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Hani Nabilia Muhd Sahimi, John Keen Chubo, Marina Mohd Top Mohd Tah, Noor Bahiah Saripuddin, Siti Sarah Ab Rahim
Tarsius bancanus borneanus was first reported by Elliot in 1990 which an endemic species that can be found on the Island of Borneo consisting of Sabah and Sarawak of Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam and Kalimantan, Indonesia. This sub-species has been listed as a totally protected animal under the Sarawak Wild Life Protection Ordinance (1998) and vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The present study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Campus (UPMKB), Sarawak from October 2014 till March 2015...
March 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Nanik Hidayatik, Tuty Laswardi Yusuf, Muhammad Agil, Entang Iskandar, Dondin Sajuthi
Tarsius spectrum is a primate species endemic to Sulawesi. Populations of the species have decreased due to habitat destruction and hunting. The sexual behaviour of T. bancanus and T. syrichta are known, but that of T. spectrum has not been reported until recently. The aim of this research was to study the sexual behaviour of T. spectrum in captivity. We observed 3 pairs of T. spectrum at the captive breeding facility of the IPB Primate Research Centre for 9 months using focal animal sampling. We showed that principal courtship behaviours were scent marking (36...
2018: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
James B Rossie, Timothy D Smith, K Christopher Beard, Marc Godinot, Timothy B Rowe
Computed tomography X-ray imaging of the internal face in well-preserved primate fossil crania permits reconstruction of the nature of their nasal anatomy, including some soft-tissue features. These features are diagnostic of the primate suborder Haplorhini, and allow reevaluation of the phylogenetic status of several purported early members of the group. Here we examine the nasolacrimal morphology of a broad sample of extant primates, as well as a number of Paleogene fossils. The extant sample confirms the distinctiveness of the two suborders...
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Anne M Burrows
Mammalian skeletal muscle is influenced by the functional demands placed upon it. Functional morphology of facial expression musculature, or mimetic musculature, is largely unknown. Recently, primate mimetic musculature has been shown to respond to demands associated with social factors. Body size has also been demonstrated to affect many aspects of primate functional morphology and evolutionary morphology. The present study was designed to further examine the role of social variables and body size in influencing the morphology of primate mimetic musculature using a broad phylogenetic range of primates, primates with varying body sizes, and those that exploit differing time of day activity cycles and social group sizes...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Mareike C Janiak, Morgan E Chaney, Anthony J Tosi
Insects are an important food resource for many primates, but the chitinous exoskeletons of arthropods have long been considered to be indigestible by the digestive enzymes of most mammals. However, recently mice and insectivorous bats were found to produce the enzyme acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) to digest insect exoskeletons. Here, we report on the gene CHIA and its paralogs, which encode AMCase, in a comparative sample of nonhuman primates. Our results show that early primates likely had three CHIA genes, suggesting that insects were an important component of the ancestral primate diet...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Shaun Welman, Andrew A Tuen, Barry G Lovegrove
The observation of heterothermy in a single suborder (Strepsirrhini) only within the primates is puzzling. Given that the placental-mammal ancestor was likely a heterotherm, we explored the potential for heterothermy in a primate closely related to the Strepsirrhini. Based upon phylogeny, body size and habitat stability since the Late Eocene, we selected western tarsiers ( Cephalopachus bancanus ) from the island of Borneo. Being the sister clade to Strepsirrhini and basal in Haplorrhini (monkeys and apes), we hypothesized that C...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Sharon Gursky, Cristina Salibay, Nanda Grow, Lori Fields
Over the last 2 decades the Philippine tarsier (Carlito syrichta aka Tarsius syrichta) has had its conservation status revised from Endangered to Data Deficient to Near Threatened. The last status change was based on a study of the species' population density, which suggested that a single natural catastrophe could potentially wipe out the Philippine tarsier. In 2013 typhoon Haiyan hit Bohol, one of the island strongholds for this species. In this study we compare the density of the Bohol tarsier population within the Philippine Tarsier and Wildlife Sanctuary before and after the typhoon...
