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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679046/impact-of-antenatal-corticosteroids-in-preterm-neonates-based-on-maternal-body-mass-index
#1
Maheer Faden, Sarah D McDonald, Prakeshkumar S Shah, Amit Mukerji
OBJECTIVE: Impact of antenatal corticosteroid (ACS) in context of maternal body mass index (BMI) as it relates to neonatal outcomes remains unclear. We sought to evaluate effects of ACS on clinical outcomes of preterm infants based on maternal BMI. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study among neonates 23-33 weeks' GA at a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit from 2011 to 2015. Outcomes of neonates exposed to any ACS and pre-pregnancy maternal BMI ≥ 25 (N = 491) were compared with maternal BMI < 25 (N = 484)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678977/minimizing-icu-neurological-dysfunction-with-dexmedetomidine-induced-sleep-mindds-protocol-for-a-randomised-double-blind-parallel-arm-placebo-controlled-trial
#2
Kenneth T Shelton, Jason Qu, Federico Bilotta, Emery N Brown, Gaston Cudemus, David A D'Alessandro, Hao Deng, Alan DiBiasio, Jacob A Gitlin, Eunice Y Hahm, Lauren E Hobbs, Timothy T Houle, Reine Ibala, Marco Loggia, Kara J Pavone, Shahzad Shaefi, George Tolis, M Brandon Westover, Oluwaseun Akeju
INTRODUCTION: Delirium, which is prevalent in postcardiac surgical patients, is an acute brain dysfunction characterised by disturbances in attention, awareness and cognition not explained by a pre-existing neurocognitive disorder. The pathophysiology of delirium remains poorly understood. However, basic science and clinical studies suggest that sleep disturbance may be a modifiable risk factor for the development of delirium. Dexmedetomidine is a α-2A adrenergic receptor agonist medication that patterns the activity of various arousal nuclei similar to sleep...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678606/ketogenic-diet-high-intensity-interval-training-hiit-and-memory-training-in-the-treatment-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-case-study
#3
Kaitlyn Dahlgren, Kelly J Gibas
Alzheimer's disease (AD) deaths have increased by 89% since 2000. This alarming trajectory of neurological disease highlights the failure of current best practice. Deteriorating brain fuel supply is the nemesis of intact neurological health. Cerebral hypo-metabolism associated with AD occurs years before onset. Both the ketogenic diet and calorie restriction (fasting) lead to a compensatory rise in ketones to improve energy deficits in the brain derived from cerebral insulin resistance. Two forms of ketone bodies, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, fuel the brain during starvation, fasting and strenuous exercise...
April 11, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675576/gintonin-mitigates-mptp-induced-loss-of-nigrostriatal-dopaminergic-neurons-and-accumulation-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-via-the-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#4
Min Gi Jo, Muhammad Ikram, Myeung Hoon Jo, Lang Yoo, Kwang Chul Chung, Seung-Yeol Nah, Hongik Hwang, Hyewhon Rhim, Myeong Ok Kim
Gintonin, a ginseng-derived glycolipoprotein isolated from ginseng, has been shown to be neuroprotective in several neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease models and depressive-like behaviors. In this study, we sought to investigate the potential protective mechanisms of gintonin in an in vivo MPTP and in vitro MPP+ -mediated Parkinson's disease (PD) model. We hypothesized that activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/heme oxygenase-1 (Nrf2/HO-1, potential therapeutic targets for neurodegeneration) with gintonin could abrogate PD-associated neurotoxicity by modulating the accumulation of α-synuclein, neuroinflammation, and apoptotic cell death in an MPTP/MPP+ models of PD...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675415/practical-and-ethical-aspects-of-advance-research-directives-for-research-on-healthy-aging-german-and-israeli-professionals-perspectives
#5
Perla Werner, Silke Schicktanz
Background: Healthy aging is the development and maintenance of optimal cognitive, social and physical well-being, and function in older adults. Preventing or minimizing disease is one of the main ways of achieving healthy aging. Dementia is one of the most prevalent and life-changing diseases of old age. Thus, dementia prevention research is defined as one of the main priorities worldwide. However, conducting research with persons who lack the capacity to give consent is a major ethical issue...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674371/automation-of-ct-based-haemorrhagic-stroke-assessment-for-improved-clinical-outcomes-study-protocol-and-design
#6
Betty Chinda, George Medvedev, William Siu, Martin Ester, Ali Arab, Tao Gu, Sylvain Moreno, Ryan C N D'Arcy, Xiaowei Song
INTRODUCTION: Haemorrhagic stroke is of significant healthcare concern due to its association with high mortality and lasting impact on the survivors' quality of life. Treatment decisions and clinical outcomes depend strongly on the size, spread and location of the haematoma. Non-contrast CT (NCCT) is the primary neuroimaging modality for haematoma assessment in haemorrhagic stroke diagnosis. Current procedures do not allow convenient NCCT-based haemorrhage volume calculation in clinical settings, while research-based approaches are yet to be tested for clinical utility; there is a demonstrated need for developing effective solutions...
