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Neurological research

Nicolina E Savvaidou, Lazaros C Triarhou
Professor Emil Redlich (1866-1930) of the University of Vienna was born 150 years ago. Raised in a humble environment, he became an eminent researcher and neurology scholar, and succeeded in laying some of the key foundations of neuroanatomy and neuropathology. His name is linked to medical eponyms that define the dorsal root entry zone into the spinal cord, epidemic disseminated encephalomyelitis, narcolepsy, senile plaques and dementia. As its first director, he managed to organize the Maria-Theresien-Schlössel into a first-class neuropsychiatric hospital...
October 21, 2016: European Neurology
Daniel Stäb, Steffen Bollmann, Christian Langkammer, Kristian Bredies, Markus Barth
With the advent of ultra-high field MRI scanners in clinical research, susceptibility based MRI has recently gained increasing interest because of its potential to assess subtle tissue changes underlying neurological pathologies/disorders. Conventional, but rather slow, three-dimensional (3D) spoiled gradient-echo (GRE) sequences are typically employed to assess the susceptibility of tissue. 3D echo-planar imaging (EPI) represents a fast alternative but generally comes with echo-time restrictions, geometrical distortions and signal dropouts that can become severe at ultra-high fields...
October 20, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Nina Lefeber, Eva Swinnen, Eric Kerckhofs
PURPOSE: The integration of sufficient cardiovascular stress into robot-assisted gait (RAG) training could combine the benefits of both RAG and aerobic training. The aim was to summarize literature data on the immediate effects of RAG compared to walking without robot-assistance on metabolic-, cardiorespiratory- and fatigue-related parameters. METHODS: PubMed and Web of Science were searched for eligible articles till February 2016. Means, SDs and significance values were extracted...
October 20, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Özlem Taşoğlu, Engin Koyuncu, Rabia Daylak, Derya Yumuşak Karacif, Zerrin I Nce, Didem Yenigün, Neşe Özgirgin
OBJECTIVE: To define the demographic and clinical characteristics of persons with spinal cord injury, rehabilitated in a primary referral rehabilitation center in Turkey. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Ankara Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Methods: Medical records of all patients with spinal cord injury (acute-subacute-chronic) at a single academic referral center over the course of one year were reviewed...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Wing Ting To, Jan Ost, John Hart, Dirk De Ridder, Sven Vanneste
Tinnitus is the perception of a sound in the absence of a corresponding external sound source. Research has suggested that functional abnormalities in tinnitus patients involve auditory as well as non-auditory brain areas. Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) to the auditory cortex, has demonstrated modulation of brain activity to transiently suppress tinnitus symptoms...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Samuele Maramai, Sandra Gemma, Simone Brogi, Giuseppe Campiani, Stefania Butini, Holger Stark, Margherita Brindisi
D3 receptors represent a major focus of current drug design and development of therapeutics for dopamine-related pathological states. Their close homology with the D2 receptor subtype makes the development of D3 selective antagonists a challenging task. In this review, we explore the relevance and therapeutic utility of D3 antagonists or partial agonists endowed with multireceptor affinity profile in the field of central nervous system disorders such as schizophrenia and drug abuse. In fact, the peculiar distribution and low brain abundance of D3 receptors make them a valuable target for the development of drugs devoid of motor side effects classically elicited by D2 antagonists...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
David Gloss, Jay K Varma, Tamara Pringsheim, Marc R Nuwer
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the evidence for EEG theta/beta power ratio for diagnosing, or helping to diagnose, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We identified relevant studies and classified them using American Academy of Neurology criteria. RESULTS: Two Class I studies assessing the ability of EEG theta/beta power ratio and EEG frontal beta power to identify patients with ADHD correctly identified 166 of 185 participants...
