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speech and writing

Jürgen Keller, Martin Gorges, Helena E A Aho-Özhan, Ingo Uttner, Erich Schneider, Jan Kassubek, Elmar H Pinkhardt, Albert C Ludolph, Dorothée Lulé
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder with pathological involvement of upper and lower motoneurons, subsequently leading to progressive loss of motor and speech abilities. In addition, cognitive functions are impaired in a subset of patients. To evaluate these potential deficits in severely physically impaired ALS patients, eye-tracking is a promising means to conduct cognitive tests. The present article focuses on how eye movements, an indirect means of communication for physically disabled patients, can be utilized to allow for detailed neuropsychological assessment...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Marilyn A Nippold
Adolescents with developmental language disorders often do not receive the type of intervention that would improve their ability to speak, listen, read, and write effectively. Part of the problem is that many of these young people show no obvious symptoms of a language disorder, yet they struggle on a daily basis to succeed at school-related tasks that require a sophisticated level of language development. This article discusses some of the challenges these students face and makes suggestions for what could be done to address the issues...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Monik Favart, Anna Potocki, Lucie Broc, Pauline Quémart, Josie Bernicot, Thierry Olive
The goal of this study was to investigate the management of cohesion by children and adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) when writing a narrative in a communicative situation. Twelve children with SLI (from 7 to 11 years old) and 12 adolescents with SLI (from 12 to 18 years old) were chronological age-matched with 24 typically developing (TD) children and 24 TD adolescents. All participants attended mainstream classes: children in elementary schools and adolescents in middle and high schools...
September 23, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
D T Truong, L D Shriberg, S D Smith, K L Chapman, A R Scheer-Cohen, M M C DeMille, A K Adams, A Q Nato, E M Wijsman, J D Eicher, J R Gruen
Verbal trait disorders encompass a wide range of conditions and are marked by deficits in five domains that impair a person's ability to communicate: speech, language, reading, spelling, and writing. Nonword repetition is a robust endophenotype for verbal trait disorders that is sensitive to cognitive processes critical to verbal development, including auditory processing, phonological working memory, and motor planning and programming. In the present study, we present a six-generation extended pedigree with a history of verbal trait disorders...
December 2016: Human Genetics
Karen A Erickson, Lori A Geist
Understanding the characteristics of students with complex communication needs and significant cognitive disabilities is an important first step toward creating the kinds of supports and services required to help them successfully access the general education curriculum, achieve grade-level standards, and improve overall communication competence. The First Contact Survey was designed to collect important information about students with significant cognitive disabilities who were eligible to take the Dynamic Learning Maps™ (DLM(®)) alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards...
September 2016: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
Mateja Smogavec, Alison Cleall, Juliane Hoyer, Damien Lederer, Marie-Cécile Nassogne, Elizabeth E Palmer, Marie Deprez, Valérie Benoit, Isabelle Maystadt, Charlotte Noakes, Alejandro Leal, Marie Shaw, Jozef Gecz, Lucy Raymond, André Reis, Deborah Shears, Knut Brockmann, Christiane Zweier
BACKGROUND: Heterozygous copy number variants (CNVs) or sequence variants in the contactin-associated protein 2 gene CNTNAP2 have been discussed as risk factors for a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Bi-allelic aberrations in this gene are causative for an autosomal-recessive disorder with epilepsy, severe intellectual disability (ID) and cortical dysplasia (CDFES). As the number of reported individuals is still limited, we aimed at a further characterisation of the full mutational and clinical spectrum...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Medical Genetics
Frank Domahs, Katharina Blessing, Christina Kauschke, Ulrike Domahs
Written German is characterized by an underrepresentation of prosody. During writing acquisition, children have to tackle the question which prosodic features are realized by what means - if any. We examined traces of speech prosody in German children's writing to dictation. A sample of 79 second graders were asked to write down eight sentences to dictation. We analyzed three potential reflections of speech prosody in children's dictations: (a) Merging of preposition and definite article, potentially preferred after monosyllabic prepositions as in this case preposition and article may melt to the canonical trochaic foot in German...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
David Anaki, Rosalind Goldenberg, Haim Devisheim, Diana Rosenfelder, Lou Falik, Idit Harif
NG is an architect who suffered a left occipital-parietal hemorrhage cerebral vascular accident (CVA) in 2000, resulting in aphasia of Wernicke and conduction types. He was characterized with fluent paraphasic speech, decreased repetition, and impaired object naming. Comprehension was relatively preserved but reading and writing were severely compromised, as well as his auditory working memory. Despite a grim prognosis he underwent intensive aphasia therapy, lasting from 2001 to 2010, at the Center for Cognitive Rehabilitation of the Brain Injured at the Feuerstein Institute...
