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Causes of diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231667/-association-between-body-mass-index-and-both-total-and-cause-specific-mortality-in-china-findings-from-data-through-the-china-kadoorie-biobank
#1
L X Wang, M Y Fan, C Q Yu, Y Guo, Z Bian, Y L Tan, P Pei, J S Chen, J Lyu, L M Li
Objective: To evaluate the associations between body mass index (BMI) and both total and cause-specific mortality. Methods: After excluding participants with heart disease, stroke, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes at baseline study, 428 593 participants aged 30-79 in the China Kadoorie Biobank study were chosen for this study. Participants were categorized into 9 groups according to their BMI status. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of mortality on BMI...
February 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231377/evidence-based-s3-guidelines-for-diagnostics-and-treatment-of-venous-leg-ulcers-answer-to-dr-bertolini
#2
Martino Neumann
The differential diagnosis of a leg ulcer is broad with a great variety of diseases. Beside the well known as venous, arterial, mixed and diabetic most are rare. Prolidase deficiency is one of the rare causes.Nether the less it is an excellent suggestion to add also genetic diseases as prolidae deficiency to this Guideline. The committee will take this for the next revision.Martino Neumann, on behalf of the redaction of the EADF Guideline Diagnosis and Treatment of Venous Leg Ulcers This article is protected by copyright...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231373/auricular-complications-in-parotid-temporal-bone-infratemporal-fossa-and-lateral-skull-base-surgery
#3
Patrick S Carpenter, Ryan C Burgette, John P Leonetti, Sam J Marzo
Neoplasms located in the parotid region, temporal bone, infratemporal fossa, and lateral skull base represent a challenge due to their difficult anatomic location and surrounding neurovascular structures. A variety of surgical approaches are appropriate to access this area, although several of them can place the auricular blood supply in danger. If the auricular blood supply is compromised, ischemia and, eventually, avascular necrosis of the auricle can occur. Auricular necrosis often can cause patients a delay in adjuvant radiation therapy and result in the need for additional reconstructive procedures...
February 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230446/economic-impact-of-treatment-duration-and-persistence-with-basal-insulin-in-previously-insulin-naive-users
#4
Samaneh Kalirai, Ran Duan, Dongju Liu, Beverly L Reed
BACKGROUND: Although insulin is a well-established therapy that is associated with improved clinical outcomes, adherence and persistence with insulin regimens are poor in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Diabetes-related health care costs and the impact of insulin persistence patterns on these health care costs have been previously studied; however, these aspects of insulin therapy have limited data beyond the first year of use and have not been characterized among patients previously naive to basal insulin...
March 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230312/five-year-cost-effectiveness-of-patient-empowerment-programme-pep-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-primary-care
#5
J X Lian, Sarah M McGhee, C So, J Chau, Carlos Kh Wong, William Cw Wong, Cindy Lk Lam
This study evaluated the short-term cost-effectiveness of the Patient Empowerment Programme (PEP) for diabetes mellitus in Hong Kong. Propensity score matching was used to select a matched group of PEP and non-PEP subjects. A societal perspective was adopted to estimate the cost of PEP. The outcome measures were the cumulative incidence of all-cause mortality and diabetic complication over a five-year follow-up and the number needed to treat (NNT) to avoid one event. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of cost per event avoided was calculated using the PEP cost per subject multiplied by the NNT...
February 23, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229926/the-role-of-frailty-in-explaining-the-association-between-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-mortality-in-older-adults
#6
Emiel O Hoogendijk, Martijn Huisman, Adriana J van Ballegooijen
The association between the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and adverse outcomes in older adults may be explained by other health conditions. This study examined the role of frailty in explaining the association between MetS and mortality, independent of comorbidity. Data were used from 1247 men and women aged ≥65years of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. MetS was assessed using the definition of the US National Cholesterol Education Program. Frailty was measured by the frailty phenotype. Mortality was monitored from 1995 until 2015...
February 14, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229902/impact-of-high-glucose-and-ages-on-cultured-kidney-derived-cells-effects-on-cell-viability-lysosomal-enzymes-and-effectors-of-cell-signaling-pathways
#7
Giovani B Peres, Nestor Schor, Yara M Michelacci
We have previously reported decreased expression and activities of lysosomal cathepsins B and L in diabetic kidney. Relevant morphological changes were observed in proximal tubules, suggesting that these cells are implicated in the early stages of the disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms that lead to these changes. The effects of high glucose (HG) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on cell viability, lysosomal enzymes and other effectors of cell signaling of cultured kidney cells were studied...
