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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049632/an-engineering-model-to-test-for-sensory-reweighting-in-non-human-primate-posture
#1
Lara A Thompson, Csilla Haburcakova, Adam D Goodworth, Richard F Lewis
Quantitative animal models are critically needed to provide proof-of-concept for the investigation of rehabilitative balance therapies (e.g., invasive vestibular prostheses) and treatment response prior to, or in conjunction with, human clinical trials. This paper describes a novel approach to modeling the non-human primate postural control system. Our observation that rhesus macaques and humans have even remotely similar postural control motivates the further application of the rhesus macaque as a model for studying the effects of vestibular dysfunction, as well as vestibular prosthesis-assisted states, on human postural control...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049383/lutein-accumulates-in-subcellular-membranes-of-brain-regions-in-adult-rhesus-macaques-relationship-to-dha-oxidation-products
#2
Emily S Mohn, John W Erdman, Matthew J Kuchan, Martha Neuringer, Elizabeth J Johnson
OBJECTIVES: Lutein, a carotenoid with anti-oxidant functions, preferentially accumulates in primate brain and is positively related to cognition in humans. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), is also beneficial for cognition, but is susceptible to oxidation. The present study characterized the membrane distribution of lutein in brain regions important for different domains of cognitive function and determined whether membrane lutein was associated with brain PUFA oxidation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047334/a-support-vector-machine-based-method-to-distinguish-long-non-coding-rnas-from-protein-coding-transcripts
#3
Hugo W Schneider, Taina Raiol, Marcelo M Brigido, Maria Emilia M T Walter, Peter F Stadler
BACKGROUND: In recent years, a rapidly increasing number of RNA transcripts has been generated by thousands of sequencing projects around the world, creating enormous volumes of transcript data to be analyzed. An important problem to be addressed when analyzing this data is distinguishing between long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and protein coding transcripts (PCTs). Thus, we present a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based method to distinguish lncRNAs from PCTs, using features based on frequencies of nucleotide patterns and ORF lengths, in transcripts...
October 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047012/chronic-curcumin-treatment-improves-spatial-working-memory-but-not-recognition-memory-in-middle-aged-rhesus-monkeys
#4
Tara L Moore, Bethany Bowley, Penny Shultz, Samantha Calderazzo, Eli Shobin, Ronald J Killiany, Douglas L Rosene, Mark B Moss
Studies of both humans and non-human primates have demonstrated that aging is typically characterized by a decline in cognition that can occur as early as the fifth decade of life. Age-related changes in working memory are particularly evident and mediated, in part, by the prefrontal cortex, an area known to evidence age-related changes in myelin that is attributed to inflammation. In recent years, several nutraceuticals, including curcumin, by virtue of their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, have received considerable attention as potential treatments for age-related cognitive decline and inflammation...
October 18, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046307/high-definition-mapping-of-four-spatially-distinct-neutralizing-epitope-clusters-on-rivax-a-candidate-ricin-toxin-subunit-vaccine
#5
Ronald Toth, Siva Krishna Angalakurthi, Greta Van Slyke, David J Vance, John M Hickey, Sangeeta B Joshi, C Russell Middaugh, David B Volkin, David D Weis, Nicholas J Mantis
RiVax is a promising recombinant ricin toxin A subunit (RTA) vaccine antigen that has been shown to be safe and immunogenic in humans and effective at protecting Rhesus macaques against lethal dose aerosolized toxin exposure. We previously used a panel of RTA-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to demonstrate, by competition ELISA, that RiVax elicits similar serum antibody profiles in both humans and macaques. However, the actual mAb binding sites on RiVax have yet to be defined. In this study, we employed hydrogen exchange-mass spectrometry (HX-MS) to localize the epitopes on RiVax recognized by nine toxin-neutralizing mAbs and one non-neutralizing mAb...
October 18, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045906/ctla-4-pd-1-memory-cd4-t-cells-critically-contribute-to-viral-persistence-in-antiretroviral-therapy-suppressed-siv-infected-rhesus-macaques
#6
Colleen S McGary, Claire Deleage, Justin Harper, Luca Micci, Susan P Ribeiro, Sara Paganini, Leticia Kuri-Cervantes, Clarisse Benne, Emily S Ryan, Robert Balderas, Sherrie Jean, Kirk Easley, Vincent Marconi, Guido Silvestri, Jacob D Estes, Rafick-Pierre Sekaly, Mirko Paiardini
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses viral replication in HIV-infected individuals but does not eliminate the reservoir of latently infected cells. Recent work identified PD-1(+) follicular helper T (Tfh) cells as an important cellular compartment for viral persistence. Here, using ART-treated, SIV-infected rhesus macaques, we show that CTLA-4(+)PD-1(-) memory CD4(+) T cells, which share phenotypic markers with regulatory T cells, were enriched in SIV DNA in blood, lymph nodes (LN), spleen, and gut, and contained replication-competent and infectious virus...
