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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812389/evolocumab-for-the-treatment-of-hypercholesterolemia
#1
Brian Tomlinson, Miao Hu, Yuzhen Zhang, Paul Chan, Zhong-Min Liu
Evolocumab is a fully human monoclonal immunoglobulin G2 directed against human proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). It is administered by subcutaneous injection every 2 weeks or once monthly. Area covered: Herein, the authors discuss the rationale for inhibiting PCSK9 and describe the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and clinical trials with evolocumab. Evolocumab reduces low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by 50 to 60% in most patients with and without background treatment with statins or other lipid lowering agents...
August 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781847/management-of-common-variable-immunodeficiency-by-subcutaneous-igg-self-administration-during-pregnancy-a-case-report
#2
Carolina Marasco, Alberta Venturelli, Luigia Rao, Angelo Vacca, Maria Rosaria Carratù
Patients with common variable immunodeficiency are prone to infections, and this poses a particular challenge during pregnancy, when the requirement for immunoglobulin (Ig) replacement therapy is even more demanding so as to achieve an effective protection also of the fetus. This case report highlights the benefits observed with subcutaneous IgG self-administration in the management of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) during pregnancy, in terms of efficacy and safety.
August 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763304/chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy
#3
Richard A Lewis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As a syndrome with typical and atypical cases, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) has been a difficult disorder to diagnose and treat. The pathophysiologic basis for CIDP has not been established, contributing to the challenges in dealing with these patients. However, as one of only a handful of treatable peripheral neuropathies, there has been a tendency to diagnose CIDP to attempt a therapeutic intervention. We are also aware that there has also been overtreatment of some patients...
July 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751214/glycan-profiling-analysis-using-evanescent-field-fluorescence-assisted-lectin-array-importance-of-sugar-recognition-for-cellular-uptake-of-exosomes-from-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#4
Asako Shimoda, Yoshiro Tahara, Shin-Ichi Sawada, Yoshihiro Sasaki, Kazunari Akiyoshi
Studies involving the functional analysis of exosomal contents including proteins, DNA, and RNA have been reported. Most membrane proteins and lipids are glycosylated, which controls their physical properties and functions, but little is known about glycans on exosomes owing to the difficulty of analysing them. To shed light on these issues, we collected exosomes from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human adipose tissue for glycan profiling using evanescent-field fluorescence-assisted lectin array as well as analysis of their uptake in vivo...
July 24, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747620/chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy-variant-with-creatine-kinase-elevation-and-vanishing-effect-of-immunoglobulins
#5
Josef Finsterer, Rahim Aliyev
BACKGROUND Whether creatine-kinase (CK) is elevated or not in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and its variants is not comprehensively investigated. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 47-year-old male who developed weakness of the left lower leg and the right index finger at age 42 years. At age 44 years, paresthesias and dysesthesias of both lower legs and mild right lower leg weakness additionally developed. CK was recurrently elevated since age 42 years but paraprotein and anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG)-antibodies were negative...
July 27, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744796/pharmacokinetics-of-abt-122-a-tnf-%C3%AE-and-il-17a-targeted-dual-variable-domain-immunoglobulin-in-healthy-subjects-and-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-results-from-three-phase-i-trials
#6
Amit Khatri, Sandra Goss, Ping Jiang, Heikki Mansikka, Ahmed A Othman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: ABT-122 is a dual-variable domain immunoglobulin that neutralizes both tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-17A, with the goal of achieving greater clinical efficacy than can be achieved by blocking either cytokine alone. This work characterized the pharmacokinetics of ABT-122 in healthy subjects and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: ABT-122 pharmacokinetics was evaluated in three phase I studies. In Study 1, single intravenous (0...
July 25, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744107/a-cohort-of-french-pediatric-patients-with-primary-immunodeficiencies-are-patient-preferences-regarding-replacement-immunotherapy-fulfilled-in-real-life-conditions
#7
Marlène Pasquet, Isabelle Pellier, Nathalie Aladjidi, Anne Auvrignon, Patrick Cherin, Pierre Clerson, Gregoire Jacques Noël Cozon, Roland Jaussaud, Boris Bienvenu, Cyrille Hoarau
OBJECTIVE: To assess quality of life and satisfaction regarding immunoglobulin-replacement therapy (IgRT) treatment according to the route (intravenous Ig [IVIg] or subcutaneous Ig [SCIg]) and place of administration (home-based IgRT or hospital-based IgRT). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Children 5-15 years old treated for primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD) with IgRT for ≥3 months were included in a prospective, noninterventional cohort study and followed over 12 months...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736431/combined-blockade-of-t-cell-immunoglobulin-and-mucin-domain-3-and-carcinoembryonic-antigen-related-cell-adhesion-molecule-1-results-in-durable-therapeutic-efficacy-in-mice-with-intracranial-gliomas
#8
Jinhu Li, Xiaodong Liu, Yijun Duan, Yueting Liu, Hongqin Wang, Shizhong Lian, Guotao Zhuang, Yimin Fan
BACKGROUND Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) evades immune surveillance by inducing immunosuppression via receptor-ligand interactions between immune checkpoint molecules. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (Tim-3) is a key checkpoint receptor responsible for exhaustion and dysfunction of T cells and plays a critical role in immunosuppression. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) has been recently identified as a heterophilic ligand for Tim-3. MATERIAL AND METHODS We established an intracranial GBM model using C57BL/6 mice and GL261 cells, and treated the mice with single or combined monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Tim-3/CEACAM1...
