso Marzal
We studied the prevalence and genetic diversity of malaria parasites in the poorly investigated spotless starling (Sturnus unicolor) breeding in central Spain, aiming to describe the phylogenetic relationships among them and with other haemosporidians infecting the genus Sturnus. A total of 180 nestlings and 180 adult individuals from four different breeding seasons were screened for haemosporidian parasites using a nested PCR approach for the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus. Although the malaria prevalence ranged between years, the overall prevalence was 6...
January 11, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322205/the-role-of-albumin-bilirubin-grade-and-inflammation-based-index-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-treated-with-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy
#2
Eleni Gkika, Dominik Bettinger, Leo Krafft, Michael Schultheiss, Hannes Philipp Neeff, Lars Maruschke, Michaela Schulenburg, Sonja Adebahr, Simon Kirste, Ursula Nestle, Robert Thimme, Anca-Ligia Grosu, Thomas Baptist Brunner
PURPOSE: We evaluated the prognostic accuracy of the albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade and the inflammation-based index (IBI) in estimating overall survival (OS) and toxicity in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty patients with 47 HCC lesions with a Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification stage B or C were treated with SBRT in 3-12 fractions. The ALBI grade and the IBI were calculated at different time points (baseline, during, at the end of treatment and at follow-up) and compared with the Child-Pugh (CP) score as well as other patient- and treatment-related parameters, concerning OS and toxicity...
January 10, 2018: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321248/early-life-maltreatment-predicts-adult-stress-response-in-a-long-lived-wild-bird
#3
Jacquelyn K Grace, David J Anderson
Persistent phenotypic changes due to early-life stressors are widely acknowledged, but their relevance for wild, free-living animals is poorly understood. We evaluated effects of two natural stressors experienced when young (maltreatment by adults and nutritional stress) on stress physiology in wild Nazca boobies (Sula granti) 6-8 years later, an exceptionally long interval for such studies. Maltreatment as a nestling, but not nutritional stress, was associated years later with depressed baseline corticosterone in females and elevated stress-induced corticosterone concentration [CORT] in males...
January 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317262/sensitivity-to-strain-and-shear-stress-of-isolated-mechanosensitive-enteric-neurons
#4
Eva Maria Kugler, Klaus Michel, David Kirchenbüchler, Georg Dreissen, Agnes Csiszár, Rudolf Merkel, Michael Schemann, Gemma Mazzuoli-Weber
Within the enteric nervous system, the neurons in charge to control motility of the gastrointestinal tract reside in a particular location nestled between two perpendicular muscle layers which contract and relax. We used primary cultured myenteric neurons of male guinea pigs to study mechanosensitivity of enteric neurons in isolation. Ultrafast Neuroimaging with a voltage sensitive dye technique was used to record neuronal activity in response to shear stress and strain. Strain was induced by locally deforming the elastic cell culture substrate next to a neuron...
January 6, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313303/ecologically-relevant-exposure-to-methylmercury-during-early-development-does-not-affect-adult-phenotype-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#5
Spencer A M Morran, John E Elliott, Jessica M L Young, Margaret L Eng, Niladri Basu, Tony D Williams
Methylmercury causes behavioural and reproductive effects in adult mammals via early developmental exposure. Similar studies in birds are limited and mostly focussed on aquatic systems, but recent work has reported high blood mercury concentrations in terrestrial, passerine songbirds. We used the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) as a model to explore the long-term effects of early developmental exposure to methylmercury exposure. Chicks were dosed orally with either the vehicle control, 0.0315 µg Hg/g bw/day, or 0...
January 8, 2018: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311304/chronic-anthropogenic-noise-disrupts-glucocorticoid-signaling-and-has-multiple-effects-on-fitness-in-an-avian-community
#6
Nathan J Kleist, Robert P Guralnick, Alexander Cruz, Christopher A Lowry, Clinton D Francis
Anthropogenic noise is a pervasive pollutant that decreases environmental quality by disrupting a suite of behaviors vital to perception and communication. However, even within populations of noise-sensitive species, individuals still select breeding sites located within areas exposed to high noise levels, with largely unknown physiological and fitness consequences. We use a study system in the natural gas fields of northern New Mexico to test the prediction that exposure to noise causes glucocorticoid-signaling dysfunction and decreases fitness in a community of secondary cavity-nesting birds...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305431/case-of-nasogastric-tube-dysfunction
#7
Florian Rainer, Guenther Prenner, Lukas Peter Binder, Peter Fickert, Johannes Plank
CLINICAL PRESENTATION: An elderly female patient was admitted to intensive care for prolonged vasopressor therapy and mechanical ventilation after cardiac arrest and acute percutaneous coronary intervention. Antiplatelet, thyroid hormone replacement and statin therapies were administered through a 14-French nasogastric tube (Nestlé Health Science) and enteral feeding was initiated. Correct position of the nasogastric tube was confirmed radiologically. On the seventh day in the intensive care, our patient was seen to regurgitate soft crumbs into her mouth...
