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Causes of diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351486/different-physiological-roles-of-insulin-receptors-in-mediating-nutrient-metabolism-in-zebrafish
#1
Bin-Yuan Yang, Gang Zhai, Yu-Long Gong, Jing-Zhi Su, Xu-Yan Peng, Guo-Hui Shang, Dong Han, Jun-Yan Jin, Hao-Kun Liu, Zhen-Yu Du, Zhan Yin, Shou-Qi Xie
Insulin, the most potent anabolic hormone, is critical for somatic growth and metabolism in vertebrates. Type 2 diabetes, which is the primary cause of hyperglycemia, results from an inability of insulin to signal glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Our previous study showed that double knockout of insulin receptor a (insra) and b (insrb) caused β-cell hyperplasia and lethality from 5 dpf to 16 dpf. In this study, we characterized the physiological roles of Insra and Insrb, in somatic growth and fueling metabolism, respectively...
December 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351483/prenatal-exposure-to-diesel-exhaust-pm2-5-causes-offspring-%C3%AE-cell-dysfunction-in-adulthood
#2
Minjie Chen, Shuai Liang, Xiaobo Qin, Li Zhang, Lianglin Qiu, Sufang Chen, Ziying Hu, Yanyi Xu, Wanjun Wang, Yuhao Zhang, Qi Cao, Zhekang Ying
BACKGROUND: Environmental stressors that encounter in early-life and cause abnormal fetal and/or neonatal development may increase susceptibility to non-communicable diseases such as diabetes. Maternal exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with various fetal abnormalities, suggesting that it may program offspring's susceptibility to diabetes. In the present study, we therefore examined whether maternal exposure to diesel exhaust PM2.5 (DEP), one of the major sources of ambient PM2...
December 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351428/control-of-appetite-blood-glucose-and-blood-pressure-during-melanocortin-4-receptor-activation-in-normoglycemic-and-diabetic-npy-deficient-mice
#3
Alexandre A da Silva, John Nathan Freeman, John E Hall, Jussara M do Carmo
Although central melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) blockade abolishes the CNS-mediated anorexogenic, antidiabetic and cardiovascular actions of leptin, chronic MC4R stimulation fails to completely mimic leptin's effects. Because neuropeptide Y (NPY) and MC4R exert opposite effects on cardiovascular and metabolic functions, we tested its role in offsetting the long-term actions of MC4R activation. Wild-type (WT) and NPY-deficient (NPY-/-) mice were implanted with telemetry probes for measuring mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) 24-h/d...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351404/type-2-diabetes-impairs-the-ability-of-skeletal-muscle-pericytes-to-augment-postischemic-neovascularization-in-db-db-mice
#4
Katherine L Hayes, Louis M Messina, Lawrence M Schwartz, Jinglian Yan, Amy S Burnside, Sarah Witkowski
Peripheral artery disease is an atherosclerotic occlusive disease that causes limb ischemia and has few effective non-interventional treatments. Stem cell therapy is promising, but concomitant diabetes may limit its effectiveness. We evaluated the therapeutic potential of skeletal muscle pericytes to augment postischemic neovascularization in wild type and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) mice. Wild type C57BL/6J and leptin receptor spontaneous mutation db/db T2DM mice underwent unilateral femoral artery excision to induce limb ischemia...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351188/proangiogenic-effect-of-metformin-in-endothelial-cells-is-via-upregulation-of-vegfr1-2-and-their-signaling-under-hyperglycemia-hypoxia
#5
Sherin Bakhashab, Farid Ahmed, Hans-Juergen Schulten, Fahad W Ahmed, Michael Glanville, Mohammed H Al-Qahtani, Jolanta U Weaver
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity/mortality worldwide. Metformin is the first therapy offering cardioprotection in type 2 diabetes and non-diabetic animals with unknown mechanism. We have shown that metformin improves angiogenesis via affecting expression of growth factors/angiogenic inhibitors in CD34⁺ cells under hyperglycemia-hypoxia. Now we studied the direct effect of physiological dose of metformin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) under conditions mimicking hypoxia-hyperglycemia...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350661/retrospective-analysis-of-the-effects-of-a-highly-standardized-mixture-of-berberis-aristata-silybum-marianum-and-monacolins-k-and-ka-in-diabetic-patients-with-dyslipidemia
#6
Francesco Di Pierro, Pietro Putignano, Nicola Villanova
BACKGROUND: Berberine, an alkaloid with both glucose- and cholesterol-lowering action, is also characterized by an anti-diarrheal effect. Consequently, berberine-based therapies are recommended for diabetic patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or gut discomfort caused by metformin. AIM: As the anti-glycemic and cholesterol-lowering action of berberine is improved by co-administration with P-glycoprotein inhibitors and naturally derived statins, we have analyzed the effect of the food supplement Berberol®K (hereafter referred to as BSM) containing, berberine, silymarin, and a highly standardized red yeast rice containing monacolins K and KA in the ratio 1:1 but no secondary monacolins, dehydromonacolins, or citrinin (Monakopure™-K20)...