July 24, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704385/immunoprotective-properties-of-recombinant-liga-and-ligb-in-a-hamster-model-of-acute-leptospirosis
#9
Karen V Evangelista, Kristel Lourdault, James Matsunaga, David A Haake
Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis and is considered a major public health problem worldwide. Currently, there is no widely available vaccine against leptospirosis for use in humans. A purified, recombinant subunit vaccine that includes the last six immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domains of the leptospiral protein LigA (LigA7'-13) protects against lethal infection but not renal colonization after challenge by Leptospira interrogans. In this study, we examined whether the addition of the first seven Ig-like domains of LigB (LigB0-7) to LigA7'-13, can enhance immune protection and confer sterilizing immunity in the Golden Syrian hamster model of acute leptospirosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683596/reslizumab-in-the-treatment-of-inadequately-controlled-asthma-in-adults-and-adolescents-with-elevated-blood-eosinophils-clinical-trial-evidence-and-future-prospects
#10
Jorge Máspero
Eosinophils have long been implicated as playing a central role in the pathophysiology of asthma in many patients, and eosinophilic asthma is now recognized as an important asthma endotype. Eosinophil differentiation, maturation, migration, and survival are primarily under the control of interleukin-5 (IL-5). Reslizumab is a humanized monoclonal (immunoglobulin G4/κ) antibody that binds with high affinity to circulating human IL-5 and downregulates the IL-5 signaling pathway, potentially disrupting the maturation and survival of eosinophils...
July 1, 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671445/acute-and-chronic-urticaria-evaluation-and-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Paul Schaefer
Urticaria commonly presents with intensely pruritic wheals, sometimes with edema of the subcutaneous or interstitial tissue. It has a lifetime prevalence of about 20%. Although often self-limited and benign, it can cause significant discomfort, continue for months to years, and uncommonly represent a serious systemic disease or life-threatening allergic reaction. Urticaria is caused by immunoglobulin E- and non-immunoglobulin E-mediated release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators from mast cells and basophils...
June 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603089/specific-allergen-immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-allergic-asthma-a-review-of-current-evidence
#12
J Dominguez-Ortega, J Delgado, C Blanco, L Prieto, E Arroabarren, M Cimarra, A Henriquez-Santana, J Iglesias-Souto, J M Vega-Chicote, A I Tabar
Asthma is frequently associated with atopy, characterized by the production of specific immunoglobulin E in response to environmental allergens. Currently, two types of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) are used in clinical practice: subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy, both accepted as key components of the therapeutic repertoire for allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis. However, their role in asthma remains controversial. The present document is aimed at providing the clinicians with a review of the evidence on the use of AIT in asthma, focusing on the most relevant aspects of its mechanism of action, its efficacy, and existing data on safety, tolerability, and cost-effectivity, both in pediatric and adult populations...
June 2017: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597710/comparing-treatment-options-for-chronic-inflammatory-neuropathies-and-choosing-the-right-treatment-plan
#13
Eduardo Nobile-Orazio, Francesca Gallia, Fabrizia Terenghi, Mariangela Bianco
Chronic inflammatory neuropathies are disorders caused by an immune response to peripheral nerve. They include chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) and neuropathy associated with anti-MAG IgM monoclonal gammopathy and other less frequent neuropathies. Several immune therapies have been proven to be effective in these neuropathies even if the best therapeutic option is still unsettled. Areas covered: The authors reviewed the literature to compare the efficacy and safety of currently used immune therapies in these neuropathies...
June 26, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588812/chronic-sinusitis-in-a-patient-with-selective-igg4-subclass-deficiency-controlled-with-enriched-immunoglobulins
#14
Gérard Dine, Nadia Ali-Ammar, Said Brahimi, Yves Rehn
A 71-year-old female patient with no major history of infection had presented with recurrent chronic purulent sinusitis over the past 3 years. These recurrent infections started in 2000 with otolaryngologists' support before diagnosis of IgG4 deficiency be asked. The patient was treated with increasingly extensive courses of antibiotics and underwent several maxillary and sphenoidal sinus washouts. She continued to present with purulent nasal discharge containing Staphylococcus epidermidis. The blood and immune work-ups were normal...
