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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911958/advantages-of-an-improved-rhesus-macaque-genome-for-evolutionary-analyses
#1
Julien S Gradnigo, Abhishek Majumdar, Robert B Norgren, Etsuko N Moriyama
The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is widely used in molecular evolutionary analyses, particularly to identify genes under adaptive or unique evolution in the human lineage. For such studies, it is necessary to align nucleotide sequences of homologous protein-coding genes among multiple species. The validity of these analyses is dependent on high quality genomic data. However, for most mammalian species (other than humans and mice), only draft genomes are available. There has been concern that some results obtained from evolutionary analyses using draft genomes may not be correct...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911897/heterologous-protection-against-asian-zika-virus-challenge-in-rhesus-macaques
#2
Matthew T Aliota, Dawn M Dudley, Christina M Newman, Emma L Mohr, Dane D Gellerup, Meghan E Breitbach, Connor R Buechler, Mustafa N Rasheed, Mariel S Mohns, Andrea M Weiler, Gabrielle L Barry, Kim L Weisgrau, Josh A Eudailey, Eva G Rakasz, Logan J Vosler, Jennifer Post, Saverio Capuano, Thaddeus G Golos, Sallie R Permar, Jorge E Osorio, Thomas C Friedrich, Shelby L O'Connor, David H O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) was declared a public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization (WHO) in February 2016, because of the evidence linking infection with ZIKV to neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barre Syndrome in adults and congenital birth defects including microcephaly in the developing fetus. Because development of a ZIKV vaccine is a top research priority and because the genetic and antigenic variability of many RNA viruses limits the effectiveness of vaccines, assessing whether immunity elicited against one ZIKV strain is sufficient to confer broad protection against all ZIKV strains is critical...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911357/characterization-of-metabolic-status-in-nonhuman-primates-with-the-intravenous-glucose-tolerance-test
#3
Michael Staup, George Aoyagi, TeQuana Bayless, Yixin Wang, Keefe Chng
The intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) plays a key role in the characterization of glucose homeostasis. When taken together with serum biochemical profiles, inclusive of blood glucose levels in both the fed and fasted state, HbA1c, insulin levels, clinical history of diet, body composition, and body weight status, an assessment of normal and abnormal glycemic control can be made. Interpretation of an IVGTT is done through measurement of changes in glucose and insulin levels over time in relation to the dextrose challenge...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909007/statistical-learning-signals-in-macaque-inferior-temporal-cortex
#4
Peter Kaposvari, Susheel Kumar, Rufin Vogels
Humans are sensitive to statistical regularities in their visual environment, but the nature of the underlying neural statistical learning signals still remains to be clarified. As in human behavioral and neuroimaging studies of statistical learning, we exposed rhesus monkeys to a continuous stream of images, presented without interstimulus interval or reward association. The stimulus set consisted of 3 groups of 5 images each (quintets). The stimulus order within each quintet was fixed, but the quintets were presented repeatedly in a random order without interruption...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906032/infection-of-rhesus-macaques-with-a-pool-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-with-the-envelope-genes-from-acute-hiv-1-infections
#5
Kendall C Krebs, Meijuan Tian, Mohammed Asmal, Binhua Ling, Kenneth Nelson, Kenneth Henry, Richard Gibson, Yuejin Li, Weining Han, Robin J Shattock, Ronald S Veazey, Norman Letvin, Eric J Arts, Yong Gao
BACKGROUND: New simian-human immunodeficiency chimeric viruses with an HIV-1 env (SHIVenv) are critical for studies on HIV pathogenesis, vaccine development, and microbicide testing. Macaques are typically exposed to single CCR5-using SHIVenv which in most instances does not reflect the conditions during acute/early HIV infection (AHI) in humans. Instead of individual and serial testing new SHIV constructs, a pool of SHIVenv_B derived from 16 acute HIV-1 infections were constructed using a novel yeast-based SHIV cloning approach and then used to infect macaques...