January 16, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350569/practice-pearl-liraglutide-and-cardiovascular-and-renal-events-in-type-2-diabetes
#7
Robert Guthrie
Review of: Marso S, Daniels G, Brown-Frandsen K, et al. Liraglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 2016; 375: 311-322. Mann J, Orsted D, Brown-Frandsen K, et al. Liraglutide and Renal Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 2017; 377: 839-848. This comprehensive research project, LEADER, led to two reports, one focusing on the effect of liraglutide on cardiovascular events, and the second one reporting on the renal effects on the same study population. The study group included 9340 patients with type 2 diabetes...
January 19, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350512/electronic-health-record-problem-lists-accurate-enough-for-risk-adjustment
#8
Timothy J Daskivich, Garen Abedi, Sherrie H Kaplan, Douglas Skarecky, Thomas Ahlering, Brennan Spiegel, Mark S Litwin, Sheldon Greenfield
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether comorbidity information derived from electronic health record (EHR) problem lists is accurate. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of 1596 men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1998 and 2004 at 2 Southern California Veterans Affairs Medical Centers with long-term follow-up. METHODS: We compared EHR problem list-based comorbidity assessment with manual review of EHR free-text notes in terms of sensitivity and specificity for identification of major comorbidities and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) scores...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350505/bridging-the-digital-divide-mobile-access-to-personal-health-records-among-patients-with-diabetes
#9
Ilana Graetz, Jie Huang, Richard J Brand, John Hsu, Cyrus K Yamin, Mary E Reed
OBJECTIVES: Some patients lack regular computer access and experience a digital divide that causes them to miss internet-based health innovations. The diffusion of smartphones has increased internet access across the socioeconomic spectrum, and increasing the channels through which patients can access their personal health records (PHRs) could help bridge the divide in PHR use. We examined PHR use through a computer-based Web browser or mobile device. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional historical cohort analysis...
January 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350465/proteomics-analysis-of-skeletal-muscle-from-leptin-deficient-ob-ob-mice-reveals-adaptive-remodeling-of-metabolic-characteristics-and-fiber-type-composition
#10
Milena Schönke, Marie Björnholm, Alexander V Chibalin, Juleen R Zierath, Atul S Deshmukh
Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, an early metabolic defect in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, may be a cause or consequence of altered protein expressions profiles. Proteomics technology offers enormous promise to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying pathologies, however, the analysis of skeletal muscle is challenging. Using state-of-the-art multi-enzyme digestion and filter-aided sample preparation (MED-FASP) and a mass spectrometry (MS) based workflow, we performed a global proteomics analysis of skeletal muscle from leptin-deficient, obese, insulin resistant (ob/ob) and lean mice in mere two fractions in a short time (8 hours/sample)...
January 19, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350382/risk-factors-for-adverse-outcomes-of-acute-coronary-syndrome-patients-single-center-experience-in-long-term-follow-up-of-treated-patients
#11
Marcin Grabowski, Krzysztof J Filipiak, Grzegorz Opolski, Renata Główczyńska, Monika Gawałko, Paweł Balsam, Andrzej Cacko, Zenon Huczek, Grzegorz Karpiński, Robert Kowalik, Franciszek Majstrak, Janusz Kochman
BACKGROUND: For patients experiencing an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), a crucial time to assess their prognosis and future management is at discharge from hospital. AIM: To identify patients' risk factors of mortality during post-discharge period following an ACS hospitalization. METHODS: We studied 672 consecutive ACS patients hospitalized and discharged alive between 2002 and 2004. The analysis was done in respect of the type of ACS, i...
January 19, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350061/the-adverse-effects-of-environmental-noise-exposure-on-oxidative-stress-and-cardiovascular-risk
#12
Thomas Münzel, Mette Sørensen, Frank P Schmidt, Erwin Schmidt, Sebastian Steven, Swenja Kröller-Schön, Andreas Daiber
Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that traffic noise exposure is linked to cardiovascular diseases such as arterial hypertension, myocardial infarction and stroke. Noise is a non-specific stressor that activates the autonomous nervous system and endocrine signaling. According to the noise reaction model introduced by Babisch and colleagues, chronic low levels of noise can cause so called non-auditory effects, such as disturbances of activity, sleep and communication, which can trigger a number of emotional responses, including annoyance and subsequent stress...
January 19, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349984/-risk-factors-analysis-on-wound-complications-after-closed-calcaneal-frature-operation-using-lateral-extensive-l-shaped-incision
#13
Xin-Xing Fan, Yang Shen, Wen-Long Xie
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors of wound complications after closed calcaneal fracture operation using a lateral extensive L-shaped incision and to explore the effective interventions to reduce the complications after incision. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of clinical data of 285 patients(315 calcaneal fractures) who underwent open reduction and internal fixation by using the lateral extensive L-shaped incision from January 2011 to January 2015. Eighteen factors which might cause the complications of calcaneal incision were compared by univariate analysis, and multiple Logistic regression analysis was performed for factors with statistically significances...
