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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535192/learning-through-chain-event-graphs-the-role-of-maternal-factors-in-childhood-type-i-diabetes
#1
Claire Keeble, Peter Adam Thwaites, Paul David Baxter, Stuart Barber Pgclthe, Roger Charles Parslow, Graham Richard Law
Chain event graphs are a graphical representation of a statistical model derived from event trees, previously applied to cohort studies but not to case-control studies. We apply the chain event graph framework to a Yorkshire case-control study of childhood type I diabetes, to examine four exposure variables associated with the mother, three of which are fully observed (her school-leaving-age, amniocenteses during pregnancy and delivery type) and one with missing values (her rhesus factor), while incorporating previous type I diabetes knowledge...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533288/apparent-affinity-estimates-and-reversal-of-the-effects-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-am-2201-cp-47-497-jwh-122-and-jwh-250-by-rimonabant-in-rhesus-monkeys
#2
Lenka Hruba, Lance R McMahon
Synthetic cannabinoids have been prohibited due to abuse liability and toxicity. Four such synthetic cannabinoids, AM-2201, CP-47,497, JWH-122, and JWH-250, were tested for their capacity to produce CB1 receptor-mediated discriminative stimulus effects in two groups of rhesus monkeys. One group (n=4) discriminated ∆9-THC (0.1 mg/kg i.v.) and a second group (n=4) discriminated the cannabinoid antagonist rimonabant (1 mg/kg i.v.) while receiving 1 mg/kg/12 h of ∆9-THC. AM-2201, JWH-122, CP-47,497, JWH-250, and ∆9-THC increased ∆9-THC-lever responding...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529118/early-life-allergen-and-air-pollutant-exposures-alter-longitudinal-blood-immune-profiles-in-infant-rhesus-monkeys
#3
Candace M Crowley, Justin H Fontaine, Joan E Gerriets, Edward S Schelegle, Dallas M Hyde, Lisa A Miller
Early life is a critical period for the progressive establishment of immunity in response to environmental stimuli; the impact of airborne challenges on this process is not well defined. In a longitudinal fashion, we determined the effect of episodic house dust mite (HDM) aerosol and ozone inhalation, both separately and combined, on peripheral blood immune cell phenotypes and cytokine expression from 4 to 25weeks of age in an infant rhesus monkey model of childhood development. Immune profiles in peripheral blood were compared with lung lavage at 25weeks of age...
May 18, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526067/the-chimeric-monoclonal-antibody-mhcsz-123-against-human-von-willebrand-factor-a3-domain-inhibits-high-shear-arterial-thrombosis-in-a-rhesus-monkey-model
#4
Shundong Ji, Miao Jiang, Bin Yan, Fei Shen, Yang He, Aini Wan, Lijun Xia, Changgeng Ruan, Yiming Zhao
BACKGROUND: SZ-123, a murine monoclonal antibody that targets the human von Willebrand factor (VWF) A3 domain and blocks the binding of collagen, is a powerful antithrombotic. In a Rhesus monkey model of thrombosis, SZ-123 had no side effects, such as bleeding or thrombocytopenia. METHODS: The mouse/human chimeric version of SZ-123, MHCSZ-123, was developed and maintained inhibitory capacities in vitro and ex vivo after injection into monkeys. CHO-S cells were selected for stable expression of MHCSZ-123...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523287/modeling-risky-decision-making-in-nonhuman-animals-shared-core-features
#5
Sarah R Heilbronner
Understanding the neural mechanisms of risky decision-making is critical to developing appropriate treatments for psychiatric disorders, problem gambling, and addiction to drugs of abuse. Probing neurobiological mechanisms requires the use of nonhuman animal models (particularly rhesus macaques, rats, and mice). However, there is considerable variation across species in risk preferences. Nevertheless, there are shared core features of risky decision-making present across species. As demonstrated with a wide variety of behavioral paradigms, modulators of risk preference observed in humans are readily replicated in model species...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522025/corrigendum-to-genetic-polymorphism-of-cynomolgus-and-rhesus-macaque-cyp2c9-drug-metab-pharmacokinet-30-2015-130-132