November 25, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903730/network-patterns-associated-with-navigation-behaviors-are-altered-in-aged-nonhuman-primates
#6
James R Engle, Christopher J Machado, Michele R Permenter, Julie A Vogt, Andrew P Maurer, Alicia M Bulleri, Carol A Barnes
: The ability to navigate through space involves complex interactions between multiple brain systems. Although it is clear that spatial navigation is impaired during aging, the networks responsible for these altered behaviors are not well understood. Here, we used a within-subject design and [(18)F]FDG-microPET to capture whole-brain activation patterns in four distinct spatial behaviors from young and aged rhesus macaques: constrained space (CAGE), head-restrained passive locomotion (CHAIR), constrained locomotion in space (TREADMILL), and unconstrained locomotion (WALK)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903274/breadth-and-magnitude-of-antigen-specific-antibody-responses-in-the-control-of-plasma-viremia-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-macaques
#7
Bapi Pahar, Carys S Kenway-Lynch, Preston Marx, Sudesh K Srivastav, Celia LaBranche, David C Montefiori, Arpita Das
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests an unexpected potential for non-neutralizing antibodies to prevent HIV infection. Consequently, identification of functional linear B-cell epitopes for HIV are important for developing preventative and therapeutic strategies. We therefore explored the role of antigen-specific immune responses in controlling plasma viremia in SIV infected rhesus macaques. METHODS: Thirteen rhesus macaques were inoculated either intravaginally or intrarectally with SIVMAC251...
December 1, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902946/social-regulation-of-the-lymph-node-transcriptome-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#8
K Chun, J P Capitanio, D M Lamkin, E K Sloan, J M G Arevalo, S W Cole
Previous research has shown that adverse social conditions may promote a conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA) involving up-regulation of proinflammatory gene expression and down-regulation of Type I interferon anti-viral genes in circulating blood cells. However, the impact of social conditions on lymphoid tissue gene regulation remains largely unexplored. This project assessed how social instability in adult male rhesus macaques (N=10, 5 in unstable, and 5 in stable social conditions) might regulate gene expression within secondary lymphoid tissue (lymph nodes; LN)...
November 14, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902783/correction-matrilineal-behavioral-and-physiological-changes-following-the-removal-of-a-non-alpha-matriarch-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#9
Lauren J Wooddell, Stefano S K Kaburu, Kendra L Rosenberg, Jerrold S Meyer, Stephen J Suomi, Amanda M Dettmer
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0157108.].
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902508/cabotegravir-long-acting-injection-protects-macaques-against-intravenous-challenge-with-sivmac251
#10
Chasity D Andrews, Leslie S T Bernard, Amanda Yee Poon, Hiroshi Mohri, Natanya Gettie, William R Spreen, Agegnehu Gettie, Kasi Russell-Lodrigue, James Blanchard, Zhi Hong, David D Ho, Martin Markowitz
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effectiveness of cabotegravir (CAB; GSK1265744 or GSK744) long-acting (LA) as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against intravenous SIV challenge in a model that mimics blood transfusions based on the per-act probability of infection. DESIGN: CAB LA is an InSTI formulated as a 200 mg/mL injectable nanoparticle suspension that is an effective pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) agent against rectal and vaginal SHIV transmission in macaques...
November 29, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899229/development-of-novel-replication-defective-lymphocytic-choriomeningitis-virus-vectors-expressing-siv-antigens
#11
Pablo Penaloza MacMaster, Jennifer L Shields, Quazim A Alayo, Crystal Cabral, Jessica Jimenez, Jade Mondesir, Abishek Chandrashekar, Joseph M Cabral, Matthew Lim, M Justin Iampietro, Nicholas M Provine, Christine A Bricault, Michael Seaman, Klaus Orlinger, Andreas Aspoeck, Gerhard Fuhrmann, Anders E Lilja, Thomas Monath, Bastien Mangeat, Daniel D Pinschewer, Dan H Barouch
An important focus in vaccine research is the design of vaccine vectors with low seroprevalence and high immunogenicity. Replication-incompetent lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (rLCMV) vectors do not elicit vector-neutralizing antibody responses, and homologous prime-boost regimens with rLCMV vectors induce boostable and protective T cell responses to model antigens in mice. However, cellular and humoral immune responses following homologous rLCMV vaccine regimens have not been rigorously evaluated in non-human primates (NHPs)...
