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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618297/does-communication-partner-training-improve-the-conversation-skills-of-speech-language-pathology-students-when-interacting-with-people-with-aphasia
#1
Emma Finch, Ashley Cameron, Jennifer Fleming, Jennifer Lethlean, Kyla Hudson, Steven McPhail
BACKGROUND: Aphasia is a common consequence of stroke. Despite receiving specialised training in communication, speech-language pathology students may lack confidence when communicating with People with Aphasia (PWA). This paper reports data from secondary outcome measures from a randomised controlled trial. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of communication partner training on the communication skills of speech-language pathology students during conversations with PWA...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584692/human-embryonic-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-autism-a-case-series
#2
Geeta Shroff
Background: Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder accompanied by weak immune system and neuroinflammation. Multiple factors contribute to etiology of autism spectrum disorder including genetic disorders, environmental substances/toxins, imbalanced immune system, encephalitis, and viral infections. Autism spectrum disorder is an incurable disease; however, it can be managed by educational and medical interventions. Human embryonic stem cell therapy has been shown to improve blood perfusion in the brain; thus, this therapy may be effective in improving motor skills, social skills, and cognition in patients with autism spectrum disorder...
March 2017: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545039/the-perceptual-learning-of-time-compressed-speech-a-comparison-of-training-protocols-with-different-levels-of-difficulty
#3
Yafit Gabay, Avi Karni, Karen Banai
Speech perception can improve substantially with practice (perceptual learning) even in adults. Here we compared the effects of four training protocols that differed in whether and how task difficulty was changed during a training session, in terms of the gains attained and the ability to apply (transfer) these gains to previously un-encountered items (tokens) and to different talkers. Participants trained in judging the semantic plausibility of sentences presented as time-compressed speech and were tested on their ability to reproduce, in writing, the target sentences; trail-by-trial feedback was afforded in all training conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540511/timed-written-picture-naming-in-14-european-languages
#4
Mark Torrance, Guido Nottbusch, Rui A Alves, Barbara Arfé, Lucile Chanquoy, Evgeny Chukharev-Hudilainen, Ioannis Dimakos, Raquel Fidalgo, Jukka Hyönä, Ómar I Jóhannesson, George Madjarov, Dennis N Pauly, Per Henning Uppstad, Luuk van Waes, Michael Vernon, Åsa Wengelin
We describe the Multilanguage Written Picture Naming Dataset. This gives trial-level data and time and agreement norms for written naming of the 260 pictures of everyday objects that compose the colorized Snodgrass and Vanderwart picture set (Rossion & Pourtois in Perception, 33, 217-236, 2004). Adult participants gave keyboarded responses in their first language under controlled experimental conditions (N = 1,274, with subsamples responding in Bulgarian, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Icelandic, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, and Swedish)...
May 24, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539900/learning-potential-in-narrative-writing-measuring-the-psychometric-properties-of-an-assessment-tool
#5
Léia G Gurgel, Mônica M C de Oliveira, Maria C R A Joly, Caroline T Reppold
Objective: The Computerized and Dynamic Writing Test (TIDE) is designed to examine the learning potential of adolescents in narrative writing. This was a validation study of the TIDE based on its internal structure. Learning potential is responsible for cognitive modifiabilty according to the Theory of Cognitive Structural Modifiability (CSM) developed by Feüerstein. Method: Included 304 participants between 10 and 17 years of age from schools in the South of Brazil. The data collection involved student groups that were divided according to age and school grade...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537640/-i-cannot-read-as-well-my-speech-is-slower-and-writing-now-poor
#6
Alice R Tang, David S Walton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525581/tutorial-speech-assessment-for-multilingual-children-who-do-not-speak-the-same-language-s-as-the-speech-language-pathologist
#7
Sharynne McLeod, Sarah Verdon
Purpose: The aim of this tutorial is to support speech-language pathologists (SLPs) undertaking assessments of multilingual children with suspected speech sound disorders, particularly children who speak languages that are not shared with their SLP. Method: The tutorial was written by the International Expert Panel on Multilingual Children's Speech, which comprises 46 researchers (SLPs, linguists, phoneticians, and speech scientists) who have worked in 43 countries and used 27 languages in professional practice...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454920/automated-analysis-of-written-narratives-reveals-abnormalities-in-referential-cohesion-in-youth-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#8
Tina Gupta, Susan J Hespos, William S Horton, Vijay A Mittal
Schizophrenia and at-risk populations are suggested to exhibit referential cohesion deficits in language production (e.g., producing fewer pronouns or nouns that clearly link to concepts from previous sentences). Much of this work has focused on transcribed speech samples, while no work to our knowledge has examined referential cohesion in written narratives among ultra high risk (UHR) youth using Coh-Metrix, an automated analysis tool. In the present study, written narratives from 84 individuals (UHR=41, control=43) were examined...