April 19, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673874/origins-of-lifetime-health-around-the-time-of-conception-causes-and-consequences
#7
REVIEW
Tom P Fleming, Adam J Watkins, Miguel A Velazquez, John C Mathers, Andrew M Prentice, Judith Stephenson, Mary Barker, Richard Saffery, Chittaranjan S Yajnik, Judith J Eckert, Mark A Hanson, Terrence Forrester, Peter D Gluckman, Keith M Godfrey
Parental environmental factors, including diet, body composition, metabolism, and stress, affect the health and chronic disease risk of people throughout their lives, as captured in the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease concept. Research across the epidemiological, clinical, and basic science fields has identified the period around conception as being crucial for the processes mediating parental influences on the health of the next generation. During this time, from the maturation of gametes through to early embryonic development, parental lifestyle can adversely influence long-term risks of offspring cardiovascular, metabolic, immune, and neurological morbidities, often termed developmental programming...
April 16, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673398/assessment-of-orthotic-needs-in-iranian-veterans-with-ankle-and-foot-disorders
#8
Kamiar Ghoseiri, Mostafa Allami, Mohammad Reza Soroush
BACKGROUND: War-related traumas can lead to orthopedic and neurological disorders in victims. However, the scope of such disorders may expand months or even years after the trauma. Orthotic treatment as a rehabilitation process aims to enable people with disabilities to reach and maintain their optimal physical, sensory, intellectual, psychological, and social functional levels. This study aimed to investigate the rate of using orthoses among Iranian veterans with neuromuscular and skeletal disorders of the ankle and foot...
April 20, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671914/the-neurological-complications-of-chikungunya-virus-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Ravi Mehta, Patrick Gerardin, Carlos Alexandre Antunes de Brito, Cristiane Nascimento Soares, Maria Lucia Brito Ferreira, Tom Solomon
We performed a systematic review on the neurological complications of chikungunya virus. Such complications are being reported increasingly, owing primarily to the scale of recent epidemics but also to a growing understanding of the virus' neurovirulence. We performed a thorough literature search using PubMed and Scopus databases, summating the data on all published reports of neurological disease associated with chikungunya virus. We appraised the data for each major condition in adults, children, and neonates, as well as evaluating the latest evidence on disease pathogenesis and management strategies...
April 19, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671419/trpm2-a-candidate-therapeutic-target-for-treating-neurological-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Jillian Corinne Belrose, Michael Frederick Jackson
Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a calcium (Ca2+ )-permeable non-selective cation channel belonging to the TRP ion channel family. Oxidative stress-induced TRPM2 activation provokes aberrant intracellular Ca2+ accumulation and cell death in a variety of cell types, including neurons. Aberrant TRPM2 function has been implicated in several neurological disorders including ischemia/stroke, Alzheimer's disease, neuropathic pain, Parkinson's disease and bipolar disorder. In addition to research identifying a role for TRPM2 in disease, progress has been made in the identification of physiological functions of TRPM2 in the brain, including recent evidence that TRPM2 is necessary for the induction of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent long-term depression, an important form of synaptic plasticity at glutamate synapses...
