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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222180/pre-existing-neutralizing-antibody-mitigates-b-cell-dysregulation-and-enhances-the-env-specific-antibody-response-in-shiv-infected-rhesus-macaques
#1
Juan Pablo Jaworski, Peter Bryk, Zachary Brower, Bo Zheng, Ann J Hessell, Alexander F Rosenberg, Tong Tong Wu, Ignacio Sanz, Michael C Keefer, Nancy L Haigwood, James J Kobie
Our central hypothesis is that protection against HIV infection will be powerfully influenced by the magnitude and quality of the B cell response. Although sterilizing immunity, mediated by pre-formed abundant and potent antibodies is the ultimate goal for B cell-targeted HIV vaccine strategies, scenarios that fall short of this may still confer beneficial defenses against viremia and disease progression. We evaluated the impact of sub-sterilizing pre-existing neutralizing antibody on the B cell response to SHIV infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217596/distribution-of-abo-and-rh-types-in-voluntary-blood-donors-in-jharkhand-area-as-a-study-conducted-by-rims-ranchi
#2
Anu Singh, Ramesh Kumar Srivastava, Kabita S Deogharia, Kranti Kumar Singh
BACKGROUND: This study was done to know the distribution and frequencies of blood groups among blood donors attending voluntary blood donation camps organized by the Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Ranchi, Jharkhand so that demand and supply ratio of the four blood groups can be maintained so that no patient dies due to lack of a particular blood group. CONTEXT: Up till now about 400 red cells antigen have been identified. The majority follow Mendelian inheritance...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216299/hipsc-derived-retinal-ganglion-cells-grow-dendritic-arbors-and-functional-axons-on-a-tissue-engineered-scaffold
#3
Kangjun Li, Xiufeng Zhong, Sijing Yang, Ziming Luo, Kang Li, Ying Liu, Song Cai, Huaiyu Gu, Shoutao Lu, Haijun Zhang, Yantao Wei, Jing Zhuang, Yehong Zhuo, Zhigang Fan, Jian Ge
: Numerous therapeutic procedures in modern medical research rely on the use of tissue engineering for the treatment of retinal diseases. However, the cell source and the transplantation method are still a limitation. Previously, we reported on the induction of a self-organizing three-dimensional neural retina from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). In this study, we disclose the generation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from the neural retina and their seeding on a biodegradable poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffold to create an engineered RGC-scaffold biomaterial...
February 16, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213784/microglia-in-the-primate-macula-specializations-in-microglial-distribution-and-morphology-with-retinal-position-and-with-aging
#4
Janani Singaravelu, Lian Zhao, Robert N Fariss, T Michael Nork, Wai T Wong
Microglia, the principal resident immune cell in the retina, play constitutive roles in immune surveillance and synapse maintenance, and are also associated with retinal disease, including those occurring in the macula. Perspectives on retinal microglia function have derived largely from rodent models and how these relate to the macula-bearing primate retina is unclear. In this study, we examined microglial distribution and cellular morphology in the adult rhesus macaque retina, and performed comparative characterizations in three retinal locations along the center-to-periphery axis (parafoveal, macular, and the peripheral retina)...
February 17, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212416/the-variability-of-multisensory-processes-of-natural-stimuli-in-human-and-non-human-primates-in-a-detection-task
#5
Cécile Juan, Céline Cappe, Baptiste Alric, Benoit Roby, Sophie Gilardeau, Pascal Barone, Pascal Girard
BACKGROUND: Behavioral studies in both human and animals generally converge to the dogma that multisensory integration improves reaction times (RTs) in comparison to unimodal stimulation. These multisensory effects depend on diverse conditions among which the most studied were the spatial and temporal congruences. Further, most of the studies are using relatively simple stimuli while in everyday life, we are confronted to a large variety of complex stimulations constantly changing our attentional focus over time, a modality switch that can impact on stimuli detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211307/local-and-systemic-changes-associated-with-long-term-percutaneous-static-implantation-of-titanium-alloys-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#6
Galit H Frydman Robert P Marini Vasudevan Bakthavatchalu Kathleen E Biddle Sureshkumar Muthupalani Charles R Vanderburg Barry Lai Pavan K Bendapudi Ronald G Tompkins And James G Fox
Metal alloys are frequently used as implant materials in veterinary medicine. Recent studies suggest that many alloys induce both local and systemic inflammatory responses. In this study, 37 rhesus macaques with long-term skull-anchored percutaneous titanium alloy implants (duration, 0 to 14 y) were evaluated for changes in their hematology, coagulation, and serum chemistry profiles. Negative controls (n = 28) did not have implants. Macaques with implants had higher plasma D-dimer and lower antithrombin III concentrations than nonimplanted animals...
