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Yue Wu, Tingzheng Liu, Yuhang Yuan, Zhibo Zhang
PURPOSE: To identify genes potentially involved in the pathogenesis of bile duct obstruction in biliary atresia (BA). METHODS: We used rhesus rotavirus (RRV) Balb/c mouse BA model to study BA. Liver and serum samples were harvested from BA and normal control (NC) groups at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 days postinoculation. Serum total bilirubin (STB) and conjugated bilirubin (CB) were measured. Livers of each group at day 7 were used for a genome-wide expression analysis...
June 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jenna Kropp Schmidt, Lindsey N Block, Thaddeus G Golos
OBJECTIVE: Expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the human placenta is dynamic across gestation, with expression of miRNAs belonging to the C14MC, C19MC and miR-371-3 clusters. Specifically, miRNAs within the C19MC cluster are exclusively expressed in primates with predominant expression in the placenta. Non-human primates can be utilized to study developmental processes of placentation in vivo that cannot be assessed in the human placenta, however, miRNA expression has not been defined in the macaque placenta...
May 2018: Placenta
Tiffany Hensley-McBain, Alicia R Berard, Jennifer A Manuzak, Charlene J Miller, Alexander S Zevin, Patricia Polacino, Jillian Gile, Brian Agricola, Mark Cameron, Shiu-Lok Hu, Jacob D Estes, R Keith Reeves, Jeremy Smedley, Brandon F Keele, Adam D Burgener, Nichole R Klatt
HIV and pathogenic SIV infection are characterized by mucosal dysfunction including epithelial barrier damage, loss of Th17 cells, neutrophil infiltration, and microbial translocation with accompanying inflammation. However, it is unclear how and when these contributing factors occur relative to one another. In order to determine whether any of these features initiates the cycle of damage, we longitudinally evaluated the kinetics of mucosal and systemic T-cell activation, microbial translocation, and Th17 cell and neutrophil frequencies following intrarectal SIV infection of rhesus macaques...
June 15, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
A Yin, P H Tseng, S Rajangam, M A Lebedev, M A L Nicolelis
Primary motor (M1), primary somatosensory (S1) and dorsal premotor (PMd) cortical areas of rhesus monkeys previously have been associated only with sensorimotor control of limb movements. Here we show that a significant number of neurons in these areas also represent body position and orientation in space. Two rhesus monkeys (K and M) used a wheelchair controlled by a brain-machine interface (BMI) to navigate in a room. During this whole-body navigation, the discharge rates of M1, S1, and PMd neurons correlated with the two-dimensional (2D) room position and the direction of the wheelchair and the monkey head...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lena Walenta, Nina Schmid, J U Schwarzer, Frank-Michael Köhn, Henryk Urbanski, Ruediger Behr, Leena Strauss, Matti Poutanen, Artur Mayerhofer
NLRP3 is part of the NLRP3 inflammasome and a global sensor of cellular damage. It was recently discovered in rodent Sertoli cells. We investigated NLRP3 in mouse, human and non-human primate (marmoset and rhesus macaque) testes, employing immunohistochemistry. Sertoli cells of all species expressed NLRP3, and the expression preceded puberty. In addition, peritubular cells of the adult human testes expressed NLRP3. NLRP3 and associated genes (ASC, CASP1, IL1B) were also found in isolated human testicular peritubular cells (HTPCs) and the mouse Sertoli cell line TM4...
June 15, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Laure Brigitte Kouitcheu Mabeku, Michelle Larissa Noundjeu Ngamga, Hubert Leundji
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is a Gram negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of approximately two-thirds of the human population and it is involved in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal diseases. This study sought to determine potential risk factors associated with seroprevalence of H. pylori among dyspepsia patients in Cameroon for a better management of the disease. METHODS: The study was carried out from August to December 2014 at Laquintinie Hospital and District Hospital of Bonassama in Douala metropolis...
June 15, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Alan M Preston, José Rodríguez-Orengo, Lorena González-Sepúlveda, Sylvette Ayala-Peña, Elizabeth Maldonado-Maldonado
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D status is primarily dependent upon sun exposure and dietary sources, however genetic, cultural, and environmental factors can have a modulating role in the measured amount. One under-reported factor is the effect of regular living quarters on the degree of sun exposure. Herein, we assess vitamin D status in the blood of Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) housed in high amounts of sunlight (corn-cribs), medium sunlight (corrals with shaded areas), and minimal sunlight (quarantine cages)...