#6
Yasuhiro Uno, Akinori Matsushita, Norie Murayama, Hiroshi Yamazaki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521874/sirna-mediated-inhibition-of-srebp-cleavage-activating-protein-reduces-dyslipidemia-in-spontaneously-dysmetabolic-rhesus-monkeys
#7
Beth Ann Murphy, Marija Tadin-Strapps, Kristian Jensen, Robin Mogg, Andy Liaw, Kithsiri Herath, Gowri Bhat, David G McLaren, Stephen F Previs, Shirly Pinto
BACKGROUND: SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) is a cholesterol binding endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein that is required to activate SREBP transcription factors. SREBPs regulate genes involved in lipid biosynthesis. They also influence lipid clearance by modulating the expression of LDL receptor (LDLR) and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) genes. Inhibiting SCAP decreases circulating PCSK9, triglycerides (TG), and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), both in vitro and in vivo...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521247/cognitive-performance-of-juvenile-monkeys-after-chronic-fluoxetine-treatment
#8
Mari S Golub, Edward P Hackett, Casey E Hogrefe, Csaba Leranth, John D Elsworth, Robert H Roth
Potential long term effects on brain development are a concern when drugs are used to treat depression and anxiety in childhood. In this study, male juvenile rhesus monkeys (three-four years of age) were dosed with fluoxetine or vehicle (N=16/group) for two years. Histomorphometric examination of cortical dendritic spines conducted after euthanasia at one year postdosing (N=8/group) suggested a trend toward greater dendritic spine synapse density in prefrontal cortex of the fluoxetine-treated monkeys. During dosing, subjects were trained for automated cognitive testing, and evaluated with a test of sustained attention...
May 1, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518476/adult-onset-chronic-cyclic-thrombocytopenia-in-a-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta-after-dengue-virus-vaccination-and-viral-challenge
#9
Galit H Frydman, Kelly A Metcalf Pate, Robert P Marini, Armelle M de Laforcade, Irene Bosch, Vasudevan Bakthavatchalu, Sureshkumar Muthupalani, Alton G Swennes, Claire E Lyons, Ronald G Tompkins, James G Fox
An 8-year-old, male Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), previously used for dengue virus (DENV) vaccine research with viral challenge, was presented with adult-onset, chronic, cyclic thrombocytopenia. Platelet number, morphology, and function were evaluated by automated hematology, peripheral blood smears, electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and impedance aggregometry. Bone marrow was evaluated by cytology. Both serum anti-dengue nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antibodies and anti-platelet antibodies were detected by ELISA...
May 18, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516457/computed-tomography-or-necropsy-diagnosis-of-multiple-bullae-and-the-treatment-of-pneumothorax-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#10
Jong-Min Kim, Sungyoung Han, Jun-Seop Shin, Byoung-Hoon Min, Won Young Jeong, Ga Eul Lee, Min Sun Kim, Ju Eun Kim, Hyunwoo Chung, Chung-Gyu Park
Pulmonary bullae and pneumothorax have various etiologies in veterinary medicine. We diagnosed multiple pulmonary bullae combined with or without pneumothorax by computed tomography (CT) or necropsy in seven rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) imported from China. Two of seven rhesus macaques accompanied by pneumothorax were cured by fixation of ruptured lung through left or right 3rd intercostal thoracotomy. Pneumonyssus simicola, one of the etiologies of pulmonary bullae, was not detected from tracheobronchiolar lavage...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515290/a-point-mutation-in-the-rhesus-rotavirus-vp4-protein-generated-through-rotavirus-reverse-genetics-system-attenuates-the-murine-model-of-biliary-atresia
#11