February 16, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210206/the-unc-wisconsin-rhesus-macaque-neurodevelopment-database-a-structural-mri-and-dti-database-of-early-postnatal-development
#7
Jeffrey T Young, Yundi Shi, Marc Niethammer, Michael Grauer, Christopher L Coe, Gabriele R Lubach, Bradley Davis, Francois Budin, Rebecca C Knickmeyer, Andrew L Alexander, Martin A Styner
Rhesus macaques are commonly used as a translational animal model in neuroimaging and neurodevelopmental research. In this report, we present longitudinal data from both structural and diffusion MRI images generated on a cohort of 34 typically developing monkeys from 2 weeks to 36 months of age. All images have been manually skull stripped and are being made freely available via an online repository for use by the research community.
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209611/genetic-manipulation-of-helicobacter-pylori-virulence-function-by-host-carcinogenic-phenotypes
#8
Giovanni Suarez, Judith Romero-Gallo, Johanna C Sierra, M Blanca Piazuelo, Uma Krishna, Martin Alonso Gomez, Keith T Wilson, Richard M Peek
Helicobacter pylori is the strongest risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, yet only a minority of infected persons ever develop this malignancy. One cancer-linked locus is the cag type 4 secretion system (cagT4SS), which translocates an oncoprotein into host cells. A structural component of the cagT4SS is CagY, which become rapidly altered during in vivo adaptation in mice and rhesus monkeys, rendering the cagT4SS nonfunctional; however, these models rarely develop gastric cancer. We previously demonstrated that the H...
February 16, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208028/early-life-wildfire-smoke-exposure-is-associated-with-immune-dysregulation-and-lung-function-decrements-in-adolescence
#9
Carolyn Black, Joan E Gerriets, Justin H Fontaine, Richart W Harper, Nicholas J Kenyon, Fern Tablin, Edward S Schelegle, Lisa A Miller
RATIONALE: The long-term health effects of wildfire smoke exposure in pediatric populations are not known. OBJECTIVE: To determine if early life exposure to wildfire smoke can affect parameters of immunity and airways physiology that are detectable with maturity. METHODS: We studied a mixed gender cohort of rhesus macaque monkeys that were exposed as infants to ambient wood smoke from a series of Northern California wildfires in the summer of 2008...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208025/aeol-10150-mitigates-radiation-induced-lung-injury-in-the-nonhuman-primate-morbidity-and-mortality-are-administration-schedule-dependent
#10
Thomas J MacVittie, Allison Gibbs, Ann M Farese, Kory Barrow, Alexander Bennett, Cheryl Taylor-Howell, Abdul Kazi, Karl Prado, George Parker, William Jackson Iii
Pneumonitis and fibrosis are potentially lethal, delayed effects of acute radiation exposure. In this study, male rhesus macaques received whole-thorax lung irradiation (WTLI) with a target dose of 10.74 Gy prescribed to midplane at a dose rate of 0.80 ± 0.05 Gy/min using 6 MV linear accelerator-derived photons. The study design was comprised of four animal cohorts: one control and three treated with AEOL 10150 (n = 20 animals per cohort). AEOL 10150, a metalloporphyrin antioxidant, superoxide dismutase mimetic was administered by daily subcutaneous injection at 5 mg/kg in each of three schedules, beginning 24 ± 2 h postirradiation: from day 1 to day 28, day 1 to day 60 or a divided regimen from day 1 to day 28 plus day 60 to day 88...
