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Causes of diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448971/pre-esrd-dementia-and-post-esrd-mortality-in-a-large-cohort-of-incident-dialysis-patients
#1
Miklos Z Molnar, Keiichi Sumida, Abduzhappar Gaipov, Praveen K Potukuchi, Tibor Fülöp, Kiran Joglekar, Jun Ling Lu, Elani Streja, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Csaba P Kovesdy
BACKGROUND: Conservative management may be a desirable option for elderly, fragile, or demented patients who reach end-stage renal disease (ESRD), yet some patients with dementia are placed on renal replacement therapy nonetheless. METHODS: From a nationwide cohort of 45,076 US veterans who transitioned to ESRD over 4 contemporary years (October 1, 2007 to September 30, 2011), we identified 1,336 (3.0%) patients with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code-based dementia diagnosis during the prelude (predialysis) period...
April 28, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448602/clinical-presentation-and-management-of-stable-coronary-artery-disease-in-austria
#2
Otto Pichlhöfer, Manfred Maier, Roza Badr-Eslam, Robin Ristl, Magdalena Zebrowska, Irene M Lang
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death in Austria. However, no systematic information exists regarding characteristics and treatments of contemporary patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) in Austria. We assembled two retrospective physicians' databases to describe demographics, clinical profiles, and therapeutic strategies in patients with stable CAD. In addition, we compared patient profiles of secondary care internists and hospital-based cardiologists with those of general practitioners in a primary care setting outside of hospital...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447751/deep-sea-water-improves-hypercholesterolemia-and-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-through-the-regulation-of-hepatic-lipid-metabolic-gene-expression
#3
Kyu-Shik Lee, So-Young Chun, Yun-Suk Kwon, Soyoung Kim, Kyung-Soo Nam
A high‑fat diet or high‑cholesterol diet (HCD) is a major cause of metabolic diseases, including obesity and diabetes; vascular diseases, including hypertension, stroke and arteriosclerosis; and liver diseases, including hepatic steatosis and cirrhosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of deep sea water (DSW) on rats fed a HCD. DSW decreased HCD‑induced increases in total cholesterol and low‑density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the blood, and recovered high‑density lipoprotein cholesterol...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447626/familial-hyperaldosteronism-type-iii
#4
REVIEW
S Monticone, M Tetti, J Burrello, F Buffolo, R De Giovanni, F Veglio, T A Williams, P Mulatero
Primary aldosteronism is the most common form of endocrine hypertension. This disorder comprises both sporadic and familial forms. Four familial forms of primary aldosteronism (FH-I to FH-IV) have been described. FH-III is caused by germline mutations in KCNJ5, encoding the potassium channel Kir3.4 (also called GIRK4). These mutations alter the selectivity filter of the channel and lead to abnormal ion currents with loss of potassium selectivity, sodium influx and consequent increased intracellular calcium that causes excessive aldosterone biosynthesis...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447583/prevalence-and-clinical-significance-of%C3%A2-diabetes-in-asian-versus-white-patients%C3%A2-with-heart-failure
#5
Ingrid E M Bank, Crystel M Gijsberts, Tiew-Hwa K Teng, Lina Benson, David Sim, Poh Shuan Daniel Yeo, Hean Yee Ong, Fazlur Jaufeerally, Gerard K T Leong, Lieng H Ling, A Mark Richards, Dominique P V de Kleijn, Ulf Dahlström, Lars H Lund, Carolyn S P Lam
OBJECTIVES: The study sought to compare the prevalence, clinical correlates and prognostic impact of diabetes in Southeast Asian versus white patients with heart failure (HF) with preserved or reduced ejection fraction. BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is common in HF and is associated with impaired prognosis. Asia is home to the majority of the world's diabetic population, yet data on the prevalence and clinical significance of diabetes in Asian patients with HF are sparse, and no studies have directly compared Asian and white patients...
January 2017: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447455/efficiency-and-safety-of-%C3%AE-cd-d3-7-as-an-sirna-carrier-for-decreasing-mmp-9-expression-and-improving-wound-healing-in-diabetic-rats
#6
Na Li, Hengcong Luo, Meng Ren, Li-Ming Zhang, Wei Wang, Cheng Lin Pan, Liqun Yang, Guojuan Lao, Junjie Deng, Kaijin Mai, Kan Sun, Chuan Yang, Li Yan
Over-expression of MMP-9 is critical for diabetic chronic wounds involved in the refractory wound healing process. We aimed to develop a strategy through RNAi to decrease MMP-9 expression and improving diabetic wound healing. We had explored β-CD-(D3)7 as a gene carrier to take siRNA effectively interfere with MMP-9 expression. It has been proved that β-CD-(D3)7 could be used as an effective siRNA delivery system. In this study we want to know exactly about the efficiency and safety of β-CD-(D3)7/MMP-9 siRNA for improving wound healing in diabetic rats...