June 2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Cheryl K Walker, Catherine A VandeVoort, Chin-Shang Li, Charles L Chaffin, John P Capitanio
Growing evidence identifies maternal adiposity as a potentially modifiable risk factor for adverse neurodevelopment. This retrospective cohort analysis examined whether maternal prepregnancy adiposity and gestational weight gain were associated with behavioral outcomes in 173 rhesus macaque infants at the California National Primate Research Center. Dams conceived indoors, had uncomplicated pregnancies, delivered vaginally, and reared infants indoors. Infants underwent standardized biobehavioral analysis at 90-120 days of age from 3/2001-5/2015...
June 13, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Rozieyati Mohamed Saleh, Zulkafli Zefarina, Nor Fazila Che Mat, Geoffrey Keith Chambers, Hisham Atan Edinur
Transfusion procedures are always complicated by potential genetic mismatching between donor and recipient. Compatibility is determined by several major antigens, such as the ABO and Rhesus blood groups. Matching for other blood groups (Kell, Kidd, Duffy, and MNS), human platelet antigens, and human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) also contributes toward the successful transfusion outcomes, especially in multitransfused or highly immunized patients. All these antigens of tissue identity are highly polymorphic and thus present great challenges for finding suitable donors for transfusion patients...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Weiqi Pan, Haojun Xie, Xiaobo Li, Wenda Guan, Peihai Chen, Beiwu Zhang, Mincong Zhang, Ji Dong, Qian Wang, Zhixia Li, Shufen Li, Zifeng Yang, Chufang Li, Nanshan Zhong, Jicheng Huang, Ling Chen
Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N6) virus has been circulating in poultry since 2013 and causes sporadic infections and fatalities in humans. Due to the re-occurrence and continuous evolution of this virus subtype, there is an urgent need to better understand the pathogenicity of the H5N6 virus and to identify effective preventative and therapeutic strategies. We established a mouse model to evaluate the virulence of H5N6 A/Guangzhou/39715/2014 (H5N6/GZ14), which was isolated from an infected patient...
June 13, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Huihui Chong, Jing Xue, Yuanmei Zhu, Zhe Cong, Ting Chen, Yan Guo, Qiang Wei, Yusen Zhou, Chuan Qin, Yuxian He
T-20 (enfuvirtide) is the only approved viral fusion inhibitor, which is used for treatment of HIV-1 infection; however, it has relatively low antiviral activity and easily induces drug resistance. We recently reported a T-20-based lipopeptide fusion inhibitor (LP-40) showing improved anti-HIV activity (Ding et al J Virol, 2017). In this study, we designed LP-50 and LP-51 by refining the structure and function of LP-40. Two new lipopeptides showed dramatically enhanced secondary structures and binding stability and were exceptionally potent inhibitors of HIV-1, HIV-2, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and simian-human chimeric virus (SHIV), with mean IC50 values at very low picomolar concentrations...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
S Shushruth, Mark Mazurek, Michael N Shadlen
Neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) of Macaques exhibit both sensory and oculomotor preparatory responses. During perceptual decision making, the preparatory responses have been shown to track the state of the evolving evidence leading to the decision. The sensory responses are known to reflect categorical properties of visual stimuli, but it is not known if these responses also track evolving evidence. We recorded neural responses from LIP of two female rhesus monkeys during a direction discrimination task...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
W G Darling, J Ge, K S Stilwell-Morecraft, D L Rotella, M A Pizzimenti, R J Morecraft
We tested the hypothesis that arm/hand motor recovery after injury of lateral sensorimotor cortex is associated with upregulation of the corticoreticular projection (CRP) from supplementary motor cortex (M2) to the gigantocellular reticular nucleus of the medulla (Gi). Three groups of rhesus monkeys of both genders were studied: 5 controls, 4 cases with lesions of the arm/hand area of M1 and lateral premotor cortex (LPMC) (F2 lesion group) and 5 cases with lesions of the arm/hand area of M1, LPMC, S1 and anterior parietal cortex (F2P2 lesion group)...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Shuang Wang, Lichuan Yang, Raoxian Bai, Shuaiwei Ren, Yuyu Niu, Weizhi Ji, Yuanye Ma, Yongchang Chen
The tumor suppressor p53 is a key regulator of cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Recent studies show that the delicate balance of p53 expression is important for neural tube defects, neuronal degeneration, embryonic lethality, as well as differentiation and dedifferentiation. Moreover, p53 showed different regulatory patterns between rodent and primate embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, the role of p53 and apoptosis stimulating protein of p53 (ASPP) during neural differentiation (ND) from primate ESCs is still unknown...