June 23, 2016: NeuroRehabilitation
Elizabeth Ann Danto
Just before and after the end of World War I, Sigmund Freud took on an activist role and in his writings and speeches, redirected the concept of war trauma from individual failure to a larger issue of community responsibility. Testifying in Vienna as an expert witness for the state, Freud said that the military psychiatrists-not the soldiers-had "acted like machine guns behind the front" and were the "immediate cause of all war neurosis." Freud was called on by the legal community when Julius Wagner-Jauregg, a future Nobel Prize winner (and also future Nazi Party adherent), head of the municipal Clinic for Psychiatry and Nervous Diseases, was accused of the lethal use of electrotherapy on shell-shocked soldiers...
June 17, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Lindsey Thiel, Karen Sage, Paul Conroy
BACKGROUND: Improving email writing in people with aphasia could enhance their ability to communicate, promote interaction and reduce isolation. Spelling therapies have been effective in improving single-word writing. However, there has been limited evidence on how to achieve changes to everyday writing tasks such as email writing in people with aphasia. One potential area that has been largely unexplored in the literature is the potential use of assistive writing technologies, despite some initial evidence that assistive writing software use can lead to qualitative and quantitative improvements to spontaneous writing...
June 14, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Mary Iype, Geetha Saradakutty, Puthuvathra Abdul Mohammed Kunju, Devi Mohan, Muttathu Krishnapanicker Chandrasekharan Nair, Babu George, Shahanaz M Ahamed
BACKGROUND: Few papers address the comprehensive prognosis in infantile spasms and look into the seizure profile and psychomotor outcome. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to follow up children with infantile spasms to study: a) the etiology, demographics, semiology, electroencephalogram (EEG), and radiological pattern; b) seizure control, psychomotor development, and EEG resolution with treatment; c) the effects of various factors on the control of spasms, resolution of EEG changes, and psychomotor development at 3-year follow-up...
April 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Anneliese Menninger
Freud's authorship is founded on three arguments: 1) the reasoning of the article is close to Charcot's lectures which Freud had just translated; 2) there is a specific Freudian core thesis, common to the article and his later writings, namely the notion of an associative speech area extending between the "motor fields of the cortex and those of the optic and auditory nerves" and touching them like "corners" of a continuous field; 3) general observations on the revision or non- revision of articles taken over from the 1st to the 2nd edition of Villaret...
2016: Luzifer-Amor: Zeitschrift Zur Geschichte der Psychoanalyse
Janaki M Torrence, Carolyn R Baylor, Kathryn M Yorkston, Kristie A Spencer
PURPOSE: In speech-language pathology, there is increasing attention on participation-focused interventions to optimize participation in valued life roles. The purpose of this study was to investigate how speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the United States address life participation in therapy programs, as well as their opinions regarding barriers and facilitators to participation-focused intervention. METHOD: An online questionnaire presented case scenarios for aphasia, dysarthria, and laryngectomy to 66 SLPs who have worked with adults...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Marian C Brady, Helen Kelly, Jon Godwin, Pam Enderby, Pauline Campbell
BACKGROUND: Aphasia is an acquired language impairment following brain damage that affects some or all language modalities: expression and understanding of speech, reading, and writing. Approximately one third of people who have a stroke experience aphasia. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of speech and language therapy (SLT) for aphasia following stroke. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 9 September 2015), CENTRAL (2015, Issue 5) and other Cochrane Library Databases (CDSR, DARE, HTA, to 22 September 2015), MEDLINE (1946 to September 2015), EMBASE (1980 to September 2015), CINAHL (1982 to September 2015), AMED (1985 to September 2015), LLBA (1973 to September 2015), and SpeechBITE (2008 to September 2015)...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Eiji Aramaki, Shuko Shikata, Mai Miyabe, Ayae Kinoshita
Little is known about the relationship between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and changes to language abilities. Here, we used the revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS-R) to identify suspected MCI in elderly individuals. We then analyzed written and spoken narratives to compare the language abilities between study participants with and without MCI in order to explore the relationship between cognitive and language abilities, and to identify a possible indicator for the early detection of MCI and dementia. We recruited 22 people aged 74 to 86 years (mean: 78...
