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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452328/louis-victor-leborgne-tan
#1
REVIEW
Nasser Mohammed, Devi Prasad Patra, Anil Nanda
Louis Victor Leborgne was a patient of Paul Broca. "Monsieur Leborgne" as Paul Broca would call him was also known around in the hospital by the nickname, "Tan," His neurological condition left him with a difficulty in speaking and he could only speak the word "Tan". Leborgne spent nearly half of his entire life in the hospital. He was initially admitted into the psychiatry division of the hospital and was later transferred under the care of Broca towards the end of his life. The story of the Leborgne sits in the crossroads of human thoughts that led to the discovery of cerebral localization...
February 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452281/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-post-operative-neurological-decline-after-complex-adult-spinal-deformity-surgery-results-of-the-scoli-risk-1-study
#2
Michael G Fehlings, So Kato, Lawrence G Lenke, Hiroaki Nakashima, Narihito Nagoshi, Christopher I Shaffrey, Kenneth M C Cheung, Leah Carreon, Mark B Dekutoski, Frank J Schwab, Oheneba Boachie-Adjei, Khaled M Kebaish, Christopher P Ames, Yong Qiu, Yukihiro Matsuyama, Benny T Dahl, Hossein Mehdian, Ferran Pellisé-Urquiza, Stephen J Lewis, Sigurd H Berven
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Significant variability in neurologic outcomes following surgical correction for adult spinal deformity (ASD) has been reported. Risk factors for decline in neurologic motor outcomes are poorly understood. PURPOSE: The objective of the present investigation was to identify the risk factors for post-operative neurological motor decline in patients undergoing complex ASD surgery. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: A prospective international multicenter cohort study...
February 13, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451849/a-comprehensive-review-of-eggs-choline-and-lutein-on-cognition-across-the-life-span
#3
Taylor C Wallace
In 2030, one in five Americans will be older than 65 years, and with that an increase in the number of individuals who experience loss in cognitive capacity is to be expected. At the same time, nutrition within the first 1000 days postconception has been suggested to strongly influence cognitive outcomes across the life-span in humans. Eggs are a primary source of both choline and the xanthophyll carotenoid lutein in the western diet, and both have been suggested to influence cognitive function in humans. This comprehensive review critically examines the effects of eggs, choline, and lutein on cognition across the life-span...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451699/development-and-validation-of-the-pediatric-stroke-quality-of-life-measure
#4
Andrea Fiume, Gabrielle Deveber, Shu-Hyun Jang, Colleen Fuller, Shani Viner, Sharon Friefeld
AIM: To develop and validate a disease-specific parent proxy and child quality of life (QoL) measure for patients aged 2 to 18 years surviving cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) and arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS). METHOD: Utilizing qualitative and quantitative methods, we developed a 75-item Pediatric Stroke Quality of Life Measure (PSQLM) questionnaire. We mailed the PSQLM and a standardized generic QoL measure, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), to 353 families...
February 16, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450650/access-to-the-cns-biomarker-strategies-for-dopaminergic-treatments
#5
REVIEW
Willem Johan van den Brink, Semra Palic, Isabelle Köhler, Elizabeth Cunera Maria de Lange
Despite substantial research carried out over the last decades, it remains difficult to understand the wide range of pharmacological effects of dopaminergic agents. The dopaminergic system is involved in several neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. This complex system features multiple pathways implicated in emotion and cognition, psychomotor functions and endocrine control through activation of G protein-coupled dopamine receptors. This review focuses on the system-wide effects of dopaminergic agents on the multiple biochemical and endocrine pathways, in particular the biomarkers (i...
February 15, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449789/factors-associated-with-prescribing-costs-analysis-of-a-nationwide-administrative-database
#6
O Hirsch, M Schulz, M Erhart, N Donner-Banzhoff
Objective: All health care systems in the world struggle with rising costs for drugs. We sought to explore factors impacting on prescribing costs in a nationwide database of ambulatory care in Germany. Factors identified by this research can be used for adjustment in future profiling efforts. Methods: We analysed nationwide prescription data of physicians having contractual relationships with statutory health insurance funds in 2014. Predictor and outcome variables were aggregated at the practice level...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449691/enhanced-release-of-acid-sphingomyelinase-enriched-exosomes-generates-a-lipidomics-signature-in-csf-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#7
Damiana Pieragostino, Ilaria Cicalini, Paola Lanuti, Eva Ercolino, Maria di Ioia, Mirco Zucchelli, Romina Zappacosta, Sebastiano Miscia, Marco Marchisio, Paolo Sacchetta, Marco Onofrj, Piero Del Boccio
Multiple Sclerosis (MuS) is a complex multifactorial neuropathology, resulting in heterogeneous clinical presentation. A very active MuS research field concerns the discovery of biomarkers helpful to make an early and definite diagnosis. The sphingomyelin pathway has emerged as a molecular mechanism involved in MuS, since high levels of ceramides in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were related to axonal damage and neuronal dysfunction. Ceramides are the hydrolysis products of sphingomyelins through a reaction catalyzed by a family of enzymes named sphingomyelinases, which were recently related to myelin repair in MuS...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448970/dementia-clinical-trial-implications-of-mild-behavioral-impairment
#8
Moyra E Mortby, Sandra E Black, Serge Gauthier, David Miller, Anton Porsteinsson, Eric E Smith, Zahinoor Ismail
The World Alzheimer Report 2016 estimated that 47 million people are living with dementia worldwide (Alzheimer's Disease International, 2016). In the inaugural World Health Organization Ministerial Conference on Global Action against Dementia, six of the top ten research priorities were focused on prevention, identification, and reduction of dementia risk, and on delivery and quality of care for people with dementia and their carers (Shah et al., 2016). While the Lancet Neurology Commission has suggested that even minor advances to delay progression or ameliorate symptoms might have substantial financial and societal benefits (Winblad et al...