June 12, 2018: Cell Cycle
Birgitte Andersen, Ellen M Straarup, Kristy M Heppner, Diana L Takahashi, Virginia Raffaele, Gregory A Dissen, Katherine Lewandowski, Thóra B Bödvarsdottir, Kirsten Raun, Kevin L Grove, Paul Kievit
OBJECTIVE: Administration of FGF21 and FGF21 analogues reduce body weight; improve insulin sensitivity and dyslipidemia in animal models of obesity and in short term clinical trials. However potential adverse effects identified in mice have raised concerns for the development of FGF21 therapeutics. Therefore, this study was designed to address the actions of FGF21 on body weight, glucose and lipid metabolism and importantly its effects on bone mineral density (BMD), bone markers, and plasma cortisol in high-fat fed obese rhesus macaque monkeys...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Jie Wu, Gang Chen, Fang-Cheng Zhuang, Meng Gao, Chuan-Dong Wu, Zhan-Long He, Yun-Shui Jiang, Jian-Bo Li, Jia-Yuan Bao, Zi-An Mao
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to: evaluate long-term toxicity and pharmacokinetic parameters; to identify the target organ of toxicity of a recombinant adenovirus vaccine expressing human papillomavirus 16 E6 and E7 proteins (HPV16 E6E7-Ad5 Vac) in primates; and to determine the specific immune response of this recombinant adenovirus vaccine. METHOD: HPV16 E6E7-Ad5 Vac (dose 4.68 × 109 IU/bottle) was administered to Macaca fascicularis ( M. fascicularis ) to evaluate its long-term toxicity...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Sam M Larson, Angelina Ruiz-Lambides, Michael L Platt, Lauren J N Brent
Network dynamics can reveal information about the adaptive function of social behaviour and the extent to which social relationships can flexibly respond to extrinsic pressures. Changes in social networks occur following changes to the social and physical environment. By contrast, we have limited understanding of whether changes in social networks precede major group events. Permanent evictions can be important determinants of gene flow and population structure and are a clear example of an event that might be preceded by social network dynamics...
February 2018: Animal Behaviour
Sunam Gurung, Alisha N Preno, Jamie P Dubaut, Hugh Nadeau, Kimberly Hyatt, Nicole Reuter, Bharti Nehete, Roman F Wolf, Pramod Nehete, Dirk P Dittmer, Dean A Myers, James F Papin
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus with devastating outcomes seen recently in the Americas due to the association of maternal ZIKV infection with fetal microcephaly and other fetal malformations not previously associated with flavivirus infections. Here, we have developed the olive baboon ( Papio anubis ) as a non-human primate (NHP) translational model for the study of ZIKV pathogenesis and associated disease outcomes to contrast and compare with humans and other major NHPs such as macaques...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Virology
Mauricio A Martins, Damien C Tully, Núria Pedreño-Lopez, Benjamin von Bredow, Matthias G Pauthner, Young C Shin, Maoli Yuan, Noemia S Lima, David J Bean, Lucas Gonzalez-Nieto, Aline Domingues, Martin J Gutman, Helen S Maxwell, Diogo M Magnani, Michael J Ricciardi, Varian K Bailey, John D Altman, Dennis R Burton, Keisuke Ejima, David B Allison, David T Evans, Eva G Rakasz, Christopher L Parks, Myrna C Bonaldo, Saverio Capuano, Jeffrey D Lifson, Ronald C Desrosiers, Todd M Allen, David I Watkins
Certain major histocompatibility complex class-I (MHC-I) alleles are associated with spontaneous control of viral replication in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques (RMs). These cases of "elite" control of HIV/SIV replication are often immune-mediated, thereby providing a framework for studying anti-lentiviral immunity. Here we examined how vaccination impacts SIV replication in RMs expressing the MHC-I allele Mamu-B*17 Approximately 21% of Mamu-B*17 + and 50% of Mamu-B*08 + RMs control chronic phase viremia after SIVmac239 infection...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Virology
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June 6, 2018: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
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