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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055848/write-a-classifier-predicting-visual-classifiers-from-unstructured-text
#1
Mohamed Elhoseiny, Ahmed Elgammal, Babak Saleh
People typically learn through exposure to visual concepts associated with linguistic descriptions. For instance, teaching visual object categories to children is often accompanied by descriptions in text or speech. In a machine learning context, these observations motivates us to ask whether this learning process could be computationally modeled to learn visual classifiers. More specifically, the main question of this work is how to utilize purely textual description of visual classes with no training images, to learn explicit visual classifiers for them...
December 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051936/eavesdropping-on-memory
#2
Elizabeth F Loftus
For more than four decades, I have been studying human memory. My research concerns the malleable nature of memory. Information suggested to an individual about an event can be integrated with the memory of the event itself, so that what actually occurred, and what was discussed later about what may have occurred, become inextricably interwoven, allowing distortion, elaboration, and even total fabrication. In my writings, classes, and public speeches, I've tried to convey one important take-home message: Just because someone tells you something in great detail, with much confidence, and with emotion, it doesn't mean that it is true...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039933/aphasia-and-literacy-the-insider-s-perspective
#3
Emma Kjellén, Katja Laakso, Ingrid Henriksson
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated how people with aphasia (PWA) experience literacy skills. Taking the insider's perspective is a way to increase understanding of the individual experiences of literacy among PWA, which may have clinical implications. AIMS: To describe how literacy, i.e., reading and writing, is experienced in everyday life by PWA and to gain insight into the part played by literacy skills in their lives. METHODS & PROCEDURES: A qualitative descriptive research approach was taken...
December 31, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025834/chinese-children-s-early-knowledge-about-writing
#4
Lan Zhang, Li Yin, Rebecca Treiman
Much research on literacy development has focused on learners of alphabetic writing systems. Researchers have hypothesized that children learn about the formal characteristics of writing before they learn about the relations between units of writing and units of speech. We tested this hypothesis by examining young Chinese children's understanding of writing. Mandarin-speaking 2- to 5-year-olds completed a graphic task, which tapped their knowledge about the formal characteristics of writing, and a phonological task, which tapped their knowledge about the correspondence between Chinese characters and syllables...
December 26, 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917129/prosodic-boundaries-in-writing-evidence-from-a-keystroke-analysis
#5
Susanne Fuchs, Jelena Krivokapić
The aim of the paper is to investigate duration between successive keystrokes during typing in order to examine whether prosodic boundaries are expressed in the process of writing. In particular, we are interested in interkey durations that occur next to punctuation marks (comma and full stops while taking keystrokes between words as a reference), since these punctuation marks are often realized with minor or major prosodic boundaries during overt reading. A two-part experiment was conducted: first, participants' keystrokes on a computer keyboard were recorded while writing an email to a close friend (in two conditions: with and without time pressure)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884866/a-case-of-specific-language-impairment-in-a-deaf-signer-of-american-sign-language
#6
David Quinto-Pozos, Jenny L Singleton, Peter C Hauser
This article describes the case of a deaf native signer of American Sign Language (ASL) with a specific language impairment (SLI). School records documented normal cognitive development but atypical language development. Data include school records; interviews with the child, his mother, and school professionals; ASL and English evaluations; and a comprehensive neuropsychological and psychoeducational evaluation, and they span an approximate period of 7.5 years (11;10-19;6) including scores from school records (11;10-16;5) and a 3...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842736/-multidimensionality-of-inner-speech-and-its-relationship-with-abnormal-perceptions
#7
William Tamayo-Agudelo, Juan David Vélez-Urrego, Gilberto Gaviria-Castaño, Salvador Perona-Garcelán
BACKGROUND: Inner speech is a common human experience. Recently, there have been studies linking this experience with cognitive functions, such as problem solving, reading, writing, autobiographical memory, and some disorders, such as anxiety and depression. In addition, inner speech is recognised as the main source of auditory hallucinations. OBJECTIVES: The main purpose of this study is to establish the factor structure of Varieties of Inner Speech Questionnaire (VISQ) in a sample of the Colombian population...
October 2016: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818574/effects-of-task-interruption-and-background-speech-on-word-processed-writing
#8
Marijke Keus van de Poll, Patrik Sörqvist
Task interruptions and background speech, both part of the everyday situation in office environments, impair cognitive performance. The current experiments explored the combined effects of background speech and task interruptions on word processed writing-arguably, a task representative of office work. Participants wrote stories, in silence or in the presence of background speech (monologues, halfalogues and dialogues), and were occasionally interrupted by a secondary task. Writing speed was comparably low during the immediate period after the interruption (Experiments 1 and 2); it took 10-15 s to regain full writing speed...