January 5, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299257/marked-reduction-in-demographic-rates-and-reduced-fitness-advantage-for-early-breeding-is-not-linked-to-reduced-thermal-matching-of-breeding-time
#8
Debora Arlt, Tomas Pärt
Warmer springs may cause animals to become mistimed if advances of spring timing, including available resources and of timing of breeding occur at different speed. We used thermal sums (cumulative sum of degree days) during spring to describe the thermal progression (timing) of spring and investigate its relationship to breeding phenology and demography of a long-distant migrant bird, the northern wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe L.). We first compare 20-year trends in spring timing, breeding time, selection for breeding time, and annual demographic rates...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290059/does-heavy-metal-exposure-affect-the-condition-of-whitethroat-sylvia-communis-nestlings
#9
Katarzyna Turzańska-Pietras, Justyna Chachulska, Ludmiła Polechońska, Marta Borowiec
Anthropogenic pollution results in high concentrations of heavy metals in the environment. Due to their persistence and a high potential for bioaccumulation, metals are a real threat for birds breeding in industrial areas. The aim of the present study has been to explore the contents of heavy metals (arsenic As, cadmium Cd, chromium Cr, copper Cu, iron Fe, nickel Ni, lead Pb and zinc Zn) in the excreta of Whitethroat (Sylvia communis) nestlings living in polluted environment and to investigate the relationship between these contents and the nestlings' condition...
December 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250734/acquisition-of-uropygial-gland-microbiome-by-hoopoe-nestlings
#10
Manuel Martín-Vivaldi, Juan José Soler, Ángela Martínez-García, Laura Arco, Natalia Juárez-García-Pelayo, Magdalena Ruiz-Rodríguez, Manuel Martínez-Bueno
Mutualistic symbioses between animals and bacteria depend on acquisition of appropriate symbionts while avoiding exploitation by non-beneficial microbes. The mode of acquisition of symbionts would determine, not only the probability of encountering but also evolutionary outcomes of mutualistic counterparts. The microbiome inhabiting the uropygial gland of the European hoopoe (Upupa epops) includes a variety of bacterial strains, some of them providing antimicrobial benefits. Here, the mode of acquisition and stability of this microbiome is analyzed by means of Automated rRNA Intergenic Spacer Analysis and two different experiments...
December 18, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249477/levels-of-ambient-air-pollution-according-to-mode-of-transport-a-systematic-review
#11
Magda Cepeda, Josje Schoufour, Rosanne Freak-Poli, Chantal M Koolhaas, Klodian Dhana, Wichor M Bramer, Oscar H Franco
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists about the differences in air pollution exposure and inhalation dose between mode of transport. We aimed to review air pollution exposure and inhaled dose according to mode of transport and pollutant and their effect in terms of years of life expectancy (YLE). METHODS: In this systematic review, we searched ten online databases from inception to April 13, 2016, without language or temporal restrictions, for cohort, cross-sectional, and experimental studies that compared exposure to carbon monoxide, black carbon, nitrogen dioxide, and fine and coarse particles in active commuters (pedestrian or cyclist) and commuters using motorised transport (car, motorcycle, bus, or massive motorised transport [MMT-ie, train, subway, or metro])...
January 2017: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238321/the-development-of-motor-self-regulation-in-ravens
#12
Can Kabadayi, Ivo Jacobs, Mathias Osvath
Inhibitory control refers to the ability to stop impulses in favor of more appropriate behavior, and it constitutes one of the underlying cognitive functions associated with cognitive flexibility. Much attention has been given to cross-species comparisons of inhibitory control; however, less is known about how and when these abilities develop. Mapping the ontogeny of inhibitory control in different species may therefore reveal foundational elements behind cognitive processes and their evolution. In this study, we tested the development of motor self-regulation in raven chicks (Corvus corax), using two detour tasks that required inhibition of motor impulses to directly reach for a visible reward behind a barrier...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218270/anatomic-functional-and-molecular-imaging-in-lung-cancer-precision-radiation-therapy-treatment-response-assessment-and-radiation-therapy-personalization
#13
REVIEW
Michael MacManus, Sarah Everitt, Tanja Schimek-Jasch, X Allen Li, Ursula Nestle, Feng-Ming Spring Kong
This article reviews key imaging modalities for lung cancer patients treated with radiation therapy (RT) and considers their actual or potential contributions to critical decision-making. An international group of researchers with expertise in imaging in lung cancer patients treated with RT considered the relevant literature on modalities, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). These perspectives were coordinated to summarize the current status of imaging in lung cancer and flag developments with future implications...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217466/influence-of-corticosterone-treatment-on-nestling-begging-in-florida-scrub-jays-aphelocoma-coerulescens
#14
Emily K Elderbrock, Thomas W Small, Stephan J Schoech
Altricial young are dependent on adults for protection and food, and they display nutritional need by begging to elicit feeding from parents. Begging at high levels can be energetically expensive and attract predators; thus, an individual must balance its nutritional needs with these potential costs. Further, because a parent is limited in the amount of food it can provide, begging can contribute to both parent-offspring conflict and sibling-sibling competition. Many extrinsic and intrinsic factors may contribute to begging behavior...