June 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584673/sclerema-neonatorum-treated-successfully-with-parenteral-steroids-an-experience-from-a-resource-poor-country
#15
Sandeep Shrestha, Nagendra Chaudhary, Sujit Koirala, Ruchi Gupta
Sclerema neonatorum is a form of panniculitides characterized by diffuse hardening of subcutaneous tissue with minimal inflammation. It usually affects ill and preterm neonates. Prognosis is usually poor in many cases despite aggressive management. Various treatment modalities (antibiotics, intravenous immunoglobulin, steroids, and exchange transfusion) have been explained in literature. Steroids due to its easy availability and low cost can prove to be lifesaving in such cases, especially in resource poor countries...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581269/subcutaneous-immunotherapy-for-allergic-asthma-in-a-single-center-of-korea-efficacy-safety-and-clinical-response-predictors
#16
Ji Ho Lee, Su Chin Kim, Hyunna Choi, Chang Gyu Jung, Ga Young Ban, Yoo Seob Shin, Dong Ho Nahm, Hae Sim Park, Young Min Ye
Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only causal treatment for allergic diseases. However, the efficacy of immunotherapy may vary around the world due to differences in climate, the nature of aero-allergens and their distribution. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) in Korean adults with allergic asthma (AA). As a retrospective cohort study, we reviewed medical records for 627 patients with AA in Korea who were sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) and/or pollens and who underwent SCIT with aluminum hydroxide adsorbed allergen extract from 2000 to 2012...
July 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566163/subcutaneous-immunoglobulin-treatment-in-cidp-and-mmn-efficacy-treatment-satisfaction-and-costs
#17
REVIEW
Lars H Markvardsen, Thomas Harbo
Subcutaneous administration of immunoglobulin (SCIG) in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) has been reported in several case reports and in a few randomized trials during the last decade. In this review we present the studies on SCIG in CIDP and MMN with special focus on the clinical effects. Moreover, the effect on quality of life, side effects to SCIG and the health economic perspectives are reviewed. Nine case studies, three randomized trials and six long-term, follow-up studies were identified...
July 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536745/health-related-quality-of-life-in-adult-patients-with-common-variable-immunodeficiency-disorders-and-impact-of-treatment
#18
Nicholas L Rider, Carleigh Kutac, Joud Hajjar, Chris Scalchunes, Filiz O Seeborg, Marcia Boyle, Jordan S Orange
PURPOSE: Common variable immunodeficiency disorder (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD) often associated with severe and chronic infections. Patients commonly receive immunoglobulin (Ig) treatment to reduce the cycle of recurrent infection and improve physical functioning. However, how Ig treatment in CVID affects quality of life (QOL) has not been thoroughly evaluated. The purpose of a recent Immune Deficiency Foundation (IDF) mail survey was to assess the factors that are associated with QOL in patients with CVID receiving Ig treatment...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525399/allergen-immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-respiratory-allergies-in-the-elderly
#19
Gyu-Young Hur, Ji-Ho Lee, Hae-Sim Park
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Respiratory allergies, including asthma and allergic rhinitis can also occur in the elderly. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic diseases is the only disease-modifying treatment for patients with allergies available thus far. Here, we review current evidence supporting the use of allergen immunotherapy in the elderly and discuss its efficacy and utility for the treatment of respiratory allergic diseases in this setting. RECENT FINDINGS: Subcutaneous and/or sublingual immunotherapy are effective therapeutic options in not only young but also older patients...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522011/vaccination-with-a-live-attenuated-acinetobacter-baumannii-deficient-in-thioredoxin-provides-protection-against-systemic-acinetobacter-infection
#20
Sarah Ainsworth, Patrick M Ketter, Jieh-Juen Yu, Rose C Grimm, Holly C May, Andrew P Cap, James P Chambers, M Neal Guentzel, Bernard P Arulanandam
Multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-Ab), an opportunistic pathogen associated with nosocomial and combat related infections, has a high mortality due to its virulence and limited treatment options. Deletion of the thioredoxin gene (TrxA) from a clinical isolate of MDR-Ab resulted in a 100-fold increase in 50% lethal dose (LD50) in a systemic challenge murine model. Thus, we investigated the potential use of this attenuated strain as a live vaccine against MDR-Ab. Mice were vaccinated by subcutaneous (s...
June 8, 2017: Vaccine
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