February 13, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229629/protective-effect-of-crocin-and-voluntary-exercise-against-oxidative-stress-in-the-heart-of-high-fat-diet-induced-type-2-diabetic-rats
#8
V Ghorbanzadeh, M Mohammadi, G Mohaddes, H Dariushnejad, L Chodari, S Mohammadi
Background Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis and progression of type 2 diabetes and diabetic-associated cardiovascular complications. This study investigated the impact of crocin combined with voluntary exercise on heart oxidative stress indicator in high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Materials and methods Rats were divided into four groups: diabetes, diabetic-crocin, diabetic-voluntary exercise, diabetic-crocin-voluntary exercise. Type 2 diabetes was induced by high-fat diet (4 weeks) and injection of streptozotocin (intraperitoneally, 35 mg/kg)...
December 2016: Physiol Int
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229205/-spectrum-of-pathogens-in-postoperative-complications-of-visceral-surgery-the-problem-of-multidrug-resistance
#9
A Kramer, J Pochhammer, P Walger, U Seifert, M Ruhnke, J C Harnoss
In general surgery the etiology of surgical site infections has not significantly changed over the last 30 years. Gram-positive bacteria, e.g. coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. as well as Gram-negative bacteria, e.g. Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are the most common findings. Although in general surgery 10% of the S. aureus causing postoperative wound infections were methicillin resistant (MRSA), no cases of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative (MRGN) bacteria were reported...
February 22, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228702/catechin-treatment-ameliorates-diabetes-and-its-complications-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#10
Saeed Samarghandian, Mohsen Azimi-Nezhad, Tahereh Farkhondeh
CONTEXT: Diabetes mellitus causes atherosclerosis and lipid abnormalities. Hypolipidemic and antioxidative properties of catechin (CTN) have been reported in several studies. OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the possible protective effects of CTN against oxidative damage in the diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rats were divided into the control, untreated diabetic, and 3 CTN-treated diabetic groups (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg/d, intraperitoneal)...
January 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228399/accumulation-of-worn-out-gbm-material-substantially-contributes-to-mesangial-matrix-expansion-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#11
Wilhelm Kriz, Jana Löwen, Giuseppina Federico, Jacob van den Born, Elisabeth Gröne, Hermann-Josef Gröne
Thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and expansion of the mesangial matrix are hallmarks of diabetic nephropathy (DN) generally considered to emerge from different sites of overproduction; GBM components from podocytes and mesangial matrix from mesangial cells. Re-evaluation of 918 biopsies with DN revealed strong evidence that these mechanisms are connected to each other, wherein excess GBM components fail to undergo degradation and are deposited in the mesangium. These data do not exclude that also mesangial cells synthesize components that contribute to the accumulation of matrix in the mesangium...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228373/statins-and-fibrates-for-diabetic-retinopathy-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#12
Vania Mozetic, Carolina Gomes Freitas, Rachel Riera
BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus, and more than 75% of patients who have had diabetes for more than 20 years will have some degree of DR. This disease is highly destructive to self-esteem and puts a high burden on public health and pension systems due to the effects that it has on people of working age. The current mainstay of treatment is laser photocoagulation, which causes impairment of vision and discomfort to patients...
February 22, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227734/detection-of-workplace-sedentary-behavior-using-thermal-sensors
#13
J Synnott, J Rafferty, C D Nugent, J Synnott, J Rafferty, C D Nugent, J Synnott, J Rafferty, C D Nugent
Sedentary behavior has been linked to leading causes of morbidity and mortality, including cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Those who work in office workplaces are susceptible to higher levels of sedentary behavior during the working day. This paper introduces a novel approach to the detection of sedentary behavior through the use of a thermal sensor mounted on the ceiling above a busy workspace. This solution was found to more accurately record 7 out of 10 activity metrics in comparison to self-assessment, when compared to chair pressure sensor recordings...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226977/establishment-of-a-measurement-method-for-in-shoe-pressure-and-shear-stress-in-specific-regions-for-diabetic-ulcer-prevention
#14
Ayumi Amemiya, Hiroshi Noguchi, Makoto Oe, Hiromi Sanada, Taketoshi Mori, Ayumi Amemiya, Hiroshi Noguchi, Makoto Oe, Hiromi Sanada, Taketoshi Mori, Makoto Oe, Ayumi Amemiya, Hiromi Sanada, Hiroshi Noguchi, Taketoshi Mori
Pressure and shear stress are the factors of diabetic foot ulcers and callus formation. However, in-shoe shear stress of callus measurement could not have been measured because of technical difficulties. The purpose of this study is to verify reliability and validity of the established measurement system for in-shoe pressure and shear stress. For reliability, coefficients of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were confirmed. For known-groups validity, callus and non-callus feet were compared...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226286/peripheral-nerve-ultrasonography-in-patients-with-transthyretin-amyloidosis
#15
Simon Podnar, Stayko Sarafov, Ivailo Tournev, Gregor Omejec, Janez Zidar
OBJECTIVE: To systematically study peripheral nerve morphology in patients with transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis and TTR gene mutation carriers using high-resolution ultrasonography (US). METHODS: In this prospective cross-sectional study we took a structured history, performed neurological examination, and measured peripheral nerve cross-sectional areas (CSAs) bilaterally at 28 standard locations using US. Demographic and US findings were compared to controls. RESULTS: Peripheral nerve CSAs were significantly larger in 33 patients with familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) compared to 50 controls, most dramatically at the common entrapment sites (median nerve at the wrist, ulnar nerve at the elbow), and in the proximal nerve segments (median nerve in the upper arm, sciatic nerve in the thigh)...
