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Controlled cortical impact AND MRI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087280/increased-homocysteine-levels-impair-reference-memory-and-reduce-cortical-levels-of-acetylcholine-in-a-mouse-model-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#1
Kevin Dam, Martina Füchtemeier, Tracy D Farr, Philipp Boehm-Sturm, Marco Foddis, Ulrich Dirnagl, Olga Malysheva, Marie A Caudill, Nafisa M Jadavji
Folates are B-vitamins that are vital for normal brain function. Deficiencies in folates either genetic (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, MTHFR) or dietary intake of folic acid result in elevated levels of homocysteine. Clinical studies have shown that elevated levels of homocysteine (Hcy) may be associated with the development of dementia, however this link remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of increased Hcy levels on a mouse model of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) produced by chronic hypoperfusion...
January 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058996/intranasal-insulin-treatment-of-an-experimental-model-of-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Fiona Brabazon, Colin M Wilson, Shalini Jaiswal, John Reed, William H Frey, Kimberly R Byrnes
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in learning and memory dysfunction. Cognitive deficits result from cellular and metabolic dysfunction after injury, including decreased cerebral glucose uptake and inflammation. This study assessed the ability of intranasal insulin to increase cerebral glucose uptake after injury, reduce lesion volume, improve memory and learning function and reduce inflammation. Adult male rats received a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury followed by intranasal insulin or saline treatment daily for 14 days...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045900/no-evidence-of-association-between-childhood-urban-environment-and-cortical-thinning-in-psychotic-disorder
#3
Aleida Frissen, Jim van Os, Petra Habets, Ed Gronenschild, Machteld Marcelis
BACKGROUND: The alterations in cortical morphology, such as cortical thinning, observed in psychotic disorder, may be the outcome of interacting genetic and environmental effects. It has been suggested that urban upbringing may represent a proxy environmental effect impacting cortical thickness (CT). Therefore, the current study examined whether the association between group as a proxy genetic variable (patients with psychotic disorder [high genetic risk], healthy siblings of patients [intermediate risk] and healthy control subjects [average risk]) and CT was conditional on different levels of the childhood urban environment and whether this was sex-dependent...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989645/effects-of-environmental-risks-and-polygenic-loading-for-schizophrenia-on-cortical-thickness
#4
Emma Neilson, Catherine Bois, Jude Gibson, Barbara Duff, Andrew Watson, Neil Roberts, Nicholas J Brandon, John Dunlop, Jeremy Hall, Andrew M McIntosh, Heather C Whalley, Stephen M Lawrie
There are established differences in cortical thickness (CT) in schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar (BD) patients when compared to healthy controls (HC). However, it is unknown to what extent environmental or genetic risk factors impact on CT in these populations. We have investigated the effect of Environmental Risk Scores (ERS) and Polygenic Risk Scores for SCZ (PGRS-SCZ) on CT. Structural MRI scans were acquired at 3T for patients with SCZ or BD (n=57) and controls (n=41). Cortical reconstructions were generated in FreeSurfer (v5...
December 15, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802229/diverging-progression-of-network-disruption-and-atrophy-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-semantic-dementia
#5
Jennifer Andreotti, Thomas Dierks, Lars-Olof Wahlund, Matthias Grieder
The progression of cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease and semantic dementia is accompanied by grey matter atrophy and white matter deterioration. The impact of neuronal loss on the structural network connectivity in these dementia subtypes is, however, not well understood. In order to gain a more refined knowledge of the topological organization of white matter alterations in dementia, we used a network-based approach to analyze the brain's structural connectivity network. Diffusion-weighted and anatomical MRI images of groups with eighteen Alzheimer's disease and six semantic dementia patients, as well as twenty-one healthy controls were recorded to reconstruct individual connectivity networks...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780331/reduced-regional-cortical-thickness-rate-of-change-in-donepezil-treated-subjects-with-suspected-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Enrica Cavedo, Bruno Dubois, Olivier Colliot, Simone Lista, Bernard Croisile, Guy Louis Tisserand, Jacques Touchon, Alain Bonafe, Pierre J Ousset, Olivier Rouaud, Fréderic Ricolfi, Alain Vighetto, Florence Pasquier, Samantha Galluzzi, Christine Delmaire, Mathieu Ceccaldi, Nadine Girard, Stéphane Lehericy, Françoise Duveau, Marie Chupin, Marie Sarazin, Didier Dormont, Harald Hampel
OBJECTIVE: Cortical thinning, previously identified during prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a "candidate" biomarker implemented in AD clinical therapy trials. We investigated the effect of donepezil treatment on cortical thickness in mild cognitively impaired subjects with the amnestic syndrome of the hippocampal type, a prodromal at-risk group for progression to AD dementia. METHODS: Data were from a longitudinal analysis of a community-based multicenter suspected prodromal AD cohort diagnosed by the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (81 donepezil vs 92 placebo) enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel group design using donepezil (10 mg/day)...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767995/association-of-kidney-function-biomarkers-with-brain-mri-findings-the-brink-study
