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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166575/chemical-characterization-and-pharmacological-assessment-of-cashew-gum-extract-anacardium-occidentale-l-polysaccharide-free
#1
Daiany Priscilla Bueno da Silva, Iziara Ferreira Florentino, Lorrane Kelle da Silva Moreira, Adriane Ferreira Brito, Verônica Vale Carvalho, Géssica Adriana Vasconcelos, Boniek Gontijo Vaz, Marcus Antônio Pereira-Junior, Kátia Flávia Fernandes, Elson Alves Costa
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) is used in Brazilian traditional medicine in the treatment of inflammatory conditions, asthma, diabetes, and gastrointestinal disturbs. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was aimed the chemical characterization and the investigation of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of cashew gum aqueous extract without the presence of polysaccharides in its composition (CGE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CGE was obtained after precipitation and removal of polysaccharides using acetone...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165724/protective-effect-and-potential-mechanism-of-simvastatin-on-myocardial-injury-induced-by-diabetes-with-hypoglycemia
#2
Haiqing Li, Qianqian Zhao, Rong Liu, Lan Yang, Huanzhen Chen, Xiangli Cui
Background Simvastatin has been reported to reduce cardiovascular related morbidity and mortality in clinical trials which was independent of its cholesterol-lowering effect. This study aims to investigate the protective effect of simvastatin on myocardial injury caused by diabetic hypoglycemia and the possible underlying mechanism. Methods We used streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 55 mg/kg to induce diabetes mellitus (DM) and over-dose insulin to induce hypoglycemia to establish diabetic hypoglycemia rat models...
November 17, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165723/the-impact-of-hyperosmolarity-on-long-term-outcome-in-patients-presenting-with-severe-hyperglycemic-crisis-a-population-based-study
#3
Ivan Kruljac, Miroslav Ćaćić, Petra Ćaćić, Lora Stanka Kirigin Biloš, Davor Kust, Božidar Perić, Maja Filipović-Grčić, Gorana Mirošević, Vedran Ostojić, Mario Štefanović, Milan Vrkljan
Aims We compared characteristics of patients with hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) and patients with severe hyperglycemia without the signs of hyperosmolarity and ketoacidosis; analyzed long-term all-cause mortality and potential prognostic factors. Methods The studied population included 261 749 adults. HHS was diagnosed in patients with plasma glucose >33.0 mmol/L, ketonuria <1+, and serum osmolarity >320 mmol/L. Patients with plasma glucose >33.0 mmol/L, ketonuria <1+ and serum osmolarity <320 mmol/L were considered as controls (nHHS)...
November 17, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165114/prevalence-of-stroke-and-associated-risk-factors-among-middle-aged-and-older-farmers-in-western-china
#4
Song Zhang, Zheng Liu, Yong-Liang Liu, Yu-Ling Wang, Tao Liu, Xiang-Bin Cui
OBJECTIVES: China has the world's largest population and the stroke has become the leading cause of death in recent years. The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between hypertension, family history of stroke, diabetes mellitus, obesity and stroke among middle-aged and older farmers of western China. A population-based study was conducted from June 2014 to April 2015 in Shaanxi and Sichuan provinces. METHODS: Twenty thousand five hundred twenty-five Chinese middle-aged and older farmers (≥40 years) were recruited to the Qinling-Daba Mountains Region Stroke Study...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165095/metabolic-syndrome-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-people-treated-with-long-acting-injectable-antipsychotics
#5
Vanessa Sanchez-Martinez, Dolores Romero-Rubio, Maria Jose Abad-Perez, Maria Amparo Descalzo-Cabades, Sofia Alonso-Gutierrez, Jose Salazar-Fraile, Vicente Montagud, Lorenzo Facila
BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia and other severe mental disorders have an increased mortality mainly attributed to natural causes, specifically cardiovascular disease and cancer. The metabolic syndrome and the Framingham Risk Score are epidemiologic tools related to long-term cardiovascular disease risk and they are increased in people with severe mental disorders. This increase has been attributed both to the disorder itself and to the use of antipsychotic drugs. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the cardiovascular risk in a group of people treated with long-acting injectable antipsychotics...
November 20, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164928/clozapine-diabetes-mellitus-cardiovascular-risk-and-mortality-results-of-a-21-year-naturalistic-study-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-schizoaffective-disorder
#6
Katlyn L Nemani, M Claire Greene, Melissa Ulloa, Brenda Vincenzi, Paul M Copeland, Sulaiman Al-Khadari, David C Henderson
The goal of this 21-year naturalistic study of clozapine treated patients was to examine the cardiovascular risk factors following clozapine initiation and resultant mortality estimates from cardiovascular disease. Data was collected from medical records of clozapine treated patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder from January 1992 to February 2012. Demographics, clozapine dosage and laboratory results were extracted at 12-month intervals. At clozapine initiation, the mean age of 96 patients was 36...