February 16, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207487/antibody-mediated-immune-exclusion-of-hiv
#11
Ruth M Ruprecht, Samir K Lakhashe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although approximately 90% of all HIV transmissions in humans occur through mucosal contact, the induction of mucosal anti-HIV immune responses has remained understudied. Here we summarize data demonstrating the powerful protection that is achievable at mucosal frontlines through virus-specific mucosal IgA alone or combined with IgG. RECENT FINDINGS: Passive immunization with different monoclonal antibody subclasses but identical epitope specificity (the conserved V3-loop crown of HIV gp120) has revealed that the dimeric IgA1 (dIgA1) form with its open hinge can prevent simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) acquisition in rhesus macaques at a higher rate than dIgA2...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202751/superiority-in-rhesus-macaques-of-targeting-hiv-1-env-gp140-to-cd40-versus-lox-1-in-combination-with-replication-competent-nyvac-kc-for-induction-of-env-specific-antibody-and-t-cell-responses
#12
Gerard Zurawski, Xiaoying Shen, Sandra Zurawski, Georgia D Tomaras, David C Montefiori, Mario Roederer, Guido Ferrari, Christine Lacabaratz, Peter Klucar, Zhiqing Wang, Kathryn E Foulds, Shing-Fen Kao, Xuesong Yu, Alicia Sato, Nicole L Yates, Celia LaBranche, Sherry Stanfield-Oakley, Karen Kibler, Bertram Jacobs, Andres Salazar, Steve Self, Jimmy Fulp, Raphael Gottardo, Lindsey Galmin, Deborah Weiss, Anthony Cristillo, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Yves Levy
We compared the HIV-1-specific immune responses generated by targeting HIV-1 envelope protein (Env gp140) to either CD40 or LOX-1, two endocytic receptors on dendritic cells (DCs), in Rhesus macaques primed with a poxvirus vector (NYVAC-KC) expressing Env gp140. The DC-targeting vaccines, humanized recombinant monoclonal antibodies fused to Env gp140, were administered as a boost with poly ICLC adjuvant either alone or co-administered with the NYVAC-KC vector. All the DC-targeting vaccine administrations with poly ICLC increased the low-level serum anti-Env IgG responses elicited by NYVAC-KC priming significantly more (up to P =0...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202727/monkeys-choose-as-if-maximizing-utility-compatible-with-basic-principles-of-revealed-preference-theory
#13
Alexandre Pastor-Bernier, Charles R Plott, Wolfram Schultz
Revealed preference theory provides axiomatic tools for assessing whether individuals make observable choices "as if" they are maximizing an underlying utility function. The theory evokes a tradeoff between goods whereby individuals improve themselves by trading one good for another good to obtain the best combination. Preferences revealed in these choices are modeled as curves of equal choice (indifference curves) and reflect an underlying process of optimization. These notions have far-reaching applications in consumer choice theory and impact the welfare of human and animal populations...
February 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202573/alteration-of-the-microsaccadic-velocity-amplitude-main-sequence-relationship-after-visual-transients-implications-for-models-of-saccade-control
#14
Antimo Buonocore, Chih-Yang Chen, Xiaoguang Tian, Saad Idrees, Thomas Muench, Ziad M Hafed
Microsaccades occur during gaze fixation in order to correct for miniscule foveal motor errors. The mechanisms governing such fine oculomotor control are still not fully understood. In this study, we explored microsaccade control by analyzing the impacts of transient visual stimuli on these movements' kinematics. We found that such kinematics can be altered in systematic ways depending on the timing and spatial geometry of visual transients relative to the movement goals. In two male rhesus macaques, we presented peripheral or foveal visual transients during an otherwise stable period of fixation...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202570/aav-mediated-delivery-of-optogenetic-constructs-to-the-macaque-brain-triggers-humoral-immune-responses
#15
Skyler D Mendoza, Yasmine El-Shamayleh, Gregory D Horwitz
Gene delivery to the primate central nervous system via recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) allows neurophysiologists to control and observe neural activity precisely. A current limitation of this approach is variability in vector transduction efficiency. Low levels of transduction can foil experimental manipulations, prompting vector readministration. The ability to make multiple vector injections into the same animal, even in cases where successful vector transduction has already been achieved, is also desirable...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202084/aprepitant-limits-in-vivo-neuroinflammatory-responses-in-a-rhesus-model-of-lyme-neuroborreliosis
