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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925528/relatedness-of-wildlife-and-livestock-avian-isolates-of-the-nosocomial-pathogen-acinetobacter-baumannii-to-lineages-spread-in-hospitals-worldwide
#1
Gottfried Wilharm, Evelyn Skiebe, Paul G Higgins, Marie T Poppel, Ulrike Blaschke, Sarah Leser, Christine Heider, Magdalena Heindorf, Paul Brauner, Udo Jäckel, Karin Böhland, Christiane Cuny, Andżelina Łopińska, Piotr Kaminski, Mariusz Kasprzak, Marcin Bochenski, Olaf Ciebiera, Marcin Tobółka, Katarzyna M Żołnierowicz, Joachim Siekiera, Harald Seifert, Stéphanie Gagné, Suzana P Salcedo, Michael Kaatz, Franziska Layer, Jennifer K Bender, Stephan Fuchs, Torsten Semmler, Yvonne Pfeifer, Leszek Jerzak
The natural habitats and potential reservoirs of the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii are poorly defined. Here, we put forth and tested the hypothesis of avian reservoirs of A. baumannii. We screened tracheal and rectal swab samples from livestock (chicken, geese) and wild birds (white stork nestlings) and isolated A. baumannii from 3% of sampled chicken (n=220), 8% of geese (n=40) and 25% of white stork nestlings (n=661). Virulence of selected avian A. baumannii isolates was comparable to that of clinical isolates in the Galleria mellonella infection model...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922382/formal-comment-to-soler-et-al-great-spotted-cuckoo-nestlings-have-no-antipredatory-effect-on-magpie-or-carrion-crow-host-nests-in-southern-spain
#2
Daniela Canestrari, Diana Bolopo, Ted C J Turlings, Gregory Röder, José M Marcos, Vittorio Baglione
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916776/nestlings-reduce-their-predation-risk-by-attending-to-predator-information-encoded-within-conspecific-alarm-calls
#3
Ahmad Barati, Paul G McDonald
Predation is one of the main threats to altricial nestlings, with predators often locating nests via eavesdropping on begging signals. Nestlings may be able to adjust their begging based on the current level of risk by monitoring both intra- and interspecific alarm calls near the nest. We show that noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) nestlings can differentiate between terrestrial and aerial alarm calls of their own species, as they suppressed begging behaviour for longer in response to terrestrial rather than aerial alarm calls...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904178/offspring-telomere-length-in-the-long-lived-alpine-swift-is-negatively-related-to-the-age-of-their-biological-father-and-foster-mother
#4
François Criscuolo, Sandrine Zahn, Pierre Bize
A growing body of studies is showing that offspring telomere length (TL) can be influenced by the age of their parents. Such a relationship might be explained by variation in TL at conception (gamete effect) and/or by alteration of early growth conditions in species providing parental care. In a long-lived bird with bi-parental care, the Alpine swift (Apus melba), we exchanged an uneven number of 2 to 4-day-old nestlings between pairs as part of a brood size manipulation. Nestling TL was measured at 50 days after hatching, which allowed investigation of the influence of the age of both their biological and foster parents on offspring TL, after controlling for the manipulation...
September 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898524/enzymatic-addition-of-alcohols-to-terpenes-by-squalene-hopene-cyclase-variants
#5
Lisa C Kühnel, Bettina M Nestl, Bernhard Hauer
Squalene hopene cyclases (SHC) catalyze the polycyclization of squalene into a mixture of hopene and hopanol. Recently, amino acid residues lining the catalytic cavity of the SHC from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius were replaced by small and large hydrophobic amino acids. The alteration of leucine 607 to phenylalanine resulted in increased enzymatic activity towards the formation of an intermolecular farnesyl-farnesyl ether product from farnesol. Furthermore, the addition of small chain alcohols acting as nucleophiles led to the formation of non-natural ether-linked terpenoids and thus, to a significant alteration of the product pattern compared to wildtype...
September 12, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898219/nestl%C3%A3-moves-into-gut-microbiome-tests
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886503/developing-and-testing-transferability-and-feasibility-of-a-model-for-educators-using-simulation-based-learning-a-european-collaboration
#7
Rikke Buus Bøje, Andrew Bland, Andrew Sutton, Tina Hartvigsen, Leena Hannula, Jaana Maija Koivisto, Eija Raussi-Lehto, Stephen Prescott
BACKGROUND: There is a pragmatic and often inconsistent approach of embedding simulation-based learning into nursing programmes. This paper details a European collaboration that designed a model for educator facilitation for educators utilizing simulation-based education. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to develop a model to educate the educators who deliver simulation-based learning and to test to which extent this model could be transferred to education providers in different national settings...