November 22, 2017: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164839/residual-renal-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-conventionally-treated-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-the-potential-of-non-traditional-biomarkers-and-treatments-related-redox-metabolism
#7
Karima Zitouni, Mia Steyn, Kenneth A Earle
Diabetes is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the developed world. Promoters of the progression of kidney disease include the traditional profile of cardiovascular risk factors. However, the development of CKD and vulnerability to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is highly variable. Determinants of the susceptibility to ESRD may include non-traditional risk factors such as gene-environment interactions, socio-geographic factors and/or treatment strategies. We review the conflicting clinical relevance of studies implicating pathways related to oxidative stress...
November 21, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164595/frequency-of-leaving-the-house-and-mortality-from-age-70-to-95
#8
Jeremy M Jacobs, Aliza Hammerman-Rozenberg, Jochanan Stessman
OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between frequency of leaving the house and mortality. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up of an age-homogenous, representative, community-dwelling birth cohort (born 1920-21) from the Jerusalem Longitudinal Study (1990-2015). SETTING: Home. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 70 (n = 593), 78 (n = 973), 85 (n = 1164), and 90 (n = 645), examined in 1990, 1998, 2005, and 2010, respectively...
November 22, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164390/nutrition-and-mobility-predict-all-cause-mortality-in-patients-12%C3%A2-months-after-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation
#9
Sarah Eichler, Annett Salzwedel, Axel Harnath, Christian Butter, Karl Wegscheider, Mihai Chiorean, Heinz Völler, Rona Reibis
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine pre-interventional predictors for all-cause mortality in patients after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with a 12-month follow-up. METHODS: From 10/2013 to 07/2015, 344 patients (80.9 ± 5.0 years, 44.5% male) with an elective TAVI were consecutively enrolled prospectively in a multicentre cohort study. Prior to the intervention, sociodemographic parameters, echocardiographic data and comorbidities were documented...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164325/effects-of-recreational-football-on-women-s-fitness-and-health-adaptations-and-mechanisms
#10
REVIEW
Peter Krustrup, Eva Wulff Helge, Peter R Hansen, Per Aagaard, Marie Hagman, Morten B Randers, Maysa de Sousa, Magni Mohr
The review describes the fitness and health effects of recreational football in women aged 18-65 years. The review documents that 2 × 1 h of recreational football training for 12-16 weeks causes marked improvements in maximal oxygen uptake (5-15%) and myocardial function in women. Moreover, mean arterial blood pressure was shown to decrease by 2-5 mmHg in normotensive women and 6-8 mmHg in hypertensive women. This review also show that short-term (< 4 months) and medium-term (4-16 months) recreational football training has major beneficial impact on metabolic health profile in women, with fat losses of 1-3 kg and improvements in blood lipid profile...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164123/income-gradient-in-renal-disease-mortality-in-the-united-states
#11
Shervin Assari, Maryam Moghani Lankarani
Background: Non-communicable diseases and associated mortality follow a social gradient and chronic kidney disease is not an exception to this rule. Intermediate behavioral and medical factors that may explain such social gradients are, however, still unknown. Objectives: Using nationally representative data in the United States, this study was conducted to investigate the mediating effect of medical and behavioral risk factors on the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and renal disease mortality...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163948/the-heart-matters-in-diabetes-10-year-outcomes-of-peripheral-artery-disease
#12
Thomas Mueller, Franz Hinterreiter, Werner Poelz, Meinhard Haltmayer, Benjamin Dieplinger
Objectives: Mortality rates at 10 years are higher in diabetic patients with chronic lower extremity peripheral arterial disease than in non-diabetic peripheral arterial disease patients. We tested the hypothesis that the predictors of mortality differ between diabetic and non-diabetic peripheral arterial disease patients. Methods: We studied 331 consecutive patients who were <75 years of age, symptomatic for peripheral arterial disease, and admitted to a tertiary care hospital...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163735/urate-lowering-therapy-ameliorates-kidney-function-in-type-2-diabetes-patients-with-hyperuricemia
#13
Naohiko Ueno
Background: Hyperuricemia often causes kidney dysfunction which increases serum urate, forming a vicious cycle in the kidney. In this study, urate-lowering therapy was demonstrated in type 2 diabetic patients with hyperuricemia to evaluate the effect on diabetic nephropathy. Methods: Type 2 diabetic patients with hyperuricemia (n = 34) were treated by urate-lowering drugs. Serum urate levels, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), blood pressure, HbA1c, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) were measured for 52 weeks...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163733/can-antioxidative-status-be-involved-in-type-1-diabetes
#14
Cintia Castro-Correia, M Luz Maia, Sonia Norberto, Cristina Costa-Santos, M Fatima Barroso, Ana Carvalho, Manuel Fontoura, Valentina Domingues, Conceicao Calhau
Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease with beta-cell destruction, resulting in insulin deficiency. It is now clear that environmental factors also play a role in disease development. The prevalence of type 1 diabetes in children and young people in Portugal is 0.16% between 0 and 19 years of age. The main cause of death in T1DM is cardiovascular disease, and early endothelial dysfunction is its pathophysiologycal precursor. Hyperglycemia is associated with increased production of free radicals and increased oxidative stress...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163354/diabetes-and-sepsis-risk-recurrence-and-ruination
#15
REVIEW
Lynn M Frydrych, Fatemeh Fattahi, Katherine He, Peter A Ward, Matthew J Delano
Sepsis develops when an infection surpasses local tissue containment. A series of dysregulated physiological responses are generated, leading to organ dysfunction and a 10% mortality risk. When patients with sepsis demonstrate elevated serum lactates and require vasopressor therapy to maintain adequate blood pressure in the absence of hypovolemia, they are in septic shock with an in-hospital mortality rate >40%. With improvements in intensive care treatment strategies, overall sepsis mortality has diminished to ~20% at 30 days; however, mortality continues to steadily climb after recovery from the acute event...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163185/orthostatic-intolerance-in-older-persons-etiology-and-countermeasures
#16
REVIEW
Nandu Goswami, Andrew P Blaber, Helmut Hinghofer-Szalkay, Jean-Pierre Montani
Orthostatic challenge produced by upright posture may lead to syncope if the cardiovascular system is unable to maintain adequate brain perfusion. This review outlines orthostatic intolerance related to the aging process, long-term bedrest confinement, drugs, and disease. Aging-associated illness or injury due to falls often leads to hospitalization. Older patients spend up to 83% of hospital admission lying in bed and thus the consequences of bedrest confinement such as physiological deconditioning, functional decline, and orthostatic intolerance represent a central challenge in the care of the vulnerable older population...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163027/mechanisms-of-osteoarthritic-pain-studies-in-humans-and-experimental-models
#17
REVIEW
Annett Eitner, Gunther O Hofmann, Hans-Georg Schaible
Pain due to osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most frequent causes of chronic pain. However, the mechanisms of OA pain are poorly understood. This review addresses the mechanisms which are thought to be involved in OA pain, derived from studies on pain mechanisms in humans and in experimental models of OA. Three areas will be considered, namely local processes in the joint associated with OA pain, neuronal mechanisms involved in OA pain, and general factors which influence OA pain. Except the cartilage all structures of the joints are innervated by nociceptors...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162584/individualized-glycemic-goals-and-an-expanded-classification-of-severe-hypoglycemia-in-diabetes
#18
Philip E Cryer
The view that a hemoglobin A1c (A1C) level <7% (55 mmol/mol) is the accepted glycemic goal for most people with diabetes sometimes conflicts with the view that glycemic goals should be individualized and, thus, that somewhat higher A1C levels are appropriate for some, particularly many at risk for iatrogenic hypoglycemia because of treatment with insulin, a sulfonylurea, or a glinide. The relationship between A1C and chronic complications of diabetes is curvilinear, A1C is a relatively weak predictor of cardiovascular disease, and minor elevations of A1C above 7% have not been found to be associated with increased mortality...
December 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162538/metformin-promotes-the-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-murine-preosteoblast-by-regulating-the-expression-of-sirt6-and-oct4
#19
Wei Mu, Zhuoran Wang, Chuanyu Ma, Yunyun Jiang, Nannan Zhang, Kaiqiang Hu, Liyuan Li, Zhao Wang
Osteopenia, osteoporosis and bone salt metabolism disorder are common diseases in the aged and diabetics. From case reports of patients with T2DM, we have observed that metformin can decrease risk of bone fracture and promote bone formation. However, the underlying mechanism of metformin's effect on bone metabolism remains unknown. In our research, we show that metformin can promote proliferation of murine preosteoblast by regulating AMPK-mTORC2 and AKT-mTORC1 signaling axis. Furthermore, we have observed that metformin can promote SIRT6 expression before and during differentiation of murine preosteoblast...
November 18, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162515/whole-exome-sequencing-in-a-japanese-family-with-highly-aggregated-diabetes-identifies-a-candidate-susceptibility-mutation-in-adamtsl3
#20
Byambatseren Jambaljav, Daisuke Tanaka, Kazuaki Nagashima, Shin-Ichi Harashima, Norio Harada, Takanari Harada, Yuta Fujiwara, Yu Wang, Yanyan Liu, Yasuharu Tabara, Fumihiko Matsuda, Akio Koizumi, Nobuya Inagaki
AIMS: The aim of this study was to clarify the genetic background of a family with multiple cases of diabetes accompanied by absolute insulin deficiency using whole-exome sequencing (WES). METHODS: In a Japanese family, WES was performed in four affected members with absolute insulin deficiency and two unaffected members. We focused on variants that were predicted to be disease-causing by bioinformatics and were shared by all of the four affected members but were not present in the two unaffected members...
November 18, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
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