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Controlled cortical impact AND MRI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273767/impairment-of-social-cognition-in-multiple-sclerosis-amygdala-atrophy-is-the-main-predictor
#1
Sonia Batista, Otília C d'Almeida, Ana Afonso, Sandra Freitas, Carmo Macário, Lívia Sousa, Miguel Castelo-Branco, Isabel Santana, Luís Cunha
BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently reveal social behavior disturbance. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the impact of MS on social cognition, particularly theory of mind (ToM), and its neural basis. OBJECTIVES: To explore how ToM is affected in MS and its neural correlates. METHODS: Enrolled 60 consecutive MS patients and 60 healthy controls (HC) matched on age, sex, and education. Participants underwent ToM testing (Eyes Test, Videos Test) and 3 T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
December 1, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272153/brain-gray-matter-mri-morphometry-for-neuroprognostication-after-cardiac-arrest
#2
Stein Silva, Patrice Peran, Lionel Kerhuel, Briguita Malagurski, Nicolas Chauveau, Benoit Bataille, Jean Albert Lotterie, Pierre Celsis, Florent Aubry, Giuseppe Citerio, Betty Jean, Russel Chabanne, Vincent Perlbarg, Lionel Velly, Damien Galanaud, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Olivier Fourcade, Steven Laureys, Louis Puybasset
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesize that the combined use of MRI cortical thickness measurement and subcortical gray matter volumetry could provide an early and accurate in vivo assessment of the structural impact of cardiac arrest and therefore could be used for long-term neuroprognostication in this setting. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Five Intensive Critical Care Units affiliated to the University in Toulouse (France), Paris (France), Clermont-Ferrand (France), Liège (Belgium), and Monza (Italy)...
March 7, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228060/resuscitation-with-lyophilized-plasma-is-safe-and-improves-neurologic-recovery-in-a-long-term-survival-model-of-swine-subjected-to-traumatic-brain-injury-hemorrhagic-shock-and-polytrauma
#3
Patrick E Georgoff, Vahagn C Nikolian, Ihab Halaweish, Kiril Chtraklin, Peter J Bruhn, Hassan Eidy, Monica Rasmussen, Yongqing Li, Ashok Srinivasan, Hasan B Alam
We have previously shown that fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and lyophilized plasma decrease brain lesion size and improve neurologic recovery in a swine model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS). In this study, we examine whether these findings can be validated in a clinically relevant model of severe TBI, HS, and polytrauma. Female Yorkshire swine were subjected to TBI (controlled cortical impact), hemorrhage (40% volume), grade III liver and splenic injuries, rib fracture, and rectus abdominis crush...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217290/neuroprotective-effect-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-in-a-juvenile-rat-model-of-repetitive-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Lei Huang, Andre Obenaus, Mary Hamer, John H Zhang
Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) is an important medical concern for adolescent athletes that can lead to long-term disabilities. Multiple mild injuries may exacerbate tissue damage resulting in cumulative brain injury and poor functional recovery. In the present study, we investigated the increased brain vulnerability to rmTBI and the effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment using a juvenile rat model of rmTBI. Two episodes of mild cortical controlled impact (3 days apart) were induced in juvenile rats...