April 19, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670510/differential-expression-of-several-mirnas-and-the-host-genes-aatk-and-dnm2-in-leukocytes-of-sporadic-als-patients
#11
Katarina Vrabec, Emanuela Boštjančič, Blaž Koritnik, Lea Leonardis, Leja Dolenc Grošelj, Janez Zidar, Boris Rogelj, Damjan Glavač, Metka Ravnik-Glavač
Genetic studies have managed to explain many cases of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) through mutations in several genes. However, the cause of a majority of sporadic cases remains unknown. Recently, epigenetics, especially miRNA studies, show some promising aspects. We aimed to evaluate the differential expression of 10 miRNAs, including miR-9, miR-338, miR-638, miR-663a, miR-124a, miR-143, miR-451a, miR-132, miR-206, and let-7b, for which some connection to ALS was shown previously in ALS culture cells, animal models or patients, and in three miRNA host genes, including C1orf61 (miR-9), AATK (miR-338), and DNM2 (miR-638), in leukocyte samples of 84 patients with sporadic ALS...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669318/neurod-expression-in-podocytes-and-interrelationships-with-nephrin-at-both-nuclear-and-cytoplasmic-sites
#12
Silvia Armelloni, Masami Ikehata, Deborah Mattinzoli, Min Li, Carlo Maria Alfieri, Mariapia Rastaldi, Piergiorgio Messa
Background/Aims The research of genes implicated in kidney glomerular function, eliciting cell fate program, is always at the forefront in nephrological studies. Several neurological molecules have been recently the object of study not only for their involvement in the central nervous system differentiation but also for their importance in the functionality of other organs and for mature phenotype, as in kidney. NeuroD, in CNS, is related to two functional roles, the early survival and the differentiation. The aim of our study was to ascertain the presence of NeuroD transcription factor in glomeruli and to understand which targets and mechanisms NeuroD controls...
April 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668260/rational-design-of-semiconductor-nanostructures-for-functional-subcellular-interfaces
#13
Ramya Parameswaran, Bozhi Tian
One of the fundamental questions guiding research in the biological sciences is how cellular systems process complex physical and environmental cues and communicate with each other across multiple length scales. Importantly, aberrant signal processing in these systems can lead to diseases that can have devastating impacts on human lives. Biophysical studies in the past several decades have demonstrated that cells can respond to not only biochemical cues but also mechanical and electrical ones. Thus, the development of new materials that can both sense and modulate all of these pathways is necessary...
April 18, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667473/harnessing-neuroplasticity-modern-approaches-and-clinical-future
#14
Andrew Octavian Sasmita, Joshua Kuruvilla, Anna Pick Kiong Ling
Neurological diseases and injuries to the nervous system may cause inadvertent damage to neuronal and synaptic structures. Such phenomenon would catastrophically accumulate, leading to the development of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders which might affect memory, cognition, and motoric functions. The body has various negative feedback systems which are able to induce beneficial neuroplastic changes in mediating some neuronal damage, however, such efforts are often not enough to ameliorate the derogatory changes...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666163/neurodevelopmental-impairment-among-extremely-preterm-infants-in-the-neonatal-research-network
#15
Ira Adams-Chapman, Roy J Heyne, Sara B DeMauro, Andrea F Duncan, Susan R Hintz, Athina Pappas, Betty R Vohr, Scott A McDonald, Abhik Das, Jamie E Newman, Rosemary D Higgins
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the spectrum of neurodevelopmental outcome in a contemporary cohort of extremely preterm infants. We hypothesize that the rate of severe neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) decreases over time. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants ≤27 weeks' gestational age (GA) from a Neonatal Research Network center that completed neurodevelopmental follow-up assessments between April 1, 2011, and January 1, 2015...