April 25, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400265/convergence-of-semantics-and-emotional-expression-within-the-ifg-pars-orbitalis
#9
Michel Belyk, Steven Brown, Jessica Lim, Sonja A Kotz
Humans communicate through a combination of linguistic and emotional channels, including propositional speech, writing, sign language, music, but also prosodic, facial, and gestural expression. These channels can be interpreted separately or they can be integrated to multimodally convey complex meanings. Neural models of the perception of semantics and emotion include nodes for both functions in the inferior frontal gyrus pars orbitalis (IFGorb). However, it is not known whether this convergence involves a common functional zone or instead specialized subregions that process semantics and emotion separately...
April 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376857/receptive-and-expressive-english-language-assessments-used-for-young-children-a-scoping-review-protocol
#10
Laureen J McIntyre, Laurie-Ann M Hellsten, Julia Bidonde, Catherine Boden, Carolyn Doi
BACKGROUND: The majority of a child's language development occurs in the first 5 years of life when brain development is most rapid. There are significant long-term benefits to supporting all children's language and literacy development such as maximizing their developmental potential (i.e., cognitive, linguistic, social-emotional), when children are experiencing a critical period of development (i.e., early childhood to 9 years of age). A variety of people play a significant role in supporting children's language development, including parents, guardians, family members, educators, and/or speech-language pathologists...
April 4, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356654/disordered-voluntary-cough-as-freezing-phenomenon-in-parkinsonism
#11
Mitsuaki Ishii, Hideaki Mashimo
[Purpose] In patients with parkinsonism, the precise mechanism of impaired voluntary cough remains poorly understood. This study used the flow-volume curve to clarify whether disordered voluntary cough reflects the freezing phenomenon. [Subjects and Methods] Case 1 was a 58-year-old female who had been suffering from progressive supranuclear palsy-pure akinesia with gait freezing. Case 2 was a 59-year-old female who had advanced juvenile parkinsonism. The subjects were asked to take a deep inspiration to the total lung capacity and then cough more than five times through the face mask into the spirometer without intervening inspirations between the coughing efforts...
March 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337947/memory-demands-in-linguistic-compensation
#12
Srdan Medimorec, Chandeep Mander, Evan F Risko
Individuals often modify speech characteristics to accommodate their listeners. In the present study we investigate how speakers modify their speech in a dictation task and what this says about their beliefs with respect to the listener's information processing limitations. To do so, we asked participants to either read a set of numbers aloud, or dictate numbers so that another person could write them down. Our results suggest that speech modification in this task was not related to the speakers' differences in working memory capacity, and could represent speakers' attempt to minimize working memory demands of the listener...
March 24, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332040/edinburgh-cognitive-and-behavioural-als-screen-ecas-italian-version-regression-based-norms-and-equivalent-scores
#13
Mattia Siciliano, Luigi Trojano, Francesca Trojsi, Roberta Greco, Manuela Santoro, Giuseppe Basile, Fausta Piscopo, Alfonsina D'Iorio, Manila Patrone, Cinzia Femiano, Mariarosaria Monsurrò, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Gabriella Santangelo
Cognitive assessment for individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) can be difficult because of frequent occurrence of difficulties with speech, writing, and drawing. The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) is a recent multi-domain neuropsychological screening tool specifically devised for this purpose, and it assesses the following domains: executive functions, social cognition, verbal fluency and language (ALS-specific), but also memory and visuospatial abilities (Non-ALS specific)...