May 2016: Applied Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808524/type-of-iconicity-matters-in-the-vocabulary-development-of-signing-children
#9
Gerardo Ortega, Beyza Sümer, Aslı Özyürek
Recent research on signed as well as spoken language shows that the iconic features of the target language might play a role in language development. Here, we ask further whether different types of iconic depictions modulate children's preferences for certain types of sign-referent links during vocabulary development in sign language. Results from a picture description task indicate that lexical signs with 2 possible variants are used in different proportions by deaf signers from different age groups. While preschool and school-age children favored variants representing actions associated with their referent (e...
January 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771043/tracking-the-development-of-agrammatic-aphasia-a-tensor-based-morphometry-study
#10
Jennifer L Whitwell, Joseph R Duffy, Mary M Machulda, Heather M Clark, Edythe A Strand, Matthew L Senjem, Jeffrey L Gunter, Anthony J Spychalla, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Keith A Josephs
Agrammatic aphasia can be observed in neurodegenerative disorders and has been traditionally linked with damage to Broca's area, although there have been disagreements concerning whether damage to Broca's area is necessary or sufficient for the development of agrammatism. We aimed to investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of the emergence of agrammatic aphasia utilizing a unique cohort of patients with primary progressive apraxia of speech (PPAOS) that did not have agrammatism at baseline but developed agrammatic aphasia over time...
September 30, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768047/eye-tracking-control-to-assess-cognitive-functions-in-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#11
Jürgen Keller, Martin Gorges, Helena E A Aho-Özhan, Ingo Uttner, Erich Schneider, Jan Kassubek, Elmar H Pinkhardt, Albert C Ludolph, Dorothée Lulé
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder with pathological involvement of upper and lower motoneurons, subsequently leading to progressive loss of motor and speech abilities. In addition, cognitive functions are impaired in a subset of patients. To evaluate these potential deficits in severely physically impaired ALS patients, eye-tracking is a promising means to conduct cognitive tests. The present article focuses on how eye movements, an indirect means of communication for physically disabled patients, can be utilized to allow for detailed neuropsychological assessment...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701703/language-disorders-in-adolescents-current-needs-and-future-directions
#12
Marilyn A Nippold
Adolescents with developmental language disorders often do not receive the type of intervention that would improve their ability to speak, listen, read, and write effectively. Part of the problem is that many of these young people show no obvious symptoms of a language disorder, yet they struggle on a daily basis to succeed at school-related tasks that require a sophisticated level of language development. This article discusses some of the challenges these students face and makes suggestions for what could be done to address the issues...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668399/the-management-of-cohesion-in-written-narratives-in-students-with-specific-language-impairment-differences-between-childhood-and-adolescence
#13
Monik Favart, Anna Potocki, Lucie Broc, Pauline Quémart, Josie Bernicot, Thierry Olive
The goal of this study was to investigate the management of cohesion by children and adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) when writing a narrative in a communicative situation. Twelve children with SLI (from 7 to 11 years old) and 12 adolescents with SLI (from 12 to 18 years old) were chronological age-matched with 24 typically developing (TD) children and 24 TD adolescents. All participants attended mainstream classes: children in elementary schools and adolescents in middle and high schools...
December 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535846/multipoint-genome-wide-linkage-scan-for-nonword-repetition-in-a-multigenerational-family-further-supports-chromosome-13q-as-a-locus-for-verbal-trait-disorders
#14
D T Truong, L D Shriberg, S D Smith, K L Chapman, A R Scheer-Cohen, M M C DeMille, A K Adams, A Q Nato, E M Wijsman, J D Eicher, J R Gruen
Verbal trait disorders encompass a wide range of conditions and are marked by deficits in five domains that impair a person's ability to communicate: speech, language, reading, spelling, and writing. Nonword repetition is a robust endophenotype for verbal trait disorders that is sensitive to cognitive processes critical to verbal development, including auditory processing, phonological working memory, and motor planning and programming. In the present study, we present a six-generation extended pedigree with a history of verbal trait disorders...