October 2016: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179221/frontostriatal-and-behavioral-adaptations-to-daily-sugar-sweetened-beverage-intake-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Kyle S Burger
Background: Current obesity theories suggest that the repeated intake of highly palatable high-sugar foods causes adaptions in the striatum, parietal lobe, and prefrontal and visual cortices in the brain that may serve to perpetuate consumption in a feed-forward manner. However, the data for humans are cross-sectional and observational, leaving little ability to determine the temporal precedence of repeated consumption on brain response.Objective: We tested the impact of regular sugar-sweetened beverage intake on brain and behavioral responses to beverage stimuli...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128026/amide-proton-transfer-weighted-mri-detection-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#6
Hong Zhang, Wenzhu Wang, Shanshan Jiang, Yi Zhang, Hye-Young Heo, Xianlong Wang, Yun Peng, Jian Wang, Jinyuan Zhou
The purpose of this study was to explore the capability and uniqueness of amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) imaging in the detection of primary and secondary injury after controlled cortical impact (CCI)-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. Eleven adult rats had craniotomy plus CCI surgery under isoflurane anesthesia. Multi-parameter MRI data were acquired at 4.7 T, at eight time points (1, 6 h, and 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after TBI). At one and six hours post-injury, average APTw signal intensities decreased significantly in the impacted and peri-lesional areas due to tissue acidosis...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087280/increased-homocysteine-levels-impair-reference-memory-and-reduce-cortical-levels-of-acetylcholine-in-a-mouse-model-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#7
Kevin Dam, Martina Füchtemeier, Tracy D Farr, Philipp Boehm-Sturm, Marco Foddis, Ulrich Dirnagl, Olga Malysheva, Marie A Caudill, Nafisa M Jadavji
Folates are B-vitamins that are vital for normal brain function. Deficiencies in folates either genetic (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, MTHFR) or dietary intake of folic acid result in elevated levels of homocysteine. Clinical studies have shown that elevated levels of homocysteine (Hcy) may be associated with the development of dementia, however this link remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of increased Hcy levels on a mouse model of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) produced by chronic hypoperfusion...
March 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058996/intranasal-insulin-treatment-of-an-experimental-model-of-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Fiona Brabazon, Colin M Wilson, Shalini Jaiswal, John Reed, William H Frey, Kimberly R Byrnes
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in learning and memory dysfunction. Cognitive deficits result from cellular and metabolic dysfunction after injury, including decreased cerebral glucose uptake and inflammation. This study assessed the ability of intranasal insulin to increase cerebral glucose uptake after injury, reduce lesion volume, improve memory and learning function and reduce inflammation. Adult male rats received a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury followed by intranasal insulin or saline treatment daily for 14 days...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045900/no-evidence-of-association-between-childhood-urban-environment-and-cortical-thinning-in-psychotic-disorder
#9
Aleida Frissen, Jim van Os, Petra Habets, Ed Gronenschild, Machteld Marcelis
BACKGROUND: The alterations in cortical morphology, such as cortical thinning, observed in psychotic disorder, may be the outcome of interacting genetic and environmental effects. It has been suggested that urban upbringing may represent a proxy environmental effect impacting cortical thickness (CT). Therefore, the current study examined whether the association between group as a proxy genetic variable (patients with psychotic disorder [high genetic risk], healthy siblings of patients [intermediate risk] and healthy control subjects [average risk]) and CT was conditional on different levels of the childhood urban environment and whether this was sex-dependent...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989645/effects-of-environmental-risks-and-polygenic-loading-for-schizophrenia-on-cortical-thickness
#10
Emma Neilson, Catherine Bois, Jude Gibson, Barbara Duff, Andrew Watson, Neil Roberts, Nicholas J Brandon, John Dunlop, Jeremy Hall, Andrew M McIntosh, Heather C Whalley, Stephen M Lawrie
There are established differences in cortical thickness (CT) in schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar (BD) patients when compared to healthy controls (HC). However, it is unknown to what extent environmental or genetic risk factors impact on CT in these populations. We have investigated the effect of Environmental Risk Scores (ERS) and Polygenic Risk Scores for SCZ (PGRS-SCZ) on CT. Structural MRI scans were acquired at 3T for patients with SCZ or BD (n=57) and controls (n=41). Cortical reconstructions were generated in FreeSurfer (v5...