2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
David Costantini, Manrico Sebastiano, Benoit Goossens, Danica J Stark
Accelerometers enable scientists to quantify the activity of free-living animals whose direct observation is difficult or demanding due to their elusive nature or nocturnal habits. However, the deployment of accelerometers on small-bodied animals and, in particular, on primates has been little explored. Here we show the first application of accelerometers on the western tarsier (Cephalopachus bancanus borneanus), a nocturnal, small-bodied primate endemic to the forests of Borneo. The fieldwork was carried out in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary, Sabah, Malaysian Borneo...
2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
Yitian Gao, Di Wu, Lei Wang, Chen Lin, Chengbang Ma, Xinping Xi, Mei Zhou, Jinao Duan, Olaf R P Bininda-Emonds, Tianbao Chen, Chris Shaw
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the skin secretions of amphibians are fundamental components of a unique defense system that has evolved to protect these hosts from microbial invasion. Medusins constitute a recently-discovered AMP family from phyllomedusine leaf frog skin and exhibit highly-conserved structural characteristics. Here, we report a novel medusin, medusin-PT, from the skin secretion of the Tarsier Leaf Frog, Phyllomedusa tarsius. The mature peptide was initially identified from its cloned biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNA as obtained by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gillian L Moritz, Perry S Ong, George H Perry, Nathaniel J Dominy
The short-wavelength sensitive (S-) opsin gene OPN1SW is pseudogenized in some nocturnal primates and retained in others, enabling dichromatic colour vision. Debate on the functional significance of this variation has focused on dark conditions, yet many nocturnal species initiate activity under dim (mesopic) light levels that can support colour vision. Tarsiers are nocturnal, twilight-active primates and exemplary visual predators; they also express different colour vision phenotypes, raising the possibility of discrete adaptations to mesopic conditions...
April 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Valerie B DeLeon, Timothy D Smith, Alfred L Rosenberger
Bony structure of the postorbital region is a key trait distinguishing major clades of primates. Strepsirrhines share a postorbital bar, and anthropoids share a complete postorbital septum. At issue is whether the partial postorbital septum of tarsiers unites living tarsiers more closely with anthropoids than with certain large-eyed Eocene fossils. Previously we reported incomplete postorbital closure in tarsiers at birth. In this article, we document comparative analyses of the postorbital region in a broad range of perinatal primates...
December 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Anne M Burrows, Carolyn R Rogers-Vizena, Ly Li, Bryan Mendelson
The human face has the greatest mobility and facial display repertoire among all primates. However, the variables that account for this are not clear. Humans and other anthropoids have remarkably similar mimetic musculature. This suggests that differences among the mimetic muscles alone may not account for the increased mobility and facial display repertoire seen in humans. Furthermore, anthropoids themselves outpace prosimians in these categories: humans > other anthropoids > prosimians. This study was undertaken to clarify the morphological underpinnings of the increased mobility and display repertoire of the human face by investigating the SMAS (the superficial musculo-aponeurotic system), a connective tissue layer enclosing the mimetic musculature located between the skin and deep fascia/periosteum...
December 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Jürgen Schmitz, Angela Noll, Carsten A Raabe, Gennady Churakov, Reinhard Voss, Martin Kiefmann, Timofey Rozhdestvensky, Jürgen Brosius, Robert Baertsch, Hiram Clawson, Christian Roos, Aleksey Zimin, Patrick Minx, Michael J Montague, Richard K Wilson, Wesley C Warren
Tarsiers are phylogenetically located between the most basal strepsirrhines and the most derived anthropoid primates. While they share morphological features with both groups, they also possess uncommon primate characteristics, rendering their evolutionary history somewhat obscure. To investigate the molecular basis of such attributes, we present here a new genome assembly of the Philippine tarsier (Tarsius syrichta), and provide extended analyses of the genome and detailed history of transposable element insertion events...