April 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447436/role-of-no-vasp-signaling-pathway-against-obesity-related-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
#7
REVIEW
Yu Mi Kang, Francis Kim, Woo Je Lee
Obesity has quickly become a worldwide pandemic, causing major adverse health outcomes such as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancers. Obesity-induced insulin resistance is the key for developing these metabolic disorders, and investigation to understand the molecular mechanisms involved has been vibrant for the past few decades. Of these, low-grade chronic inflammation is suggested as a critical concept in the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance, and the anti-inflammatory effect of nitric oxide (NO) signaling has been reported to be linked to improvement of insulin resistance in multiple organs involved in glucose metabolism...
April 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447302/comment-on-the-new-indian-injection-technique-recommendations-critical-appraisal-of-the-real-world-implementation-of-the-current-guidelines
#8
Felice Strollo, Sandro Gentile
With an eye on the sequence of two Indian papers concurrently published in Diabetes Therapy, this paper analyzes skin differences among races and points to a lack of organized structured education sessions as the main cause of the high prevalence of lipodystrophy (LD) and consequent poor metabolic control. Only half of all insulin-treated patients reach their therapeutic targets worldwide. The factors involved in this are manifold, including the choice of overlong and repeatedly reused needles, as well as a failure to systematically rotate injection sites, all of which lead to skin LD...
April 26, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447270/annual-incidences-of-visual-impairment-during-10-year-period-in-mie-prefecture-japan
#9
Kengo Ikesugi, Takako Ichio, Hideyuki Tsukitome, Mineo Kondo
PURPOSE: To determine the annual incidence of visual impairment in a Japanese population during a 10-year period. METHODS: We examined the physical disability certificates issued yearly between 2004 and 2013 in Mie prefecture, Japan. During this period 2468 visually impaired people were registered under the newly defined Act on Welfare of the Physically Disabled Persons' criteria. The age, sex distribution, and causes of visual impairment were determined from the certificates...
April 26, 2017: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446459/distinct-roles-of-arginases-1-and-2-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#10
Sidney M Morris, Hanning You, Ting Gao, Jean Vacher, Timothy K Cooper, Alaa S Awad
Diabetes is the leading cause of end stage renal disease, resulting in a significant health care burden and loss of economic productivity by affected individuals. As current therapies for progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) are only moderately successful, identification of underlying mechanisms of disease is essential in order to develop more effective therapies. We showed previously that inhibition of arginase using S-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine (BEC) or genetic deficiency of the arginase-2 isozyme was protective against key features of nephropathy in diabetic mouse models...
April 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446238/changing-ethnic-inequalities-in-mortality-in-new-zealand-over-30%C3%A2-years-linked-cohort-studies-with-68-9-million-person-years-of-follow-up
#11
George Disney, Andrea Teng, June Atkinson, Nick Wilson, Tony Blakely
BACKGROUND: Internationally, ethnic inequalities in mortality within countries are increasingly recognized as a public health concern. But few countries have data to monitor such inequalities. We aimed to provide a detailed description of ethnic inequalities (Māori [indigenous], Pacific, and European/Other) in mortality for a country with high quality ethnicity data, using both standard and novel visualization methods. METHODS: Cohort studies of the entire New Zealand population were conducted, using probabilistically-linked Census and mortality data from 1981 to 2011 (68...
April 26, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446231/remote-ischemic-preconditioning-differentially-attenuates-post-ischemic-cardiac-arrhythmia-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-versus-nondiabetic-rats
#12
Zhaoyang Hu, Mou Chen, Ping Zhang, Jin Liu, Geoffrey W Abbott
BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death (SCD), a leading cause of global mortality, most commonly arises from a substrate of cardiac ischemia, but requires an additional trigger. Diabetes mellitus (DM) predisposes to SCD even after adjusting for other DM-linked cardiovascular pathology such as coronary artery disease. We previously showed that remote liver ischemia preconditioning (RLIPC) is highly protective against cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) linked ventricular arrhythmias and myocardial infarction, via induction of the cardioprotective RISK pathway, and specifically, inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK-3β (Ser 9)...
April 26, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446168/plasma-matrix-metalloproteinases-are-associated-with-incident-cardiovascular-disease-and-all-cause-mortality-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-a-12-year-follow-up-study
#13
S A Peeters, L Engelen, J Buijs, A Jorsal, H-H Parving, L Tarnow, P Rossing, C G Schalkwijk, C D A Stehouwer
BACKGROUND: Altered regulation of extracellular matrix remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) may contribute to vascular complications in type 1 diabetes. We investigated associations between plasma MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, -10 and TIMP-1, and cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetic patients. METHODS: We prospectively followed 337 type 1 diabetic patients [mean age 41.4 years (9.6), 39% female], 170 with and 167 without diabetic nephropathy, with median follow-up of 12...