October 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044804/comparison-of-visual-receptive-fields-in-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-dlpfc-and-ventral-intraparietal-area-vip-in-macaques
#7
Pooja Viswanathan, Andreas Nieder
The concept of receptive field (RF) describes the responsiveness of neurons to sensory space. Neurons in the primate association cortices have long been known to be spatially selective but a detailed characterization and direct comparison of RFs between frontal and parietal association cortices is missing. We sampled the RFs of a large number of neurons from two interconnected areas of the frontal and parietal lobes, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and ventral intraparietal area (VIP), of rhesus monkeys by systematically presenting a moving bar during passive fixation...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042259/widespread-optogenetic-expression-in-macaque-cortex-obtained-with-mr-guided-convection-enhanced-delivery-ced-of-aav-vector-to-the-thalamus
#8
Azadeh Yazdan-Shahmorad, Nan Tian, Viktor Kharazia, Lluis Samaranch, Adrian Kells, John Bringas, Jiwei He, Krystof Bankiewicz, Philip N Sabes
BACKGROUND: In non-human primate (NHP) optogenetics, infecting large cortical areas with viral vectors is often a difficult and time-consuming task. Previous work has shown that parenchymal delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) in the thalamus by convection-enhanced delivery (CED) can lead to large-scale transduction via axonal transport in distal areas including cortex. We used this approach to obtain widespread cortical expression of light-sensitive ion channels. NEW METHOD: AAV vectors co-expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) genes were infused into thalamus of three rhesus macaques under MR-guided CED...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040907/what-do-monkeys-know-about-others-knowledge
#9
Lindsey A Drayton, Laurie R Santos
Recently, comparative psychologists have suggested that primates represent others' knowledge states. Evidence for this claim comes from studies demonstrating that primates expect others to maintain representations of objects when those objects are not currently visible. However, little work has explored whether nonhuman primates expect others to share the more sophisticated kinds of object knowledge that they themselves possess. We therefore investigated whether primates attribute to others knowledge that is acquired through the mental transformation of a static object representation...
October 14, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040827/effects-of-lorcaserin-belviq-%C3%A2-on-nicotine-and-food-maintained-responding-in-non-human-primates
#10
David S Jacobs, Claire E Barkin, Michelle R Kohut, Jack Bergman, Stephen J Kohut
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that the FDA-approved serotonin 5-HT2C receptor agonist, lorcaserin (Belviq(®)), may be a promising candidate for the management of substance use disorders, including nicotine addiction. The present study was conducted to determine the efficacy and selectivity of acute or continuous lorcaserin treatment for decreasing the reinforcing effects of nicotine in a primate species. METHODS: Adult rhesus monkeys (n=4) with a history of nicotine self-administration (>2years) responded for injections of nicotine (0...
October 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040826/maintenance-on-naltrexone-amphetamine-decreases-cocaine-vs-food-choice-in-male-rhesus-monkeys
#11
Megan J Moerke, Matthew L Banks, Kejun Cheng, Kenner C Rice, S Stevens Negus
BACKGROUND: Cocaine use disorder remains a significant public health issue for which there are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies. Amphetamine maintenance reduces cocaine use in preclinical and clinical studies, but the mechanism of this effect is unknown. Previous studies indicate a role for endogenous opioid release and subsequent opioid receptor activation in some amphetamine effects; therefore, the current study examined the role of mu-opioid receptor activation in d-amphetamine treatment effects in an assay of cocaine-vs-food choice...
October 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038976/classification-of-human-and-zoonotic-group-hepatitis-e-virus-hev-using-antigen-detection
#12
Gui-Ping Wen, Zi-Min Tang, Si-Ling Wang, Wen-Fang Ji, Wei Cai, Xu Zhang, Shou-Jie Huang, Ting Wu, Jun Zhang, Zi-Zheng Zheng, Ning-Shao Xia
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the major pathogens that cause acute viral hepatitis. The human (genotypes 1 and 2) and zoonotic (genotypes 3 and 4) groups of HEV present different epidemiology and clinical features. In this study, we developed a classification method for rapidly classifying HEV into human or zoonotic groups that combines a general antigen test with a zoonotic group-specific antigen test. Evaluation of serial samples from HEV-infected rhesus monkeys indicated that HEV antigen-positive samples can be classified using the antigen-based classification method...
October 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037463/in-vivo-bone-strain-and-finite-element-modeling-of-a-rhesus-macaque-mandible-during-mastication
#13
Olga Panagiotopoulou, José Iriarte-Diaz, Simon Wilshin, Paul C Dechow, Andrea B Taylor, Hyab Mehari Abraha, Sharifah F Aljunid, Callum F Ross
Finite element analysis (FEA) is a commonly used tool in musculoskeletal biomechanics and vertebrate paleontology. The accuracy and precision of finite element models (FEMs) are reliant on accurate data on bone geometry, muscle forces, boundary conditions and tissue material properties. Simplified modeling assumptions, due to lack of in vivo experimental data on material properties and muscle activation patterns, may introduce analytical errors in analyses where quantitative accuracy is critical for obtaining rigorous results...