2016: PloS One
Kim McMillan
Changes in healthcare organizations are inevitable and occurring at unprecedented rates. Such changes greatly impact nurses and their work, yet these experiences are rarely explored. Organizational change discourses remain grounded in perspectives that explore and explain systems, often not the people within them. Change processes in healthcare organizations informed by such organizational discourses validate only certain perspectives and forms of knowledge. This fosters exclusionary practices, limiting the capacity of certain individuals or groups of individuals to effectively contribute to change discourses and processes...
September 2016: Nursing Inquiry
Carolee J Winstein, Joel Stein, Ross Arena, Barbara Bates, Leora R Cherney, Steven C Cramer, Frank Deruyter, Janice J Eng, Beth Fisher, Richard L Harvey, Catherine E Lang, Marilyn MacKay-Lyons, Kenneth J Ottenbacher, Sue Pugh, Mathew J Reeves, Lorie G Richards, William Stiers, Richard D Zorowitz
PURPOSE: The aim of this guideline is to provide a synopsis of best clinical practices in the rehabilitative care of adults recovering from stroke. METHODS: Writing group members were nominated by the committee chair on the basis of their previous work in relevant topic areas and were approved by the American Heart Association (AHA) Stroke Council's Scientific Statement Oversight Committee and the AHA's Manuscript Oversight Committee. The panel reviewed relevant articles on adults using computerized searches of the medical literature through 2014...
June 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Lisa A Vinney, Miriam van Mersbergen, Nadine P Connor, Lyn S Turkstra
OBJECTIVES: Self-regulation (SR) relies on the capacity to modify behavior. This capacity may diminish with use and result in self-regulatory depletion (SRD), or the reduced ability to engage in future SR efforts. If the SRD effect applies to vocal behavior, it may hinder success during behavioral voice treatment. Thus, this proof-of-concept study sought to determine whether SRD affects vocal behavior change and if so, whether it can be repaired by an intervention meant to replete SR resources...
September 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Ana Cristina Guarinello, Giselle Massi, Ana Paula Berberian, Rita Tonocchi, Sandra Silva Lustosa
PURPOSE: This study aimed to analyze the written production of a deaf person who is in the process of written language acquisition. METHODS: One person with hearing disability, called R., participated in this study together with his Speech Language Pathologist. The therapist, proficient in sign language, acted as an interlocutor and interpreter, prioritizing the interactive nature of language and interfering in the written production only when it was requested. RESULTS: During the 3 years of work with R...
September 2015: CoDAS
Jay G Rueckl, Pedro M Paz-Alonso, Peter J Molfese, Wen-Jui Kuo, Atira Bick, Stephen J Frost, Roeland Hancock, Denise H Wu, William Einar Mencl, Jon Andoni Duñabeitia, Jun-Ren Lee, Myriam Oliver, Jason D Zevin, Fumiko Hoeft, Manuel Carreiras, Ovid J L Tzeng, Kenneth R Pugh, Ram Frost
We propose and test a theoretical perspective in which a universal hallmark of successful literacy acquisition is the convergence of the speech and orthographic processing systems onto a common network of neural structures, regardless of how spoken words are represented orthographically in a writing system. During functional MRI, skilled adult readers of four distinct and highly contrasting languages, Spanish, English, Hebrew, and Chinese, performed an identical semantic categorization task to spoken and written words...
December 15, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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