June 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325110/-that-is-how-i-speak-nowadays-experiences-of-remote-communication-among-persons-with-communicative-and-cognitive-disabilities
#14
Margret Buchholz, Ulrika Ferm, Kristina Holmgren
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to explore the experiences of remote communication (i.e., communication between persons who are not in the same place) among people with communicative and cognitive disabilities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven adolescents and adults were interviewed using Talking Mats and interview data was analyzed qualitatively with systematic text condensation. RESULTS: The use of remote communication varies between the participants...
March 21, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287041/noise-disturbance-in-open-plan-study-environments-a-field-study-on-noise-sources-student-tasks-and-room-acoustic-parameters
#15
P Ella Braat-Eggen, Anne van Heijst, Maarten Hornikx, Armin Kohlrausch
The aim of this study is to gain more insight in the assessment of noise in open-plan study environments and to reveal correlations between noise disturbance experienced by students and the noise sources they perceive, the tasks they perform and the acoustic parameters of the open-plan study environment they work in. Data were collected in five open-plan study environments at universities in the Netherlands. A questionnaire was used to investigate student tasks, perceived sound sources and their perceived disturbance, and sound measurements were performed to determine the room acoustic parameters...
April 3, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055848/write-a-classifier-predicting-visual-classifiers-from-unstructured-text
#16
Mohamed Elhoseiny, Ahmed Elgammal, Babak Saleh
People typically learn through exposure to visual concepts associated with linguistic descriptions. For instance, teaching visual object categories to children is often accompanied by descriptions in text or speech. In a machine learning context, these observations motivates us to ask whether this learning process could be computationally modeled to learn visual classifiers. More specifically, the main question of this work is how to utilize purely textual description of visual classes with no training images, to learn explicit visual classifiers for them...
December 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051936/eavesdropping-on-memory
#17
Elizabeth F Loftus
For more than four decades, I have been studying human memory. My research concerns the malleable nature of memory. Information suggested to an individual about an event can be integrated with the memory of the event itself, so that what actually occurred, and what was discussed later about what may have occurred, become inextricably interwoven, allowing distortion, elaboration, and even total fabrication. In my writings, classes, and public speeches, I've tried to convey one important take-home message: Just because someone tells you something in great detail, with much confidence, and with emotion, it doesn't mean that it is true...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039933/aphasia-and-literacy-the-insider-s-perspective
#18
Emma Kjellén, Katja Laakso, Ingrid Henriksson
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated how people with aphasia (PWA) experience literacy skills. Taking the insider's perspective is a way to increase understanding of the individual experiences of literacy among PWA, which may have clinical implications. AIMS: To describe how literacy, i.e., reading and writing, is experienced in everyday life by PWA and to gain insight into the part played by literacy skills in their lives. METHODS & PROCEDURES: A qualitative descriptive research approach was taken...
December 31, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025834/chinese-children-s-early-knowledge-about-writing
#19
Lan Zhang, Li Yin, Rebecca Treiman
Much research on literacy development has focused on learners of alphabetic writing systems. Researchers have hypothesized that children learn about the formal characteristics of writing before they learn about the relations between units of writing and units of speech. We tested this hypothesis by examining young Chinese children's understanding of writing. Mandarin-speaking 2- to 5-year-olds completed a graphic task, which tapped their knowledge about the formal characteristics of writing, and a phonological task, which tapped their knowledge about the correspondence between Chinese characters and syllables...
December 26, 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917129/prosodic-boundaries-in-writing-evidence-from-a-keystroke-analysis
#20
Susanne Fuchs, Jelena Krivokapić
The aim of the paper is to investigate duration between successive keystrokes during typing in order to examine whether prosodic boundaries are expressed in the process of writing. In particular, we are interested in interkey durations that occur next to punctuation marks (comma and full stops while taking keystrokes between words as a reference), since these punctuation marks are often realized with minor or major prosodic boundaries during overt reading. A two-part experiment was conducted: first, participants' keystrokes on a computer keyboard were recorded while writing an email to a close friend (in two conditions: with and without time pressure)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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