April 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349876/effectiveness-of-a-body-shape-index-absi-in-predicting-chronic-diseases-and-mortality-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
M Ji, S Zhang, R An
Anthropometric measures are simple, inexpensive, noninvasive tools to assess the risk of morbidity and mortality. This systematic review assessed the performance of A Body Shape Index (ABSI) in predicting hypertension, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and all-cause mortality and compared the differential predictability between ABSI and two other common anthropometric measures - body mass index and waist circumference. A keyword and reference search were conducted in the PubMed and Web of Science for articles published until 1 November 2017...
January 19, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349708/cost-effectiveness-of-empagliflozin-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-at-increased-cardiovascular-risk-in-greece
#15
George Gourzoulidis, Charalampos Tzanetakos, Ioannis Ioannidis, Apostolos Tsapas, Georgia Kourlaba, Giannis Papageorgiou, Nikos Maniadakis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is frequently associated with co-morbidities that exacerbate cardiovascular (CV) risk. CV disease is the leading cause of death in people with diabetes across the world and accounts for approximately half the deaths in the T2DM population. Hence, the objective of present study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of empagliflozin, in addition to standard of care (SoC), for the treatment of adult patients with T2DM and high CV risk in Greece...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349228/children-s-migration-and-lifestyle-related-chronic-disease-among-older-parents-left-behind-in-india
#16
Jane Falkingham, Min Qin, Athina Vlachantoni, Maria Evandrou
Lifestyle-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes are now the leading causes of death and disability in India. Interestingly, those Indian states with the highest prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic disease among older adults are also found to have the highest rates of international or internal out-migration. This paper investigates the association between having migrant (adult) children and older parents' lifestyle-related chronic disease in India. Bi-variate and multivariate analysis are conducted using data from a representative sample of 9507 adults aged 60 and older in seven Indian states from the UNFPA project 'Building Knowledge Base on Ageing in India'...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349216/family-of-origin-and-educational-inequalities-in-mortality-results-from-1-7-million-swedish-siblings
#17
Laust H Mortensen, Jenny Torssander
Circumstances in the family of origin have short- and long-term consequences for people's health. Family background also influences educational achievements - achievements that are clearly linked to various health outcomes. Utilizing population register data, we compared Swedish siblings with different levels of education (1,732,119 individuals within 662,095 sibships) born between 1934 and 1959 and followed their death records until the end of 2012 (167,932 deaths). The educational gradient in all-cause mortality was lower within sibships than in the population as a whole, an attenuation that was strongest at younger ages (< 50 years of age) and for those with a working class or farmer background...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349041/unusual-cause-of-severe-diabetic-ketoacidosis-precipitated-by-streptococcus-bovis-equinus-sbsec-bacteremia-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#18
Sana Idrees, Sonali Gupta, Miguel Mantilla, Pradeep Goyal, Ilja Hulinsky
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a feared complication in patients with diabetes mellitus and poses high risk of mortality and morbidity unless treated in timely manner. Infection is one of the most common precipitating factors for the development of diabetic ketoacidosis. Bacteremia with Group A and Group B beta hemolytic streptococcal strains are well known, however nonenterococcal Group D strains such as the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) still remains an understudied entity. Here we present a case of a 35-year-old Type I diabetic female presenting with severe diabetic ketoacidosis with overlapping features of hyperosmolar hyperglycemia, precipitated by Streptococcus alactolyticus bacteremia, successfully treated with four-week course of parenteral ceftriaxone...
2018: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348999/open-repair-of-quadriceps-tendon-with-suture-anchors-and-semitendinosus-tendon-allograft-augmentation
#19
Jorge Chahla, Nicholas N DePhillipo, Mark E Cinque, Nicholas I Kennedy, George F Lebus, Filippo Familiari, Gilbert Moatshe, Robert F LaPrade
Quadriceps tendinopathy in an increasingly recognized diagnosis can lead to quadriceps tendon rupture, especially in the older population. It can be caused by repeated micro trauma or also predisposed by systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and connective tissue disorders that can in turn lead to extensor mechanism deficits. Although a trial of conservative treatment is advocated, operative treatment should be performed in cases of persistent pain, extension deficit, or complete rupture of the tendon...
December 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348821/glycan-microarray-reveal-induced-iggs-repertoire-shift-against-a-dietary-carbohydrate-in-response-to-rabbit-anti-human-thymocyte-therapy
#20
Ron Amon, Shani Leviatan Ben-Arye, Limor Engler, Hai Yu, Noha Lim, Ludmilla Le Berre, Kristina M Harris, Mario R Ehlers, Stephen E Gitelman, Xi Chen, Jean-Paul Soulillou, Vered Padler-Karavani
Humans have circulating antibodies against diverse glycans containing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) due to function-loss mutation of the CMAH gene. This xenogenic non-human carbohydrate is abundant in red meat, xenografts and biotherapeutics. Low levels of diet-derived Neu5Gc is also present on normal human endothelial cells, and together with anti-Neu5Gc antibodies could potentially mediate "xenosialitis" chronic-inflammation. Rabbit anti-human thymocyte globulin (ATG) is a drug containing polyclonal IgG glycoproteins commonly used as an immunosuppressant in human transplantation and autoimmune diseases...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
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