April 26, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445931/high-glucose-induces-apoptosis-via-upregulation-of-bim-expression-in-proximal-tubule-epithelial-cells
#14
Xiao-Qian Zhang, Jian-Jun Dong, Tian Cai, Xue Shen, Xiao-Jun Zhou, Lin Liao
Diabetic nephropathy is the primary cause of end-stage renal disease. Apoptosis of tubule epithelial cells is a major feature of diabetic nephropathy. The mechanisms of high glucose (HG) induced apoptosis are not fully understood. Here we demonstrated that, HG induced apoptosis via upregulating the expression of proapoptotic Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only protein Bim protein, but not bring a significant change in the baseline level of autophagy in HK2 cells. The increase of Bim expression was caused by the ugregulation of transcription factors, FOXO1 and FOXO3a...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444216/dietary-metabolites-derived-from-gut-microbiota-critical-modulators-of-epigenetic-changes-in-mammals
#15
Mohd Iqbal Bhat, Rajeev Kapila
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract harbors trillions of commensal microorganisms, collectively known as the microbiota. The microbiota is a critical source of environmental stimuli and, thus, has a tremendous impact on the health of the host. The microbes within the microbiota regulate homeostasis within the gut, and any alteration in their composition can lead to disorders that include inflammatory bowel disease, allergy, autoimmune disease, diabetes, mental disorders, and cancer. Hence, restoration of the gut flora following changes or imbalance is imperative for the host...
April 22, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443701/evaluation-of-dietary-intake-leisure-time-physical-activity-and-metabolic-profile-in-women-with-mutation-in-the-lmna-gene
#16
Luciana Monteiro, Maria Cristina Foss-Freitas, Anderson Navarro, Francisco Pereira, Fernanda Coeli, Estela Carneseca, Renan Montenegro Júnior, Milton Foss
INTRODUCTION: Familial partial lipodystrophy (FPL) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by selective lack of subcutaneous fat, which is associated with insulin-resistant diabetes. The Dunnigan variety (FPLD2) is caused by several missense mutations in the lamin A/C (LMNA) gene, most of which are typically located in exon 8 at the codon position 482. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the dietary intake, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and biochemical measurements (glucose, A1C, and plasma lipids) in women with FPLD2 and without (control group, CG) and to examine the associations between dietary intake and biochemical measurements (BM)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443261/diabetes-mellitus-caused-by-secondary-hemochromatosis-after-multiple-blood-transfusions-in-2-patients-with-severe-aplastic-anemia
#17
Hyun Jin Kim, Yoon-Myung Kim, Eungu Kang, Beom Hee Lee, Jin-Ho Choi, Han-Wook Yoo
Hemochromatosis is an inherited or secondary disorder caused by excessive iron storage leading to multiple organ damage. We describe 2 patients with diabetes mellitus caused by hemochromatosis secondary to multiple blood transfusions due to severe aplastic anemia. Subject 1, who was diagnosed with severe aplastic anemia at 15 years of age, received multiple red blood cell transfusions before he underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) at 22 years of age. At 21 years of age, hyperglycemia was detected with increased hemoglobin A1c and serum ferritin levels, 9...
March 2017: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443255/glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#18
REVIEW
Seungah Lee, Dong Yun Lee
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide. Patients with T2D suffer from various diabetes-related complications. Since there are many patients with T2D that cannot be controlled by previously developed drugs, it has been necessary to develop new drugs, one of which is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) based therapy. GLP-1 has been shown to ameliorate diabetes-related conditions by augmenting pancreatic β-cell insulin secretion and having the low risk of causing hypoglycemia. Because of a very short half-life of GLP-1, many researches have been focused on the development of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists with long half-lives such as exenatide and dulaglutide...
March 2017: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442828/a-case-of-disseminated-sepsis-caused-by-an-unusual-microorganism-in-a-patient-with-diabetes
#19
Carolina Gherman-Ciolac, Amish Patel, Salim Budha, Joanna Macve, Harit Buch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Clinical Diabetes: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442821/patients-with-diabetes-and-chronic-liver-disease-are-at-increased-risk-for-overall-mortality-a-population-study-from-the-united-states
#20
Maria Stepanova, Stephen Clement, Robert Wong, Sammy Saab, Aijaz Ahmed, Zobair M Younossi
IN BRIEF Chronic liver disease (CLD) and type 2 diabetes have both been linked to increased morbidity and mortality. In this study, the impact of CLD and diabetes on all-cause mortality was quantified at the population level using U.S. population data. Both type 2 diabetes and CLD were found to be independently associated with increased mortality (age-adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.98 and 1.37 for diabetes and CLD, respectively), and having both diabetes and CLD substantially increased the risk of mortality (aHR 2...
April 2017: Clinical Diabetes: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
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