August 25, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882238/unraveling-vascular-inflammation-from-immunology-to-imaging
#8
REVIEW
Heather L Teague, Mark A Ahlman, Abass Alavi, Denisa D Wagner, Andrew H Lichtman, Matthias Nahrendorf, Filip K Swirski, Frank Nestle, Joel M Gelfand, Mariana J Kaplan, Steven Grinspoon, Paul M Ridker, David E Newby, Ahmed Tawakol, Zahi A Fayad, Nehal N Mehta
Inflammation is a critical factor in early atherosclerosis and its progression to myocardial infarction. The search for valid surrogate markers of arterial vascular inflammation led to the increasing use of positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Indeed, vascular inflammation is associated with future risk for myocardial infarction and can be modulated with short-term therapies, such as statins, that mitigate cardiovascular risk. However, to better understand vascular inflammation and its mechanisms, a panel was recently convened of world experts in immunology, human translational research, and positron emission tomographic vascular imaging...
September 12, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875066/genes-of-the-major-histocompatibility-complex-highlight-interactions-of-the-innate-and-adaptive-immune-system
#9
Barbara Lukasch, Helena Westerdahl, Maria Strandh, Hans Winkler, Yoshan Moodley, Felix Knauer, Herbert Hoi
BACKGROUND: A well-functioning immune defence is crucial for fitness, but our knowledge about the immune system and its complex interactions is still limited. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are involved in T-cell mediated adaptive immune responses, but MHC is also highly upregulated during the initial innate immune response. The aim of our study was therefore to determine to what extent the highly polymorphic MHC is involved in interactions of the innate and adaptive immune defence and if specific functional MHC alleles (FA) or heterozygosity at the MHC are more important...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864154/novel-avian-oropharyngeal-trichomonads-isolated-from-european-turtle-doves-streptopelia-turtur-and-racing-pigeons-columba-livia-genetic-and-morphometric-characterisation-of-clonal-cultures
#10
M C Martínez-Herrero, M M Garijo-Toledo, D Liebhart, P Ganas, R A Martínez-Díaz, F Ponce-Gordo, A Carrero-Ruiz, M Hess, M T Gómez-Muñoz
Extensive diversity has been described within the avian oropharyngeal trichomonad complex in recent years. In this study we developed clonal cultures from four isolates selected by their different ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 (ITS) genotype and their association with gross lesions of avian trichomonosis. Isolates were obtained from an adult racing pigeon and a nestling of Eurasian eagle owl with macroscopic lesions, and from a juvenile wood pigeon and an European turtle dove without clinical signs. Multi-locus sequence typing analysis of the ITS, small subunit of ribosomal rRNA (SSUrRNA) and Fe-hydrogenase (Fe-hyd) genes together with a morphological study by optical and scanning electron microscopy was performed...
August 31, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861249/influence-of-density-dependent-competition-on-foraging-and-migratory-behavior-of-a-subtropical-colonial-seabird
#11
Juliet S Lamb, Yvan G Satgé, Patrick G R Jodice
Density-dependent competition for food resources influences both foraging ecology and reproduction in a variety of animals. The relationship between colony size, local prey depletion, and reproductive output in colonial central-place foragers has been extensively studied in seabirds; however, most studies have focused on effects of intraspecific competition during the breeding season, while little is known about whether density-dependent resource depletion influences individual migratory behavior outside the breeding season...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861222/supplementary-feeding-increases-nestling-feather-corticosterone-early-in-the-breeding-season-in-house-sparrows
#12
Noraine Salleh Hudin, Liesbeth De Neve, Diederik Strubbe, Graham D Fairhurst, Carl Vangestel, Will J Peach, Luc Lens
Several studies on birds have proposed that a lack of invertebrate prey in urbanized areas could be the main cause for generally lower levels of breeding success compared to rural habitats. Previous work on house sparrows Passer domesticus found that supplemental feeding in urbanized areas increased breeding success but did not contribute to population growth. Here, we hypothesize that supplementary feeding allows house sparrows to achieve higher breeding success but at the cost of lower nestling quality. As abundant food supplies may permit both high- and low-quality nestlings to survive, we also predict that within-brood variation in proxies of nestling quality would be larger for supplemental food broods than for unfed broods...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860543/spatial-complexity-of-carcass-location-influences-vertebrate-scavenger-efficiency-and-species-composition
#13
Joshua B Smith, Lauren J Laatsch, James C Beasley
Scavenging plays an important role in shaping communities through inter- and intra-specific interactions. Although vertebrate scavenger efficiency and species composition is likely influenced by the spatial complexity of environments, heterogeneity in carrion distribution has largely been disregarded in scavenging studies. We tested this hypothesis by experimentally placing juvenile bird carcasses on the ground and in nests in trees to simulate scenarios of nestling bird carrion availability. We used cameras to record scavengers removing carcasses and elapsed time to removal...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855510/mining-novel-starch-converting-glycoside-hydrolase-70-enzymes-from-the-nestl%C3%A3-culture-collection-genome-database-the-lactobacillus-reuteri-ncc-2613-gtfb
#14
Joana Gangoiti, Sander S van Leeuwen, Xiangfeng Meng, Stéphane Duboux, Christina Vafiadi, Tjaard Pijning, Lubbert Dijkhuizen
The Glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 70 originally was established for glucansucrases of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) converting sucrose into α-glucan polymers. In recent years we have identified 3 subfamilies of GH70 enzymes (designated GtfB, GtfC and GtfD) as 4,6-α-glucanotransferases, cleaving (α1 → 4)-linkages in maltodextrins/starch and synthesizing new (α1 → 6)-linkages. In this work, 106 putative GtfBs were identified in the Nestlé Culture Collection genome database with ~2700 genomes, and the L...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854717/maternal-hyperglycemia-in-singleton-pregnancies-conceived-by-ivf-may-be-modified-by-first-trimester-bmi
#15
S Cai, P Natarajan, J K Y Chan, P C Wong, K H Tan, K M Godfrey, P D Gluckman, L P C Shek, F Yap, M S Kramer, S Y Chan, Y S Chong
STUDY QUESTION: Does IVF independently increase the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and is this increase in risk modified by maternal body mass index? SUMMARY ANSWER: IVF appears to be an independent risk factor for GDM and elevated blood glucose levels in overweight women (BMI > 25 kg/m2). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: IVF has been associated with increased risk of GDM, but most previous studies did not adequately assess confounding or effect modification by other risk factors...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854191/use-of-noninvasive-bug-eggs-to-enable-comparative-inferences-on-genetic-mating-system-with-and-without-parental-information-a-study-in-a-cattle-egret-colony
#16
Carolina Isabel Miño, Elaine Dantas de Souza, Emmanuel Moralez-Silva, Talita Alvarenga Valdes, Vera Lúcia Cortiço Corrêa Rodrigues, Sílvia Nassif Del Lama
Colonial waterbirds such as herons, egrets and spoonbills exhibit ecological characteristics that could have promoted the evolution of conspecific brood parasitism and extra-pair copulation. However, an adequate characterization of the genetic mating systems of this avian group has been hindered by the lack of samples of elusive candidate parents which precluded conducting conventional parentage allocation tests. Here, we investigate the genetic mating system of the invasive cattle egret using hematophagous insects contained in fake eggs to collect blood from incubating adults in a wild breeding colony...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852585/implications-of-nutritional-stress-as-nestling-or-fledgling-on-subsequent-attractiveness-and-fecundity-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#17
Mariam Honarmand, E Tobias Krause, Marc Naguib
The conditions an organism experiences during early development can have profound and long lasting effects on its subsequent behavior, attractiveness, and life history decisions. Most previous studies have exposed individuals to different conditions throughout development until nutritional independence. Yet under natural conditions, individuals may experience limitations for much shorter periods due to transient environmental fluctuations. Here, we used zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) in captivity to determine if conditions experienced during distinctly different early developmental phases contribute differently to male and female attractiveness and subsequent reproduction...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843061/cross-cultural-adaptation-and-validation-of-the-karitane-parenting-confidence-scale-of-maternal-confidence-assessment-for-use-in-brazil
#18
Lívia W Pereira, Juliana R Bernardi, Salete de Matos, Clecio H da Silva, Marcelo Z Goldani, Vera L Bosa
OBJECTIVES: To transculturally adapt and validate the Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale to the Brazilian Portuguese language and culture and verify the combination of the results with the maternal sociodemographic characteristics. METHODOLOGY: This is a validation and transcultural adaptation nestled in a longitudinal and observational study in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, assessing mother-infant pairs from different gestational and perinatal environments. The original authors authorized the translation into Brazilian Portuguese, unified version creation, back-translation, analysis by specialists, final version implementation, and acceptance...
August 23, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840789/ultradian-rhythmicity-in-sleep-wakefulness-is-related-to-color-in-nestling-barn-owls
#19
Madeleine F Scriba, Isabelle Henry, Alexei L Vyssotski, Jakob C Mueller, Niels C Rattenborg, Alexandre Roulin
The possession of a rhythm is usually described as an important adaptation to regular changing environmental conditions such as the light-dark cycle. However, recent studies have suggested plasticity in the expression of a rhythm depending on life history and environmental factors. Barn owl ( Tyto alba) nestlings show variations in behavior and physiology in relation to the size of black feather spots, a trait associated with many behavioral and physiological phenotypes including the circadian expression of corticosterone and the regulation of body mass...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831177/condition-dependence-of-pheomelanin-based-coloration-in-nuthatches-sitta-europaea-suggests-a-detoxifying-function-implications-for-the-evolution-of-juvenile-plumage-patterns
#20
Ismael Galván
Adult-like juvenile plumage patterns often signal genotypic quality to parents. During adulthood, the same patterns often signal quality to mates. This has led to assume that adult-like juvenile plumage is a developmental consequence of sexual selection operating in adults. Many of these patterns are produced by the pigment pheomelanin, whose synthesis may help remove toxic excess cysteine. Excess cysteine is likely to arise under conditions of relatively low stress, such as those experienced by nestling birds...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
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