November 26, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893356/single-stranded-dna-aptamer-targeting-and-neutralization-of-anti-d-alloantibody-a-potential-therapeutic-strategy-for-haemolytic-diseases-caused-by-rhesus-alloantibody
#12
Yinze Zhang, Fan Wu, Manni Wang, Naibao Zhuang, Huayou Zhou, Hua Xu
BACKGROUND: Rhesus (Rh) D antigen is the most important antigen in the Rh blood group system because of its strong immunogenicity. When RhD-negative individuals are exposed to RhD-positive blood, they may produce anti-D alloantibody, potentially resulting in delayed haemolytic transfusion reactions and Rh haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn, which are difficult to treat. Inhibition of the binding of anti-D antibody with RhD antigens on the surface of red blood cells may effectively prevent immune haemolytic diseases...
November 11, 2016: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890655/silver-nanoparticle-treatment-ameliorates-biliary-atresia-syndrome-in-rhesus-rotavirus-inoculated-mice
#13
Ruizhong Zhang, Zefeng Lin, Vincent Ch Lui, Kenneth Ky Wong, Paul Kh Tam, Puiyan Lee, Chun Nam Lok, Jonathan R Lamb, Yan Chen, Huimin Xia
Biliary atresia (BA) is a neonatal biliary system disease closely associated with viral infection and bile duct inflammation. Silver nanoparticles (AgNps) have previously revealed antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we have investigated the effects of AgNps in the treatment of the Rhesus rotavirus inoculation induced BA in mice. The morphology, liver histopathology, clinical biochemistry examination, and inflammatory cells were analyzed in BA mice. Results indicated that AgNps could significantly increase the survival rate of BA mice, and reduce jaundice and weight lost and the liver enzymes and bilirubin metabolism clinical parameters were close to the normal levels...
November 24, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889562/systematic-evaluation-of-monoclonal-antibodies-and-immunoassays-for-the-detection-of-interferon-%C3%AE-and-interleukin-2-in-old-and-new-world-non-human-primates
#14
Ankie Höglind, Irene Areström, Cecilia Ehrnfelt, Khosro Masjedi, Bartek Zuber, Luis Giavedoni, Niklas Ahlborg
Non-human primates (NHP) provide important animal models for studies on immune responses to infections and vaccines. When assessing cellular immunity in NHP, cytokines are almost exclusively analyzed utilizing cross-reactive anti-human antibodies. The functionality of antibodies has to be empirically established for each assay/application as well as NHP species. A rational approach was employed to identify monoclonal antibodies (mAb) cross-reactive with many NHP species. Panels of new and established mAbs against human Interferon (IFN)-γ and Interleukin (IL)-2 were assessed for reactivity with eukaryotically expressed recombinant IFN-γ and IL-2, respectively, from Old (rhesus, cynomolgus and pigtail macaques, African green monkey, sooty mangabey and baboon) and New World NHP (Ma's night monkey, squirrel monkey and common marmoset)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888587/tuberculosis-caused-by-mycobacterium-orygis-in-dairy-cattle-and-captured-monkeys-in-bangladesh-a-new-scenario-of-tuberculosis-in-south-asia
#15
Z Rahim, J Thapa, Y Fukushima, A G M van der Zanden, S V Gordon, Y Suzuki, C Nakajima
Mycobacterium orygis, commonly known as the oryx bacillus and a newly proposed Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex subspecies, was isolated from 18 cattle in a dairy farm and two captured rhesus monkeys in a zoo in Bangladesh. All the infected animals had tuberculosis lesions in their lungs, suggesting transmission and infection with M. orygis by an airborne route. The 20 isolates were analysed using a range of conventional and molecular typing methods, and RD-deletion typing and sequencing of selected genes confirmed the isolates as M...