December 2016: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487315/the-profiles-of-students-with-significant-cognitive-disabilities-and-complex-communication-needs
#15
Karen A Erickson, Lori A Geist
Understanding the characteristics of students with complex communication needs and significant cognitive disabilities is an important first step toward creating the kinds of supports and services required to help them successfully access the general education curriculum, achieve grade-level standards, and improve overall communication competence. The First Contact Survey was designed to collect important information about students with significant cognitive disabilities who were eligible to take the Dynamic Learning Maps™ (DLM(®)) alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards...
September 2016: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439707/eight-further-individuals-with-intellectual-disability-and-epilepsy-carrying-bi-allelic-cntnap2-aberrations-allow-delineation-of-the-mutational-and-phenotypic-spectrum
#16
Mateja Smogavec, Alison Cleall, Juliane Hoyer, Damien Lederer, Marie-Cécile Nassogne, Elizabeth E Palmer, Marie Deprez, Valérie Benoit, Isabelle Maystadt, Charlotte Noakes, Alejandro Leal, Marie Shaw, Jozef Gecz, Lucy Raymond, André Reis, Deborah Shears, Knut Brockmann, Christiane Zweier
BACKGROUND: Heterozygous copy number variants (CNVs) or sequence variants in the contactin-associated protein 2 gene CNTNAP2 have been discussed as risk factors for a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Bi-allelic aberrations in this gene are causative for an autosomal-recessive disorder with epilepsy, severe intellectual disability (ID) and cortical dysplasia (CDFES). As the number of reported individuals is still limited, we aimed at a further characterisation of the full mutational and clinical spectrum...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375534/bono-bo-and-fla-mingo-reflections-of-speech-prosody-in-german-second-graders-writing-to-dictation
#17
Frank Domahs, Katharina Blessing, Christina Kauschke, Ulrike Domahs
Written German is characterized by an underrepresentation of prosody. During writing acquisition, children have to tackle the question which prosodic features are realized by what means - if any. We examined traces of speech prosody in German children's writing to dictation. A sample of 79 second graders were asked to write down eight sentences to dictation. We analyzed three potential reflections of speech prosody in children's dictations: (a) Merging of preposition and definite article, potentially preferred after monosyllabic prepositions as in this case preposition and article may melt to the canonical trochaic foot in German...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27341358/restoring-one-s-language-edifice-a-case-study-of-long-term-effects-of-intensive-aphasia-therapy-employing-cognitive-modifiability-strategies
#18
David Anaki, Rosalind Goldenberg, Haim Devisheim, Diana Rosenfelder, Lou Falik, Idit Harif
NG is an architect who suffered a left occipital-parietal hemorrhage cerebral vascular accident (CVA) in 2000, resulting in aphasia of Wernicke and conduction types. He was characterized with fluent paraphasic speech, decreased repetition, and impaired object naming. Comprehension was relatively preserved but reading and writing were severely compromised, as well as his auditory working memory. Despite a grim prognosis he underwent intensive aphasia therapy, lasting from 2001 to 2010, at the Center for Cognitive Rehabilitation of the Brain Injured at the Feuerstein Institute...
June 23, 2016: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324417/trauma-and-the-state-with-sigmund-freud-as-witness
#19
Elizabeth Ann Danto
Just before and after the end of World War I, Sigmund Freud took on an activist role and in his writings and speeches, redirected the concept of war trauma from individual failure to a larger issue of community responsibility. Testifying in Vienna as an expert witness for the state, Freud said that the military psychiatrists-not the soldiers-had "acted like machine guns behind the front" and were the "immediate cause of all war neurosis." Freud was called on by the legal community when Julius Wagner-Jauregg, a future Nobel Prize winner (and also future Nazi Party adherent), head of the municipal Clinic for Psychiatry and Nervous Diseases, was accused of the lethal use of electrotherapy on shell-shocked soldiers...
September 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27297074/promoting-linguistic-complexity-greater-message-length-and-ease-of-engagement-in-email-writing-in-people-with-aphasia-initial-evidence-from-a-study-utilizing-assistive-writing-software
#20
Lindsey Thiel, Karen Sage, Paul Conroy
BACKGROUND: Improving email writing in people with aphasia could enhance their ability to communicate, promote interaction and reduce isolation. Spelling therapies have been effective in improving single-word writing. However, there has been limited evidence on how to achieve changes to everyday writing tasks such as email writing in people with aphasia. One potential area that has been largely unexplored in the literature is the potential use of assistive writing technologies, despite some initial evidence that assistive writing software use can lead to qualitative and quantitative improvements to spontaneous writing...
June 14, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
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