December 4, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216839/rates-of-morphological-evolution-asymmetry-and-morphological-integration-of-shell-shape-in-scallops
#15
Emma Sherratt, Jeanne M Serb, Dean C Adams
BACKGROUND: Rates of morphological evolution vary across different taxonomic groups, and this has been proposed as one of the main drivers for the great diversity of organisms on Earth. Of the extrinsic factors pertaining to this variation, ecological hypotheses feature prominently in observed differences in phenotypic evolutionary rates across lineages. But complex organisms are inherently modular, comprising distinct body parts that can be differentially affected by external selective pressures...
December 8, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202116/developmental-corticosterone-treatment-does-not-program-immune-responses-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#16
Jennifer L Grindstaff, Loren Merrill
Developmental conditions may impact the expression of immune traits throughout an individual's life. Early-life challenges may lead to immunological constraints that are mediated by endocrine-immune interactions. In particular, individual differences in the ability to mount immune responses may be programmed by exposure to stressors or glucocorticoid hormones during development. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally elevated levels of the glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone during the nestling and fledgling periods in captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)...
June 2017: Journal of experimental zoology. Part A, Ecological and integrative physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194840/parasites-favor-intermediate-nestling-masses-and-brood-sizes-in-cliff-swallows
#17
Charles R Brown, Mary Bomberger Brown
A challenge of life-history theory is to explain why animal body size does not continue to increase, given various advantages of larger size. In birds, body size of nestlings and the number of nestlings produced (brood size) have occasionally been shown to be constrained by higher predation on larger nestlings and those from larger broods. Parasites also are known to have strong effects on life-history traits in birds, but whether parasitism can be a driver for stabilizing selection on nestling body size or brood size is unknown...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170593/the-use-of-the-nest-for-parental-roosting-and-thermal-consequences-of-the-nest-for-nestlings-and-parents
#18
Jan-Åke Nilsson, Andreas Nord
Abstract: At temperate latitudes, altricial birds and their nestlings need to handle night temperatures well below thermoneutrality during the breeding season. Thus, energy costs of thermoregulation might constrain nestling growth, and low nocturnal temperatures might require resources that parents could otherwise have invested into nestlings during the day. To manipulate parental work rate, we performed brood size manipulations in breeding marsh tits (Poecile palustris). Nest box temperatures were always well above ambient temperature and increased with increasing brood size...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168619/gut-microbes-limit-growth-in-house-sparrows-nestlings-passer-domesticus-but-not-through-limitations-in-digestive-capacity
#19
Kevin D Kohl, Antonio Brun, Seth R Bordenstein, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal, William H Karasov
Recent research often lauds the services and beneficial effects of host-associated microbes on animals. However, hosting these microbes may come at a cost. For example, germ-free and antibiotic-treated birds generally grow faster than their conventional counterparts. In the wild, juvenile body size is correlated with survival, so hosting a microbiota may incur a fitness cost. Avian altricial nestlings represent an interesting study system in which to investigate these interactions, given that they exhibit the fastest growth rates among vertebrates, and growth is limited by their digestive capacity...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166965/environmental-determinants-of-haemosporidian-parasite-prevalence-in-a-declining-population-of-tree-swallows
#20
Audrey Turcotte, Marc Bélisle, Fanie Pelletier, Dany Garant
The prevalence of vector-borne parasites such as haemosporidian species is influenced by several environmental factors. While the negative effects of parasitism on hosts are well documented, these can also be amplified by interactions with environmental stressors, many of which are anthropogenic. Yet, we know little about the possible effects of anthropogenic perturbations on parasite prevalence. The goals of this study were to assess the prevalence and environmental determinants of haemosporidian parasites in a declining population of Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) living in an agricultural landscape in southern Québec, Canada...
November 23, 2017: Parasitology
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