#16
Alejandra N Martinez, Amanda R Burmeister, Geeta Ramesh, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Ian Marriott, Mario T Philipp
BACKGROUND: Substance P (SP) is produced at high levels in the central nervous system (CNS), and its target receptor, neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R), is expressed by glia and leukocytes. This tachykinin functions to exacerbate inflammatory responses at peripheral sites. Moreover, SP/NK-1R interactions have recently been associated with severe neuroinflammation and neuronal damage. We have previously demonstrated that NK-1R antagonists can limit neuroinflammatory damage in a mouse model of bacterial meningitis...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196413/alu-derived-alternative-splicing-events-specific-to-macaca-lineages-in-ctsf-gene
#17
Ja-Rang Lee, Sang-Je Park, Young-Hyun Kim, Se-Hee Choe, Hyeon-Mu Cho, Sang-Rae Lee, Sun-Uk Kim, Ji-Su Kim, Bo-Woong Sim, Bong-Seok Song, Kang-Jin Jeong, Youngjeon Lee, Yeung Bae Jin, Philyong Kang, Jae-Won Huh, Kyu-Tae Chang
Cathepsin F, which is encoded by CTSF, is a cysteine proteinase ubiquitously expressed in several tissues. In a previous study, novel transcripts of the CTSF gene were identified in the crab-eating monkey deriving from the integration of an Alu element-AluYRa1. The occurrence of AluYRa1-derived alternative transcripts and the mechanism of exonization events in the CTSF gene of human, rhesus monkey, and crabeating monkey were investigated using PCR and reverse transcription PCR on the genomic DNA and cDNA isolated from several tissues...
February 14, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195359/sodium-taurocholate-cotransporting-polypeptide-is-the-limiting-host-factor-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-macaque-and-pig-hepatocytes
#18
Florian A Lempp, Ellen Wiedtke, Bingqian Qu, Pierre Roques, Isabelle Chemin, Florian W R Vondran, Roger Le Grand, Dirk Grimm, Stephan Urban
: Infections with the human Hepatitis B (HBV) and Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) depend on species-specific host factors like the receptor human sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide hNTCP. Complementation of mouse hepatocytes with hNTCP confers susceptibility to HDV but not HBV indicating the requirement of additional HBV-specific factors. As an essential premise towards the establishment for an HBV-susceptible animal model, we investigated the role of hNTCP as a limiting factor of hepatocytes in commonly used laboratory animals...
February 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193875/spontaneous-expression-of-mirror-self-recognition-in-monkeys-after-learning-precise-visual-proprioceptive-association-for-mirror-images
#19
Liangtang Chang, Shikun Zhang, Mu-Ming Poo, Neng Gong
Mirror self-recognition (MSR) is generally considered to be an intrinsic cognitive ability found only in humans and a few species of great apes. Rhesus monkeys do not spontaneously show MSR, but they have the ability to use a mirror as an instrument to find hidden objects. The mechanism underlying the transition from simple mirror use to MSR remains unclear. Here we show that rhesus monkeys could show MSR after learning precise visual-proprioceptive association for mirror images. We trained head-fixed monkeys on a chair in front of a mirror to touch with spatiotemporal precision a laser pointer light spot on an adjacent board that could only be seen in the mirror...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191316/the-contraceptive-efficacy-of-intravas-injection-of-vasalgel%C3%A2-for-adult-male-rhesus-monkeys
#20
Angela Colagross-Schouten, Marie-Josee Lemoy, Rebekah I Keesler, Elaine Lissner, Catherine A VandeVoort
BACKGROUND: Options for male contraception are limited. The purpose of this study was to use a nonhuman primate model to evaluate Vasalgel™, a high molecular weight polymer being developed as a contraceptive device for men. METHODS: Sixteen adult male rhesus monkeys received intravas injections of Vasalgel, consisting of 25% styrene maleic acid in dimethyl sulfoxide. After a one-week recovery, males were returned to outdoor group housing, which included at least 3 and up to 9 intact, breeding females with a successful reproductive history...
2017: Basic and Clinical Andrology
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