April 17, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665726/dexmedetomidine-mitigates-microglia-mediated-neuroinflammation-through-up-regulation-of-programmed-cell-death-protein-1-in-a-rat-spinal-cord-injury-model
#16
Hefan He, Yingying Zhou, Yilin Zhou, Jiayuan Zhuang, Xu He, Siyuan Wang, Wenping Lin
Excessive neuroinflammation aggravates neurological damage after spinal cord injury (SCI). Controlling neuroinflammation might favor neuroregeneration and tissue repair. Dexmedetomidine is reported to inhibit post-SCI neuroinflammation in previous research. In the current study, to determine the mechanisms by which dexmedetomidine inhibits neuroinflammation, we tested the effect of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride on microglia in vitro and in a rat SCI model. We found that dexmedetomidine hydrochloride up-regulated programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), an immunoregulatory molecule, in activated microglia but not in resting microglia...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665225/objective-and-quantitative-equilibriometric-evaluation-of-individual-locomotor-behaviour-in-schizophrenia-translational-and-clinical-implications
#17
Svetlozar Haralanov, Evelina Haralanova, Emil Milushev, Diana Shkodrova, Claus-Frenz Claussen
Psychiatry is the only medical specialty that lacks clinically applicable biomarkers for objective evaluation of the existing pathology at a single-patient level. On the basis of an original translational equilibriometric method for evaluation of movement patterns, we have introduced in the everyday clinical practice of psychiatry an easy-to-perform computerized objective quantification of the individual locomotor behaviour during execution of the Unterberger stepping test. For the last 20 years, we have gradually collected a large database of more than 1000 schizophrenic patients, their relatives, and matched psychiatric, neurological, and healthy controls via cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665223/an-adaptive-semantic-matching-paradigm-for-reliable-and-valid-language-mapping-in-individuals-with-aphasia
#18
Stephen M Wilson, Melodie Yen, Dana K Eriksson
Research on neuroplasticity in recovery from aphasia depends on the ability to identify language areas of the brain in individuals with aphasia. However, tasks commonly used to engage language processing in people with aphasia, such as narrative comprehension and picture naming, are limited in terms of reliability (test-retest reproducibility) and validity (identification of language regions, and not other regions). On the other hand, paradigms such as semantic decision that are effective in identifying language regions in people without aphasia can be prohibitively challenging for people with aphasia...
April 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663553/rapid-evidence-assessment-of-approaches-to-community-neurological-nursing-care-for-people-with-neurological-conditions-post-discharge-from-acute-care-hospital
#19
REVIEW
Judith Dianne Pugh, Kathleen McCoy, Anne M Williams, Brenda Bentley, Leanne Monterosso
Neurological conditions represent leading causes of non-fatal burden of disease that will consume a large proportion of projected healthcare expenditure. Inconsistent access to integrated healthcare and other services for people with long-term neurological conditions stresses acute care services. The purpose of this rapid evidence assessment, conducted February-June 2016, was to review the evidence supporting community neurological nursing approaches for patients with neurological conditions post-discharge from acute care hospitals...
April 16, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663451/association-of-prolonged-qtc-interval-with-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-a-neurocardiac-syndrome-inside-the-mystery-of-the-insula-of-reil
#20
REVIEW
Vincenzo Marafioti, Giulia Turri, Vincenzo Carbone, Salvatore Monaco
The Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is often considered autochthonous to the heart, although the primary problem may be not in the heart muscle itself. Instead, similar to several Takotsubo-like cardiac pathologies seen in acute neurological diseases, it may reflect the capacity of the nervous system to injure the heart. Persuasive evidence exists that shocking emotional stress promotes direct heart injuries. Moreover, clinical and laboratory research shows that cardiac structural damage can occur in the presence of a normal heart, especially in the context of seizures, stroke, and traumatic brain injury or under conditions of psychological stress...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
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