January 29, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226026/diabetes-mellitus-and-sensorineural-hearing-loss-is-there-an-association-baseline-of-the-brazilian-longitudinal-study-of-adult-health-elsa-brasil
#16
Alessandra G Samelli, Itamar S Santos, Renata R Moreira, Camila M Rabelo, Laurie P Rolim, Isabela J Bensenõr, Paulo A Lotufo
OBJECTIVES: Although several studies have investigated the effects of diabetes on hearing loss, the relationship between these two conditions remains unclear. Some studies have suggested that diabetes may cause sensorineural hearing loss, whereas others have failed to find an association. The biggest challenge in investigating the association between diabetes and hearing loss is the presence of confounding variables and the complexity of the auditory system. Our study investigated the association between diabetes and sensorineural hearing loss...
January 1, 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225994/a-rare-case-of-ectopic-acth-syndrome-originating-from-malignant-renal-paraganglioma
#17
Esra Tutal, Demet Yılmazer, Taner Demirci, Evrim Cakır, Salih Sinan Gültekin, Bahadır Celep, Oya Topaloğlu, Erman Çakal
Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome is characterized by hypercortisolism due to the hypersecretion of a non-pituitary ACTH-secreting tumor leading to Cushing's syndrome. Only a few cases have been reported previously as causing ectopic ACTH related to paraganglioma. Herein, we present a case of Cushing's syndrome, in who was proved to be attributable to an ACTH-secreting renal malignant paraganglioma. A 40-year-old woman presented with a five-month history of newly diagnosed hypertension and diabetes, weakness, hyperpigmentation, oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, and acneiform lesions...
February 13, 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225310/central-diabetes-insipidus-clinical-characteristics-and-long-term-course-in-a-large-cohort-of-adults
#18
Hiba Masri-Iraqi, Dania Hirsch, Dana Herzberg, Avner Lifshitz, Gloria Tsvetov, Carlos Benbassat, Ilan Shimon
Purpose Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a rare heterogeneous condition with various underlying causes. This study sought to increase the still-limited data on the clinical characteristics and long-term course in adults diagnosed with CDI. Methods Data on demographics, presentation, imaging findings, affected pituitary axes, treatment, and complications were collected retrospectively from the files of 70 adult patients with CDI followed at a referral endocrine clinic. Results 40 women and 30 men were included...
February 22, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225005/autophagy-protects-against-palmitic-acid-induced-apoptosis-in-podocytes-in-vitro
#19
Xu-Shun Jiang, Xue-Mei Chen, Jiang-Min Wan, Hai-Bo Gui, Xiong-Zhong Ruan, Xiao-Gang Du
Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation process that is involved in the clearance of proteins and damaged organelles to maintain intracellular homeostasis and cell integrity. Type 2 diabetes is often accompanied by dyslipidemia with elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFAs). Podocytes, as an important component of the filtration barrier, are susceptible to lipid disorders. The loss of podocytes causes proteinuria, which is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we demonstrated that palmitic acid (PA) promoted autophagy in podocytes...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224704/advanced-glycation-end-products-regulate-anabolic-and-catabolic-activities-via-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-human-nucleus-pulposus-cells
#20
Yu Song, Yan Wang, Yukun Zhang, Wen Geng, Wei Liu, Yong Gao, Shuai Li, Kun Wang, Xinghuo Wu, Liang Kang, Cao Yang
Intervertebral disc degeneration is widely recognized as a cause of lower back pain, neurological dysfunction and other musculoskeletal disorders. The major inflammatory cytokine IL-1β is associated with intervertebral disc degeneration; however, the molecular mechanisms that drive IL-1β production in the intervertebral disc, especially in nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, are unknown. In some tissues, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which accumulate in NP tissues and promote its degeneration, increase oxidative stress and IL-1β secretion, resulting in disorders, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and ageing...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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