November 25, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888407/targeting-the-rhesus-macaque-trim5%C3%AE-gene-to-enhance-the-susceptibility-of-cd4-t-cells-to-hiv-1-infection
#16
Xiaoli Wang, Qing Yu, Yahong Yuan, Zhiping Teng, Dongsheng Li, Yi Zeng
The host range of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is extremely narrow, which has hampered the establishment of non-human primate models for HIV-1 infection. The species-specific innate immune factor tripartite motif 5 alpha (TRIM5α) is a key molecule that confers potent resistance against HIV-1 infection. In this study, we targeted the TRIM5α gene of rhesus macaques (rhTRIM5α) using the transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) to study the effect on HIV-1 infection. CD4(+) T cells were separated from the peripheral blood of rhesus macaques by magnetic cell sorting, and the positive rate was greater than 99%...
November 25, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885100/temporal-analysis-of-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-rhesus-monkeys-subjected-to-transient-ischemic-stroke
#17
Yingqian Zhang, Feng Fan, Guojun Zeng, Linlin Zhou, Yinbing Zhang, Jie Zhang, He Jiao, Ting Zhang, Dan Su, Cheng Yang, Xin Wang, Kai Xiao, Hongxia Li, Zhihui Zhong
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption plays an important role in pathophysiological progress of ischemic stroke. However, our knowledge of the dynamic change of BBB permeability and its mechanism remains limited. In the current study, we used a non-human primate (NHP) MCAO model and a serial CSF sampling method that allowed us to determine the dynamic change of BBB permeability by calculating the CSF/serum albumin ratio (AR). We showed that AR increased rapidly and significantly after ischemia, and the fold increase of AR is highly correlated with the infarction size during the subacute phase...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885043/aedes-aegypti-rhesus-glycoproteins-contribute-to-ammonia-excretion-by-larval-anal-papillae
#18
Andrea C Durant, Helen Chasiotis, Lidiya Misyura, Andrew Donini
In larval Aedes aegypti, transcripts of the Rhesus-like glycoproteins AeRh50-1 and AeRh50-2 have been detected in the anal papillae, sites of ammonia (NH3/NH4(+)) excretion; however, these putative ammonia transporters have not been previously localised or functionally characterized. In this study we show that the AeRh50s co-immunolocalise with apical V-type H(+) ATPase as well as with basal Na(+)/K(+) ATPase in the epithelium of anal papillae. The double-stranded RNA mediated knockdown of AeRh50-1 and AeRh50-2 resulted in a significant reduction in AeRh50 protein abundance in the anal papillae and this was coupled to decreased ammonia excretion...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885030/social-status-alters-immune-regulation-and-response-to-infection-in-macaques
#19
Noah Snyder-Mackler, Joaquín Sanz, Jordan N Kohn, Jessica F Brinkworth, Shauna Morrow, Amanda O Shaver, Jean-Christophe Grenier, Roger Pique-Regi, Zachary P Johnson, Mark E Wilson, Luis B Barreiro, Jenny Tung
Social status is one of the strongest predictors of human disease risk and mortality, and it also influences Darwinian fitness in social mammals more generally. To understand the biological basis of these effects, we combined genomics with a social status manipulation in female rhesus macaques to investigate how status alters immune function. We demonstrate causal but largely plastic social status effects on immune cell proportions, cell type-specific gene expression levels, and the gene expression response to immune challenge...
November 25, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882497/soluble-tlr2-and-4-concentrations-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-hiv-siv-related-neuropathological-conditions
#20
Khutso M Mothapo, J Ten Oever, P Koopmans, F F Stelma, S Burm, J Bajramovic, M M Verbeek, M G Olde Rikkert, M G Netea, G Koopman, A J van der Ven
HIV in the central nervous system (CNS) mainly infects microglial cells which are known to express toll-like receptors (TLRs). This paper aimed to study the role of soluble TLR2 (sTLR2), sTLR4, and other inflammatory markers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in HIV/Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-related neurological sequelae. We determined sTLR2 and sTLR4 levels in CSF and serum/plasma of SIV-infected rhesus macaques with and without neurological sequelae, as well as in HIV-infected patients with and without cognitive impairments and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and matched controls...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
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