Sujit K Mohanty, Bryan Donnelly, Phylicia Dupree, Inna Lobeck, Sarah Mowery, Jaroslaw Meller, Monica McNeal, Greg Tiao
Rotavirus infection is one of the most common causes of diarrheal illness in humans. In neonatal mice, rhesus rotavirus (RRV) can induce biliary atresia (BA), a disease resulting in inflammatory obstruction of the extra-hepatic biliary tract and intrahepatic bile ducts. We have previously shown that the amino acid, arginine (R) within the sequence "SRL" (amino acids 445-447) on the RRV VP4 protein is required for viral binding and entry into biliary epithelial cells. To determine if the single amino acid (R) influences the pathogenicity of the virus, we generated a recombinant virus with a single amino acid mutation at this site through a reverse genetics system...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515081/flexible-ammonia-handling-strategies-using-both-cutaneous-and-branchial-epithelia-in-the-highly-ammonia-tolerant-pacific-hagfish
#12
Alexander M Clifford, Alyssa M Weinrauch, Susan L Edwards, Michael P Wilkie, Greg G Goss
Hagfish consume carrion, potentially exposing them to hypoxia, hypercarbia, and high environmental ammonia (HEA). We investigated branchial and cutaneous ammonia handling strategies by which Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) tolerate and recover from high ammonia loading. Hagfish were exposed to HEA (20 mmol L(-1)) for 48 h to elevate plasma total ammonia (TAmm) levels before placement into divided chambers for a 4 h recovery period in ammonia-free seawater where ammonia excretion (JAmm) was measured independently in the anterior and posterior compartments...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512637/positive-correlation-between-ip-10-and-ifn-%C3%AE-levels-in-rhesus-monkeys-macaca-mulatta-with-either-naturally-acquired-or-experimental-infection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#13
Fangui Min, Ruike Wu, Jinchun Pan, Shuwu Huang, Yinzhu Luo, Yu Zhang
Numerous studies identify that IP-10 and IFN-γ are involved in leucocyte migration and activation and regarded as promising surrogate biomarkers in human and bovine tuberculosis infection, but there is lack of evidence for IP-10 in nonhuman primates. In this study, we directly determined IP-10 and IFN-γ levels in plasma from 30 healthy monkeys, 30 monkeys with naturally acquired tuberculosis, 4 monkeys experimentally infected with tuberculosis, and PPD stimulated whole blood of 14 monkeys with naturally acquired tuberculosis by ELISA...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511091/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-dngr-1-in-rhesus-macaques
#14
Wen-Rong Yao, Lei Yu, Dong Li, Gui-Bo Yang
DC, NK lectin group receptor-1 (DNGR-1), also known as C-type lectin domain family 9 member A (CLEC9A), is a promising target for immunological therapeutics and vaccination against tumors and viruses. However, little is known about its property in rhesus macaques. In this study, we cloned rhesus macaque DNGR-1 cDNA, and found that its coding region could encode a 241-amino acid polypeptide with 91.7% sequence identity and similar antigenicity to that of humans. Both free and cell surface rhesus macaque DNGR-1 expressed in vitro could bind to apoptotic/dead cells induced by serum deprivation or freeze-thaw, and to pyroptotic cells stimulated with PMA and LPS...
May 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510330/rhesus-macaque-ipsc-generation-and-maintenance
#15
Ravi Chandra Yada, So Gun Hong, Yongshun Lin, Thomas Winkler, Cynthia E Dunbar
The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is physiologically and phylogenetically similar to humans, and therefore represents an invaluable model for the pre-clinical assessment of the safety and feasibility of iPSC-derived cell therapies. The use of an excisable polycistronic lentiviral STEMCCA vector to reprogram rhesus fibroblasts or bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) into RhiPSCs is described. After reprogramming, the pluripotency transgenes can be removed by transient expression of Cre, leaving a residual genetic tag that may be useful for identification of RhiPSC-derived tissues in vivo...