October 6, 2016: Nature Communications
Sacha Heerschop, Hans Zischler, Stefan Merker, Dyah Perwitasari-Farajallah, Christine Driller
PRDM9 is currently the sole speciation gene found in vertebrates causing hybrid sterility probably due to incompatible alleles. Its role in defining the double strand break loci during the meiotic prophase I is crucial for proper chromosome segregation. Therefore, the rapid turnover of the loci determining zinc finger array seems to be causative for incompatibilities. We here investigated the zinc finger domain-containing exon of PRDM9 in 23 tarsiers. Tarsiers, the most basal extant haplorhine primates, exhibit two frameshifting indels at the 5'-end of the array...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rachel H Dunn, Kenneth D Rose, Rajendra S Rana, Kishor Kumar, Ashok Sahni, Thierry Smith
The oldest primates of modern aspect (euprimates) appear abruptly on the Holarctic continents during a brief episode of global warming known as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, at the beginning of the Eocene (∼56 Ma). When they first appear in the fossil record, they are already divided into two distinct clades, Adapoidea (basal members of Strepsirrhini, which includes extant lemurs, lorises, and bushbabies) and Omomyidae (basal Haplorhini, which comprises living tarsiers, monkeys, and apes). Both groups have recently been discovered in the early Eocene Cambay Shale Formation of Vastan lignite mine, Gujarat, India, where they are known mainly from teeth and jaws...
October 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
Joseph S Murray, Elaina H Murray
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC; also called HLA in human) are polymorphic elements in the genomes of sharks to humans. Class-I and class-II MHC loci appear responsible for much of the genetic linkage to myriad disease states via the capacity to bind short (~8-15 a.a.) peptides of a given pathogen's proteome, or in some cases, the altered proteomes of cancerous cells, and even (in autoimmunity) certain nominal 'self' peptides (Janeway, 2004).(1) Unfortunately, little is known about how the canonical structure of the MHC-I/-II peptide-presenting gene evolved, particularly since beyond ~500 Mya (sharks) no paralogs exist...
May 2016: Mobile Genetic Elements
Christine Driller, Stefan Merker, Dyah Perwitasari-Farajallah, Walberto Sinaga, Novita Anggraeni, Hans Zischler
The Indonesian island of Sulawesi harbors a highly endemic and diverse fauna sparking fascination since long before Wallace's contemplation of biogeographical patterns in the region. Allopatric diversification driven by geological or climatic processes has been identified as the main mechanism shaping present faunal distribution on the island. There is both consensus and conflict among range patterns of terrestrial species pointing to the different effects of vicariant events on once co-distributed taxa. Tarsiers, small nocturnal primates with possible evidence of an Eocene fossil record on the Asian mainland, are at present exclusively found in insular Southeast Asia...
2015: PloS One
Gerrit Hartig, Gennady Churakov, Wesley C Warren, Jürgen Brosius, Wojciech Makałowski, Jürgen Schmitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Scientific Reports
Joseph S Murray
HLA-A alleles are characterized by tandem arginine and histidine/arginine motifs (i.e., R65 and H151R motifs) present on the α1- and α2-helix, respectively. In crystallographic structures, α/β T-cell receptors (TCR) contact both motifs and appear to be geometrically positioned for alloreactivity. Herein, bioinformatics of "dual-motif" MHC A-like alleles were investigated across phylogeny. While A-like alleles with the R65 motif are widespread, the H151R motif has segregated out of most species. Surprisingly, an uncharacterized orf in tarsiers (Loc-103275158) encodes R151 within a truncated A-23-like gene, which is in frame with short footprints of Tc5 and Tigger transposons (TE); the extant tarsier A-23 allele is totally missing exon-3 and part of exon-4; together, suggesting TE-mediated inactivation of an intact/ancestral A-23 allele...
August 2015: Immunogenetics
Sharon Gursky
Although the vocalizations of spectral tarsiers have been studied for over 3 decades by numerous primatologists, the data in this paper represent the first evidence that this species communicates in the ultrasonic range. In addition, this paper characterizes the types of ultrasonic vocalizations by spectral tarsiers, Tarsius spectrum. Data were collected at Tangkoko Nature Reserve in Sulawesi, Indonesia, from January through April 2013. Recordings were made on a Wildlife Acoustics Ultrasonic Song Meter BAT2 from 10 groups of varying sizes and compositions...
2015: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
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