February 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445459/parotid-swelling-after-russell-s-viper-envenomation-an-unusual-and-poor-prognostic-sign
#9
Maanoj N Sasidaran, Stephen P Samuel, Soundararaj ChinnaRaju, Michael Antonysamy, Tommaso C Bulfone, Matthew R Lewin
Parotid swelling, an unusual and poorly understood sign, is associated with poor prognosis in the setting of Russell's viper envenomation. The large, aggressive Russell's viper is one of the most deadly snakes causing severe hematological and neurological manifestations. Research into this sign should be initiated and understanding could lead to improved outcomes.
February 2018: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445033/rett-syndrome-a-neurological-disorder-with-metabolic-components
#10
REVIEW
Stephanie M Kyle, Neeti Vashi, Monica J Justice
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurological disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked gene methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 ( MECP2 ), a ubiquitously expressed transcriptional regulator. Despite remarkable scientific progress since its discovery, the mechanism by which MECP2 mutations cause RTT symptoms is largely unknown. Consequently, treatment options for patients are currently limited and centred on symptom relief. Thought to be an entirely neurological disorder, RTT research has focused on the role of MECP2 in the central nervous system...
February 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443814/danger-signals-in-the-icu
#11
Edward J Schenck, Kevin C Ma, Santosh B Murthy, Augustine M K Choi
OBJECTIVES: Sterile and infectious critical illnesses often result in vasoplegic shock and a robust systemic inflammatory response that are similar in presentation. The innate immune system is at the center of the response to both infectious and traumatic insults. Damage-associated molecular patterns are small molecules that are released from stressed or dying cells. Damage-associated molecular patterns activate pattern recognition receptors and coordinate the leading edge of the innate immune response...
February 13, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443022/detecting-behavioral-deficits-in-rats-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Nicole Hausser, Kathia Johnson, Margaret A Parsley, Jutatip Guptarak, Heidi Spratt, Stacy L Sell
With the increasing incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in both civilian and military populations, TBI is now considered a chronic disease; however, few studies have investigated the long-term effects of injury in rodent models of TBI. Shown here are behavioral measures that are well-established in TBI research for times early after injury, such as two weeks, until two months. Some of these methods have previously been used at later times after injury, up to one year, but by very few laboratories. The methods demonstrated here are a short neurological assessment to test reflexes, a Beam-Balance to test balance, a Beam-Walk to test balance and motor coordination, and a working memory version of the Morris water maze that can be sensitive to deficits in reference memory...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442594/pharmacoperones-as-novel-therapeutics-for-diverse-protein-conformational-diseases
#13
Ya-Xiong Tao, P Michael Conn
After synthesis, proteins are folded into their native conformations aided by molecular chaperones. Dysfunction in folding caused by genetic mutations in numerous genes causes protein conformational diseases. Membrane proteins are more prone to misfolding due to their more intricate folding than soluble proteins. Misfolded proteins are detected by the cellular quality control systems, especially in the endoplasmic reticulum, and proteins may be retained there for eventual degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system or through autophagy...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441119/diagnosis-monitoring-and-prevention-of-exposure-related-non-communicable-diseases-in-the-living-and-working-environment-dimopex-project-is-designed-to-determine-the-impacts-of-environmental-exposure-on-human-health
#14
REVIEW
Lygia Therese Budnik, Balazs Adam, Maria Albin, Barbara Banelli, Xaver Baur, Fiorella Belpoggi, Claudia Bolognesi, Karin Broberg, Per Gustavsson, Thomas Göen, Axel Fischer, Dorota Jarosinska, Fabiana Manservisi, Richard O'Kennedy, Johan Øvrevik, Elizabet Paunovic, Beate Ritz, Paul T J Scheepers, Vivi Schlünssen, Heidi Schwarzenbach, Per E Schwarze, Orla Sheils, Torben Sigsgaard, Karel Van Damme, Ludwine Casteleyn
The WHO has ranked environmental hazardous exposures in the living and working environment among the top risk factors for chronic disease mortality. Worldwide, about 40 million people die each year from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) including cancer, diabetes, and chronic cardiovascular, neurological and lung diseases. The exposure to ambient pollution in the living and working environment is exacerbated by individual susceptibilities and lifestyle-driven factors to produce complex and complicated NCD etiologies...