May 16, 2017: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508743/mycobacterium-kansasii-isolated-from-tuberculinpositive-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-in-the-absence-of-disease
#16
Steven T Shipley, David K Johnson, Morteza Roodgar, David Glenn Smith, Charles A Montgomery, Steven M Lloyd, James A Higgins, Edwin H Kriel, Hilton J Klein, William P Porter, Jerome B Nazareno, Paul W Houghton, Aruna Panda, Louis J DeTolla
Mycobacterial infections are of primary health concern in NHP colonies in biomedical research. NHP are constantly monitoredand screened for Mycobacterium spp. We report 6 Chinese-origin rhesus macaques infected with Mycobacterium kansasii thatexhibited positive tuberculin skin tests in the absence of disease. Two of these macaques were being used for research purposes;the remaining 4 macaques were residing at the contract quarantine company. Histopathology and acid-fast staining of fixed tissues from all macaques showed that all were free of disease...
May 15, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508166/toxoplasma-gondii-and-schizophrenia-a-review-of-published-rcts
#17
REVIEW
Sam D Chorlton
Over the last 60 years, accumulating evidence has suggested that acute, chronic, and maternal Toxoplasma gondii infections predispose to schizophrenia. More recent evidence suggests that chronically infected patients with schizophrenia present with more severe disease. After acute infection, parasites form walled cysts in the brain, leading to lifelong chronic infection and drug resistance to commonly used antiparasitics. Chronic infection is the most studied and closely linked with development and severity of schizophrenia...
May 15, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505602/unusual-antigen-presentation-offers-new-insight-into-hiv-vaccine-design
#18
REVIEW
Andrew J McMichael, Louis J Picker
Recent findings with a rhesus monkey cytomegalovirus based simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine have identified strong CD8+ T cell responses that are restricted by MHC-E. Also mycobacteria specific CD8+ T cells, that are MHC-E restricted, have been identified. MHC-E therefore can present a wide range of epitope peptides to CD8+ T cells, alongside its well defined role in presenting a conserved MHC-class I signal peptide to the NKG2A/C-CD94 receptor on natural killer cells. Here we explore the antigen processing pathways involved in these atypical T cell responses...
May 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503929/rare-control-of-sivmac239-infection-in-a-vaccinated-rhesus-macaque
#19
Mauricio de Aguiar Martins, Damien C Tully, Young C Shin, Lucas Gonzalez-Nieto, Kim Weisgrau, David J Bean, Rujuta Gadgil, Martin J Gutman, Aline Domingues, Helen Skye Maxwell, Diogo Magnani, Michael Ricciardi, Nuria Pedreño-Lopez, Varian Bailey, Michael Cruz, Noemia S Lima, Myrna Bonaldo, John Altman, Eva Rakasz, Saverio Capuano, Keith Reimann, Michael Piatak, Jeffrey Lifson, Ronald Desrosiers, Todd Allen, David Watkins
Effector memory T-cell (T<sub>EM</sub>) responses display potent antiviral properties and have been linked to stringent control of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication. Since recurrent antigen stimulation drives the differentiation of CD8<sup>+</sup> T-cells toward the T<sub>EM</sub> phenotype, here we incorporated a persistent herpesviral vector into a heterologous prime/boost/boost vaccine approach in order to maximize the induction of T<sub>EM</sub> responses...
May 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503733/long-term-safety-from-transmission-of-porcine-endogenous-retrovirus-after-pig-to-non-human-primate-corneal-transplantation
#20
Hyuk Jin Choi, Jiyeon Kim, Jae Young Kim, Hyun Ju Lee, Won Ryang Wee, Mee Kum Kim, Eung Soo Hwang
BACKGROUND: The risk of xenozoonosis mainly by porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) has been considered as one of the main hurdles in xenotransplantation and therefore should be elucidated prior to the clinical use of porcine corneal grafts. Accordingly, an investigation was performed to analyze the infectivity of PERVs from porcine keratocytes to human cells, and the long-term risk of transmission of PERVs was determined using pig-to-non-human primate (NHP) corneal transplantation models...
May 14, 2017: Xenotransplantation
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