October 19, 2016: Neurology
M Lu, D S Fan
Objective: To investigate whether or not the involvement degree of extensor and flexor muscles in patients with Kennedy's Disease (KD) was different by measuring the diameter of biceps and triceps brachii muscles using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Methods: All the subjects were outpatients or hospitalized patients from Department of Neurology, the Third Hospital of Peking University, 2011-2015. Subjects included 30 KD patients and 30 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. The right upper arms of all subjects were examined by muscle MRI...
October 11, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Massimo Del Fabbro, Stefano Corbella, Patrick Sequeira-Byron, Igor Tsesis, Eyal Rosen, Alessandra Lolato, Silvio Taschieri
BACKGROUND: When primary root canal therapy fails, periapical lesions can be retreated with or without surgery. Root canal retreatment is a non-surgical procedure that involves removal of root canal filling materials from the tooth, followed by cleaning, shaping and obturating of the canals. Root-end resection is a surgical procedure that involves exposure of the periapical lesion through an osteotomy, surgical removal of the lesion, removal of part of the root-end tip, disinfection and, commonly, retrograde sealing or filling of the apical portion of the remaining root canal...
October 19, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Y-C Huang, J Xiao, W Y Leung, W W Lu, Y Hu, K D Luk
Previous human study suggested that fresh-frozen intervertebral disc allograft transplantation can relieve neurological symptoms and restore segmental kinematics. Before wide clinical application, research into the pathophysiology of the postoperative disc allograft is needed. One important question that remains to be answered in disc allografting is the healing process of the host-graft interface and the subsequent change of the endplates. With the goat model for lumbar disc allografting, histology, micro-computed tomography analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping were applied to evaluate the healing of the host-graft interfaces, the remodelling of subchondral bone, and the changes of the bony and cartilaginous endplates after transplantation...
October 19, 2016: European Cells & Materials
Jorge Mejia, Ana Claudia Camargo Miranda, Ana Claudia Ranucci Durante, Larissa Rolim de Oliveira, Marycel Rosa Felisa Figols de Barboza, Katerin Taboada Rosell, Daniele Pereira Jardim, Alexandre Holthausen Campos, Marilia Alves Dos Reis, Marcela Forli Catanoso, Orfa Yineth Galvis-Alonso, Francisco Romero Cabral
Objective: To present the result of upgrading a clinical gamma-camera to be used to obtain in vivo tomographic images of small animal organs, and its application to register cardiac, renal and neurological images. Methods: An updated version of the miniSPECT upgrading device was built, which is composed of mechanical, electronic and software subsystems. The device was attached to a Discovery VH (General Electric Healthcare) gamma-camera, which was retired from the clinical service and installed at the Centro de Imagem Pré-Clínica of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein...
July 2016: Einstein
Anand Kaul, Sunil Manjila, Jonathan P Miller
: Isadore Max Tarlov (1905-1977) is primarily remembered for his 1938 description of the eponymous perineural "Tarlov cyst." However, during his long career as a neurosurgeon and researcher, he was responsible for many other observations and inventions that influenced the development of neurosurgery in the 20th century. While studying at Johns Hopkins Medical School he was acquainted with Walter Dandy, and he became the first resident to study under Wilder Penfield at the newly formed Montreal Neurological Institute...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
Su Lui, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Unlike neurologic conditions, such as brain tumors, dementia, and stroke, the neural mechanisms for all psychiatric disorders remain unclear. A large body of research obtained with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography, and optical imaging has demonstrated regional and illness-specific brain changes at the onset of psychiatric disorders and in individuals at risk for such disorders. Many studies have shown that psychiatric medications induce specific measurable changes in brain anatomy and function that are related to clinical outcomes...
November 2016: Radiology
Rachel S Bronheim, Eric K Oermann, Samuel K Cho, John M Caridi
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To identify associations between abnormal coagulation profile and postoperative morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion (PLF). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The literature suggests that abnormal coagulation profile is associated with postoperative complications, notably the need for blood transfusion. However, there is little research that directly addresses the influence of coagulation profile on postoperative complications following PLF...