December 15, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802229/diverging-progression-of-network-disruption-and-atrophy-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-semantic-dementia
#11
Jennifer Andreotti, Thomas Dierks, Lars-Olof Wahlund, Matthias Grieder
The progression of cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease and semantic dementia is accompanied by grey matter atrophy and white matter deterioration. The impact of neuronal loss on the structural network connectivity in these dementia subtypes is, however, not well understood. In order to gain a more refined knowledge of the topological organization of white matter alterations in dementia, we used a network-based approach to analyze the brain's structural connectivity network. Diffusion-weighted and anatomical MRI images of groups with eighteen Alzheimer's disease and six semantic dementia patients, as well as twenty-one healthy controls were recorded to reconstruct individual connectivity networks...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780331/reduced-regional-cortical-thickness-rate-of-change-in-donepezil-treated-subjects-with-suspected-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Enrica Cavedo, Bruno Dubois, Olivier Colliot, Simone Lista, Bernard Croisile, Guy Louis Tisserand, Jacques Touchon, Alain Bonafe, Pierre J Ousset, Olivier Rouaud, Fréderic Ricolfi, Alain Vighetto, Florence Pasquier, Samantha Galluzzi, Christine Delmaire, Mathieu Ceccaldi, Nadine Girard, Stéphane Lehericy, Françoise Duveau, Marie Chupin, Marie Sarazin, Didier Dormont, Harald Hampel
OBJECTIVE: Cortical thinning, previously identified during prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a "candidate" biomarker implemented in AD clinical therapy trials. We investigated the effect of donepezil treatment on cortical thickness in mild cognitively impaired subjects with the amnestic syndrome of the hippocampal type, a prodromal at-risk group for progression to AD dementia. METHODS: Data were from a longitudinal analysis of a community-based multicenter suspected prodromal AD cohort diagnosed by the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (81 donepezil vs 92 placebo) enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel group design using donepezil (10 mg/day)...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767995/association-of-kidney-function-biomarkers-with-brain-mri-findings-the-brink-study
#13
Prashanthi Vemuri, David S Knopman, Clifford R Jack, Emily S Lundt, Stephen D Weigand, Samantha M Zuk, Kaely B Thostenson, Robert I Reid, Kejal Kantarci, Yelena Slinin, Kamakshi Lakshminarayan, Cynthia S Davey, Anne Murray
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) studies have reported variable prevalence of brain pathologies, in part due to low inclusion of participants with moderate to severe CKD. OBJECTIVE: To measure the association between kidney function biomarkers and brain MRI findings in CKD. METHODS: In the BRINK (BRain IN Kidney Disease) study, MRI was used to measure gray matter volumes, cerebrovascular pathologies (white matter hyperintensity (WMH), infarctions, microhemorrhages), and microstructural changes using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604743/magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Qiang Shen, Lora Tally Watts, Wei Li, Timothy Q Duong
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in the USA. Common causes of TBI include falls, violence, injuries from wars, and vehicular and sporting accidents. The initial direct mechanical damage in TBI is followed by progressive secondary injuries such as brain swelling, perturbed cerebral blood flow (CBF), abnormal cerebrovascular reactivity (CR), metabolic dysfunction, blood-brain-barrier disruption, inflammation, oxidative stress, and excitotoxicity, among others. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the means to noninvasively probe many of these secondary injuries...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597821/structural-and-functional-mri-differences-in-master-sommeliers-a-pilot-study-on-expertise-in-the-brain
#15
Sarah J Banks, Karthik R Sreenivasan, David M Weintraub, Deanna Baldock, Michael Noback, Meghan E Pierce, Johannes Frasnelli, Jay James, Erik Beall, Xiaowei Zhuang, Dietmar Cordes, Gabriel C Leger
Our experiences, even as adults, shape our brains. Regional differences have been found in experts, with the regions associated with their particular skill-set. Functional differences have also been noted in brain activation patterns in some experts. This study uses multimodal techniques to assess structural and functional patterns that differ between experts and non-experts. Sommeliers are experts in wine and thus in olfaction. We assessed differences in Master Sommeliers' brains, compared with controls, in structure and also in functional response to olfactory and visual judgment tasks...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554593/-18-f-fdg-pet-combined-with-mri-elucidates-the-pathophysiology-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#16