2018: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439744/an-investigation-into-closed-loop-treatment-of-neurological-disorders-based-on-sensing-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#15
REVIEW
Scott D Adams, Abbas Z Kouzani, Susannah J Tye, Kevin E Bennet, Michael Berk
Dynamic feedback based closed-loop medical devices offer a number of advantages for treatment of heterogeneous neurological conditions. Closed-loop devices integrate a level of neurobiological feedback, which allows for real-time adjustments to be made with the overarching aim of improving treatment efficacy and minimizing risks for adverse events. One target which has not been extensively explored as a potential feedback component in closed-loop therapies is mitochondrial function. Several neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders including Parkinson's disease, Major Depressive disorder and Bipolar disorder have been linked to perturbations in the mitochondrial respiratory chain...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439120/improved-visualization-of-cortical-lesions-in-multiple-sclerosis-using-7t-mp2rage
#16
E S Beck, P Sati, V Sethi, T Kober, B Dewey, P Bhargava, G Nair, I C Cortese, D S Reich
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cortical lesions are common and often extensive in multiple sclerosis but are difficult to visualize by MRI, leaving important questions about their clinical implications and response to therapy unanswered. Our aim was to determine whether cortical lesions are better visualized using magnetization prepared 2 rapid acquisition gradient echoes (MP2RAGE) than T2*-weighted imaging on 7T MR imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brain MR imaging using T1-weighted MP2RAGE at 500-μm isotropic resolution, T2*-weighted gradient-echo, and T2*-weighted segmented echo-planar imaging sequences were collected for 13 patients with MS and 5 age-matched neurologically healthy controls on a 7T research system...
February 8, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435802/measuring-health-related-quality-of-life-hrqol-in-community-and-facility-based-care-settings-with-the-interrai-assessment-instruments-development-of-a-crosswalk-to-hui3
#17
John P Hirdes, Julie Bernier, Rochelle Garner, Philippe Finès, Micaela Jantzi
BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures are of interest because they can be used to describe health of populations and represent a broader health outcome for population health analyses than mortality rates or life expectancy. The most widely used measure of HRQoL for deriving estimates of health-adjusted life expectancy is the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3). The HUI3 is available in most national surveys administered by Statistics Canada, and has been used as part of a microsimulation model to examine the impact of neurological conditions over the life course...
February 12, 2018: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435691/common-data-elements-collected-among-universities-for-sport-related-concussion-studies
#18
Jingzhen Yang, Corinne Peek-Asa, James M Noble, James Torner, Paul Schmidt, Martha L Cooper
BACKGROUND: Universities are increasingly implementing programs to effectively respond to and manage sport-related concussions (SRCs). One such effort is to develop common data elements (CDEs) and standardize data collection methods. The objectives of this study were to describe CDEs currently collected by Big Ten and Ivy League universities for SRC studies, and to compare the data collected with the core CDEs recommended by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)...
February 12, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435496/zika-virus-alters-dna-methylation-of-neural-genes-in-an-organoid-model-of-the-developing-human-brain
#19
Sylvie Janssens, Michael Schotsaert, Rahul Karnik, Vinod Balasubramaniam, Marion Dejosez, Alexander Meissner, Adolfo García-Sastre, Thomas P Zwaka
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during early pregnancy can cause microcephaly and associated defects at birth, but whether it can induce neurologic sequelae that appear later in life remains unclear. Using a model of the developing brain based on embryonic stem cell-derived brain organoids, we studied the impact of ZIKV infection on the DNA methylation pattern across the entire genome in selected neural cell types. The virus unexpectedly alters the DNA methylome of neural progenitors, astrocytes, and differentiated neurons at genes that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of brain disorders, most prominently mental retardation and schizophrenia...
January 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433366/mode-of-birth-in-twins-data-and-reflections
#20
A Reitter, B A Daviss, M J Krimphove, K C Johnson, R Schlößer, F Louwen, A Bisits
Our primary objective was to compare neonatal and maternal outcomes in women with twin pregnancies, beyond 32 weeks, having a planned vaginal birth or a planned caesarean section (CS). This was a retrospective cohort study from a single tertiary centre over nine years. 534 sets of twins ≥32 + 0 weeks of gestation were included. 401 sets were planned vaginally and 133 sets were planned by CS. We compared a composite adverse perinatal outcome (perinatal mortality or serious neonatal morbidity; five minute APGAR score ≤4, neurological abnormality and need for intubation) and a composite maternal adverse outcome (major haemorrhage, trauma or infection) between the groups...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
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