#7
Prashanthi Vemuri, David S Knopman, Clifford R Jack, Emily S Lundt, Stephen D Weigand, Samantha M Zuk, Kaely B Thostenson, Robert I Reid, Kejal Kantarci, Yelena Slinin, Kamakshi Lakshminarayan, Cynthia S Davey, Anne Murray
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) studies have reported variable prevalence of brain pathologies, in part due to low inclusion of participants with moderate to severe CKD. OBJECTIVE: To measure the association between kidney function biomarkers and brain MRI findings in CKD. METHODS: In the BRINK (BRain IN Kidney Disease) study, MRI was used to measure gray matter volumes, cerebrovascular pathologies (white matter hyperintensity (WMH), infarctions, microhemorrhages), and microstructural changes using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604743/magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Qiang Shen, Lora Tally Watts, Wei Li, Timothy Q Duong
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in the USA. Common causes of TBI include falls, violence, injuries from wars, and vehicular and sporting accidents. The initial direct mechanical damage in TBI is followed by progressive secondary injuries such as brain swelling, perturbed cerebral blood flow (CBF), abnormal cerebrovascular reactivity (CR), metabolic dysfunction, blood-brain-barrier disruption, inflammation, oxidative stress, and excitotoxicity, among others. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the means to noninvasively probe many of these secondary injuries...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597821/structural-and-functional-mri-differences-in-master-sommeliers-a-pilot-study-on-expertise-in-the-brain
#9
Sarah J Banks, Karthik R Sreenivasan, David M Weintraub, Deanna Baldock, Michael Noback, Meghan E Pierce, Johannes Frasnelli, Jay James, Erik Beall, Xiaowei Zhuang, Dietmar Cordes, Gabriel C Leger
Our experiences, even as adults, shape our brains. Regional differences have been found in experts, with the regions associated with their particular skill-set. Functional differences have also been noted in brain activation patterns in some experts. This study uses multimodal techniques to assess structural and functional patterns that differ between experts and non-experts. Sommeliers are experts in wine and thus in olfaction. We assessed differences in Master Sommeliers' brains, compared with controls, in structure and also in functional response to olfactory and visual judgment tasks...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554593/-18-f-fdg-pet-combined-with-mri-elucidates-the-pathophysiology-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#10
Fiona Brabazon, Colin M Wilson, Dinesh K Shukla, Sanjeev Mathur, Shalini Jaiswal, Sara Bermudez, Kimberly R Byrnes, Reed Selwyn
Non-invasive measurements of brain metabolism using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) with positron emission tomography (PET) may provide important information about injury severity following traumatic brain injury (TBI). There is growing interest in the potential of combining functional PET imaging with anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of combining clinically available FDG-PET with T2 and diffusion MR imaging, with a particular focus on inflammation and the influence of glial alterations after injury...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553877/post-traumatic-administration-of-the-p53-inactivator-pifithrin-%C3%AE-oxygen-analogue-reduces-hippocampal-neuronal-loss-and-improves-cognitive-deficits-after-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Ling-Yu Yang, Nigel H Greig, Ya-Ni Huang, Tsung-Hsun Hsieh, David Tweedie, Qian-Sheng Yu, Barry J Hoffer, Yu Luo, Yu-Chieh Kao, Jia-Yi Wang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus has been detected after TBI. The hippocampal dysfunction may result in cognitive deficits in learning, memory, and spatial information processing. Our previous studies demonstrated that a p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α oxygen analogue (PFT-α (O)), significantly reduced cortical cell death, which is substantial following controlled cortical impact (CCI) TBI, and improved neurological functional outcomes via anti-apoptotic mechanisms...
August 20, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551646/design-and-application-of-a-new-automated-fluidic-visceral-stimulation-device-for-human-fmri-studies-of-interoception
#12
Behnaz Jarrahi, Roger Gassert, Johann Wanek, Lars Michels, Ulrich Mehnert, Spyros S Kollias
Mapping the brain centers that mediate the sensory-perceptual processing of visceral afferent signals arising from the body (i.e., interoception) is useful both for characterizing normal brain activity and for understanding clinical disorders related to abnormal processing of visceral sensation. Here, we report a novel closed-system, electrohydrostatically driven master-slave device that was designed and constructed for delivering controlled fluidic stimulations of visceral organs and inner cavities of the human body within the confines of a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner...
2016: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453032/cognitive-impairment-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-richardson-s-syndrome-is-related-to-white-matter-damage
#13
Francesca Caso, Federica Agosta, Maria Antonietta Volonté, Pilar M Ferraro, Pietro Tiraboschi, Massimiliano Copetti, Paola Valsasina, Monica Falautano, Giancarlo Comi, Andrea Falini, Massimo Filippi
INTRODUCTION: Beside motor symptoms, patients with progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (PSPs) commonly present cognitive and behavioral disorders. In this study we aimed to assess the structural brain correlates of cognitive impairment in PSPs. METHODS: We enrolled 23 patients with probable PSP Richardson's syndrome and 15 matched healthy controls. Patients underwent an extensive clinical and neuropsychological evaluation. Cortical thickness measures and diffusion tensor metrics of white matter tracts were obtained...