Fiona Brabazon, Colin M Wilson, Dinesh K Shukla, Sanjeev Mathur, Shalini Jaiswal, Sara Bermudez, Kimberly R Byrnes, Reed Selwyn
Non-invasive measurements of brain metabolism using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) with positron emission tomography (PET) may provide important information about injury severity following traumatic brain injury (TBI). There is growing interest in the potential of combining functional PET imaging with anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of combining clinically available FDG-PET with T2 and diffusion MR imaging, with a particular focus on inflammation and the influence of glial alterations after injury...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553877/post-traumatic-administration-of-the-p53-inactivator-pifithrin-%C3%AE-oxygen-analogue-reduces-hippocampal-neuronal-loss-and-improves-cognitive-deficits-after-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Ling-Yu Yang, Nigel H Greig, Ya-Ni Huang, Tsung-Hsun Hsieh, David Tweedie, Qian-Sheng Yu, Barry J Hoffer, Yu Luo, Yu-Chieh Kao, Jia-Yi Wang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus has been detected after TBI. The hippocampal dysfunction may result in cognitive deficits in learning, memory, and spatial information processing. Our previous studies demonstrated that a p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α oxygen analogue (PFT-α (O)), significantly reduced cortical cell death, which is substantial following controlled cortical impact (CCI) TBI, and improved neurological functional outcomes via anti-apoptotic mechanisms...
August 20, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551646/design-and-application-of-a-new-automated-fluidic-visceral-stimulation-device-for-human-fmri-studies-of-interoception
#18
Behnaz Jarrahi, Roger Gassert, Johann Wanek, Lars Michels, Ulrich Mehnert, Spyros S Kollias
Mapping the brain centers that mediate the sensory-perceptual processing of visceral afferent signals arising from the body (i.e., interoception) is useful both for characterizing normal brain activity and for understanding clinical disorders related to abnormal processing of visceral sensation. Here, we report a novel closed-system, electrohydrostatically driven master-slave device that was designed and constructed for delivering controlled fluidic stimulations of visceral organs and inner cavities of the human body within the confines of a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner...
2016: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453032/cognitive-impairment-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-richardson-s-syndrome-is-related-to-white-matter-damage
#19
Francesca Caso, Federica Agosta, Maria Antonietta Volonté, Pilar M Ferraro, Pietro Tiraboschi, Massimiliano Copetti, Paola Valsasina, Monica Falautano, Giancarlo Comi, Andrea Falini, Massimo Filippi
INTRODUCTION: Beside motor symptoms, patients with progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (PSPs) commonly present cognitive and behavioral disorders. In this study we aimed to assess the structural brain correlates of cognitive impairment in PSPs. METHODS: We enrolled 23 patients with probable PSP Richardson's syndrome and 15 matched healthy controls. Patients underwent an extensive clinical and neuropsychological evaluation. Cortical thickness measures and diffusion tensor metrics of white matter tracts were obtained...
October 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436132/acute-effects-of-ferumoxytol-on-regulation-of-renal-hemodynamics-and-oxygenation
#20
Kathleen Cantow, Andreas Pohlmann, Bert Flemming, Fabienne Ferrara, Sonia Waiczies, Dirk Grosenick, Thoralf Niendorf, Erdmann Seeliger
The superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle ferumoxytol is increasingly used as intravascular contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study details the impact of ferumoxytol on regulation of renal hemodynamics and oxygenation. In 10 anesthetized rats, a single intravenous injection of isotonic saline (used as volume control) was followed by three consecutive injections of ferumoxytol to achieve cumulative doses of 6, 10, and 41 mg Fe/kg body mass. Arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow, renal cortical and medullary perfusion and oxygen tension were continuously measured...
2016: Scientific Reports
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