September 1, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037050/simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-increases-blood-ethanol-concentration-duration-after-both-acute-and-chronic-administration
#14
Liz Simon, Robert Siggins, Peter Winsauer, Meghan Brashear, Tekeda Ferguson, Donald Mercante, Kejing Song, Curtis Vande Stouwe, Steve Nelson, Gregory J Bagby, Angela Martin Amedee, Patricia E Molina
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a frequent comorbidity among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Alcohol consumption is a significant predictor of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), as well as worsening immunological and virological indicators among ¬PLWHA. Clinical studies indicate that higher viral loads increase sensitivity to alcohol in PLWHA. The factors that influence alcohol kinetics after HIV infection and initiation of ART are not well understood, limiting the information upon which interventions can be designed to ameliorate the impact of alcohol misuse on this vulnerable patient population...
October 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035947/cross-reactivity-of-hiv-vaccine-responses-and-the-microbiome
#15
Wilton B Williams, Qifeng Han, Barton F Haynes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A successful HIV-type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine will require immunogens that induce protective immune responses. However, recent studies suggest that the response to HIV-1 and perhaps other viruses may be altered by immune system exposure to intestinal microbiota-antigens. This review will discuss select aspects of these studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Naïve CD4 T and B cell repertoires can be imprinted by intestinal microbiota-antigens to respond to virus epitopes prior to virus infection...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035156/cd4-t-memory-stem-cells-correlate-with-disease-progression-in-chronically-hiv-1-infected-patients
#16
Xiaofan Lu, Bingbing Song, Wenjia Weng, Huan Xia, Bin Su, Hao Wu, Tong Zhang, Wei Li, Yanqing Gao
Recently identified T memory stem (Tscm) cells have stem-cell-like properties, including long lifespan, self-renewal capacity, and multipotency to differentiate into other memory T cell types. In the study of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, selective depletion of CCR5(+)CD4(+) Tscm cells and the high proliferation rate of these cells are believed to be responsible for the pathogenesis of SIV-infected rhesus macaques. Here, we conducted a cohort study to investigate the influence of chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection on CD4(+) Tscm cell homeostasis, and the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on CD4(+) Tscm cells...
October 16, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035065/serial-decision-making-in-monkeys-during-an-oculomotor-task
#17
Zachary M Abzug, Marc A Sommer
Much of everyday behavior involves serial decision-making, in which the outcome of 1 choice affects another. An example is setting rules for oneself: choosing a behavioral rule guides appropriate choices in the future. How the brain links decisions across time is poorly understood. Neural mechanisms could be studied in monkeys, as it is known that they can select and use behavioral rules, but existing psychophysical paradigms are poorly suited for the constraints of neurophysiology. Therefore, we designed a streamlined task that requires sequential, linked decisions, and trained 2 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to perform it...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031997/a-six-year-longitudinal-pet-study-of-11-c-dtbz-binding-to-the-vmat2-in-monkey-brain
#18
Michael R Kilbourn, Robert A Koeppe
INTRODUCTION: The longitudinal reproducibility of in vivo binding potential measures for [(11)C]dihydrotetrabenazine ([(11)C]DTBZ) binding to the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) site in primate brain was examined using a unique dataset of repeated control PET imaging studies. METHODS: Forty-one dynamic [(11)C]DTBZ PET studies were completed in a single rhesus monkey. Imaging equipment (microPET P4), personnel, radiotracer characteristics (injected mass amounts, molar activity) and image data analysis (BPND-Logan) were consistent throughout the entire sequence of PET studies...
September 5, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030435/dissociation-of-self-motion-and-object-motion-by-linear-population-decoding-that-approximates-marginalization
#19
Ryo Sasaki, Dora E Angelaki, Gregory C DeAngelis
We use visual image motion to judge the movement of objects, as well as our own movements through the environment. Generally, image motion components caused by object motion and self-motion are confounded in the retinal image. Thus, to estimate heading, the brain would ideally marginalize out the effects of object motion (or vice-versa), but little is known about how this is accomplished neurally. Behavioral studies suggest that vestibular signals play a role in dissociating object motion and self-motion, and recent computational work suggests that a linear decoder can approximate marginalization by taking advantage of diverse multisensory representations...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025079/title-transcriptome-profiling-of-individual-rhesus-macaque-oocytes-and-preimplantation-embryos
#20
James L Chitwood, Victoria R Burruel, Michelle M Halstead, Stuart A Meyers, Pablo J Ross
Early mammalian embryonic transcriptomes are dynamic throughout the process of preimplantation development. Cataloging of primate transcriptomics during early development has been accomplished in humans, but global characterization of transcripts is lacking in the rhesus macaque: a key model for human reproductive processes. We report here the systematic classification of individual macaque transcriptomes using RNA-Seq technology from the germinal vesicle stage oocyte through the blastocyst stage embryo. Major differences in gene expression were found between sequential stages, with the 4- to 8-cell stages showing the highest level of differential gene expression...
September 4, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
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