October 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436132/acute-effects-of-ferumoxytol-on-regulation-of-renal-hemodynamics-and-oxygenation
#14
Kathleen Cantow, Andreas Pohlmann, Bert Flemming, Fabienne Ferrara, Sonia Waiczies, Dirk Grosenick, Thoralf Niendorf, Erdmann Seeliger
The superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle ferumoxytol is increasingly used as intravascular contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study details the impact of ferumoxytol on regulation of renal hemodynamics and oxygenation. In 10 anesthetized rats, a single intravenous injection of isotonic saline (used as volume control) was followed by three consecutive injections of ferumoxytol to achieve cumulative doses of 6, 10, and 41 mg Fe/kg body mass. Arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow, renal cortical and medullary perfusion and oxygen tension were continuously measured...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27403852/random-number-generation-deficits-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-characteristics-and-neural-correlates
#15
Olivia Geisseler, Tobias Pflugshaupt, Andreas Buchmann, Ladina Bezzola, Katja Reuter, Bernhard Schuknecht, David Weller, Michael Linnebank, Peter Brugger
Human subjects typically deviate systematically from randomness when attempting to produce a sequence of random numbers. Despite an increasing number of behavioral and functional neuroimaging studies on random number generation (RNG), its structural correlates have never been investigated. We set out to fill this gap in 44 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease whose impact on RNG has never been studied. The RNG task required the paced (1 Hz) generation of the numbers from 1 to 6 in a sequence as random as possible...
September 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379570/the-topography-of-cortical-microinfarcts-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-and-in-vascular-dementia-a-postmortem-7-0-tesla-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#16
Jacques L De Reuck, Florent Auger, Nicolas Durieux, Charlotte Cordonnier, Vincent Deramecourt, Florence Pasquier, Claude-Alain Maurage, Didier Leys, Regis Bordet
BACKGROUND: Cortical microinfarcts (CoMIs) are considered as barely visible lesions in clinical-neuroradiological correlation studies. On postmortem 7.0-tesla MRI, however, CoMIs of different size are easily detected. SUMMARY: The present MRI study investigates 84 postmortem brains with different neurodegenerative diseases and vascular dementia (VaD) for their topographic distribution and the prevalence of CoMIs. The mean numbers of CoMIs were determined on 6 hemispheric coronal sections and in 22 different gyri with a 7...
2016: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27294688/quantitative-mri-and-dti-abnormalities-during-the-acute-period-following-cci-in-the-ferret
#17
Elizabeth B Hutchinson, Susan C Schwerin, Kryslaine L Radomski, Mustafa O Irfanoglu, Sharon L Juliano, Carlo M Pierpaoli
During the acute time period following traumatic brain injury (TBI), noninvasive brain imaging tools such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide important information about the clinical and pathological features of the injury and may help predict long-term outcomes. In addition to standard imaging approaches, several quantitative MRI techniques including relaxometry and diffusion MRI have been identified as promising reporters of cellular alterations after TBI and may provide greater sensitivity and specificity for identifying brain abnormalities especially in mild TBI...
September 2016: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281804/postnatal-iron-deficiency-alters-brain-development-in-piglets
#18
Brian J Leyshon, Emily C Radlowski, Austin T Mudd, Andrew J Steelman, Rodney W Johnson
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits associated with postnatal iron deficiency (ID) suggest abnormal brain development, but little is known about animals with gyrencephalic brains. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the impact of ID on brain development in piglets. METHODS: Male and female Yorkshire piglets were reared from postnatal day (PD) 2 until PD 29 or 30 by using milk replacer adequate [control (CON)] or deficient (100 compared with 10 mg/kg) in iron and subjected to MRI to assess brain macrostructure, microstructure, and metabolites in the dorsal hippocampi and intervening space...
July 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27244227/abdominal-pain-the-adolescent-and-altered-brain-structure-and-function
#19
Catherine S Hubbard, Lino Becerra, Nicole Heinz, Allison Ludwick, Tali Rasooly, Rina Wu, Adriana Johnson, Neil L Schechter, David Borsook, Samuel Nurko
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder of unknown etiology. Although relatively common in children, how this condition affects brain structure and function in a pediatric population remains unclear. Here, we investigate brain changes in adolescents with IBS and healthy controls. Imaging was performed with a Siemens 3 Tesla Trio Tim MRI scanner equipped with a 32-channel head coil. A high-resolution T1-weighted anatomical scan was acquired followed by a T2-weighted functional scan...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27208495/spatiotemporal-changes-in-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-cerebral-blood-flow-t2-and-diffusion-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Wei Li, Lora Watts, Justin Long, Wei Zhou, Qiang Shen, Zhao Jiang, Yunxia Li, Timothy Q Duong
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) can be impaired following traumatic brain injury (TBI), however the spatiotemporal dynamics of BBB leakage remain incompletely understood. In this study, we evaluated the spatiotemporal evolution of BBB permeability using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and measured the volume transfer coefficient (K(trans)), a quantitative measure of contrast agent leakage across the blood and extravascular compartment. Measurements were made in a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of mild TBI in rats from 1h to 7 days following TBI...
September 1, 2016: Brain Research
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