October 17, 2016: Spine
Colin Sumners, Jacob Isenberg, Allison Harmel, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil, Ulrike Steckelings, Douglas Bennion
OBJECTIVE: The renin angiotensin system is a promising target for stroke neuroprotection and therapy through activation of angiotensin type II receptors (AT2R). The selective non-peptide AT2R agonist, Compound 21 (C21), has been shown to exhibit neuroprotection and improve stroke outcomes in preclinical studies, effects that likely involve neurotropic actions. However, these beneficial actions of C21 have not been demonstrated to occur beyond 1 week post stroke. The objective of this study was to determine if systemic administration of C21 would exert sustained neuroprotective effects in aged rats...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Scott L Zuckerman, Ilya Laufer, Arjun Sahgal, Yoshiya J Yamada, Meic H Schmidt, Dean Chou, John H Shin, Naresh Kumar, Daniel M Sciubba
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the techniques, indications, and outcomes of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) and separation surgery with subsequent radiosurgery in the treatment of patients with metastatic spine disease. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The utilization of MIS techniques in patients with spine metastases is a growing area within spinal oncology. Separation surgery represents a novel paradigm where radiosurgery provides long-term control after tumor is surgically separated from the neural elements...
October 15, 2016: Spine
Christian Brigolin, Nathan McKenty, Kirit Pindolia, Barry Wolf
Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by neurological and cutaneous abnormalities. Untreated individuals with biotinidase deficiency cannot recycle biotin from biocytin (N-biotinyl-ϵ-lysine), the proteolytic digestion product of protein-bound biotin. Biotin therapy can markedly resolve symptoms, or can prevent the development of symptoms if initiated early. To understand better the pathogenesis of the neurological problems in the disorder in humans, we have compared gene transcription changes during the first week post-birth in the brains of biotinidase-deficient, transgenic, knock-out mice at days 1 and 8 and compared to changes in wildtype mice at the same times...
December 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
Soung Min Kim, Emmanuel K Amponsah, Hui Young Kim, Ik Jae Kwon, Hoon Myoung, Jong Ho Lee
: Ameloblastoma is the most common benign odontogenic tumor of the jaw, and expansional growth of a huge untreated ameloblastoma can result in disturbances in facial aesthetics and function, such as difficulty with mouth opening, swallowing, chewing, breathing, neurologic deficits, and pathologic fractures. Radical wide resection with safety margins and subsequent reconstruction is generally recommended. A fibular free flap (FFF) is commonly used to reconstruct the mandible in order to adequately restore both aesthetic appearance and function...
September 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
Y H Kou, B G Jiang
Peripheral nerve defects are still a major challenge in clinical practice, and the most commonly used method of treatment for peripheral nerve defects is nerve transplantation, which has certain limitations and shortcomings, so new repair methods and techniques are needed. The peripheral nerve is elongated in limb lengthening surgery without injury, from which we got inspirations and proposed a new method to repair peripheral nerve defects: peripheral nerve elongation. The peripheral nerve could beelongated by a certain percent, but the physiological change and the maximum elongation range were still unknown...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Peter J Kelly, Gregory W Albers, Anastasios Chatzikonstantinou, Gian Marco De Marchis, Julia Ferrari, Paul George, Mira Katan, Michael Knoflach, Jong S Kim, Linxin Li, Eun-Jae Lee, Jean-Marc Olivot, Francisco Purroy, Nicolas Raposo, Peter M Rothwell, Vijay K Sharma, Bo Song, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Cathal Walsh, Yuming Xu, Aine Merwick
BACKGROUND: Identification of patients at highest risk of early stroke after transient ischaemic attack has been improved with imaging based scores. We aimed to compare the validity and prognostic utility of imaging-based stroke risk scores in patients after transient ischaemic attack. METHODS: We did a pooled analysis of published and unpublished individual-patient data from 16 cohort studies of transient ischaemic attack done in Asia, Europe, and the USA, with early brain and vascular imaging and follow up...
November 2016: Lancet Neurology
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