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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110425/functional-effector-memory-t-cells-contribute-to-protection-from-superinfection-with-heterologous-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-or-simian-human-immunodeficiency-virus-isolates-in-chinese-rhesus-macaques
#1
Ming Sun, Huiwen Zheng, Yingpeng Xie, Bingxiang Li, Haiting Long, Ge Guo, Lei Guo, Jingjing Wang, Ruotong Ning, Yue Li, Longding Liu
Many studies have revealed a protective effect of infection of an individual with an immunodeficiency virus against subsequent infection with a heterologous strain. However, the extent of protection against superinfection conferred by the first infection and the biological consequences of superinfection are not well understood. Here, we report that a rhesus monkey model of mucosal superinfection was established to investigate the protective immune response. Protection against superinfection was shown to correlate with the extent of the polyfunctionality of CD4(+) effector memory T cells, whereas neutralizing antibody responses did not protect against superinfection in this model...
January 21, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108489/processing-of-egomotion-consistent-optic-flow-in-the-rhesus-macaque-cortex
#2
Benoit R Cottereau, Andrew T Smith, Samy Rima, Denis Fize, Yseult Héjja-Brichard, Luc Renaud, Camille Lejards, Nathalie Vayssière, Yves Trotter, Jean-Baptiste Durand
The cortical network that processes visual cues to self-motion was characterized with functional magnetic resonance imaging in 3 awake behaving macaques. The experimental protocol was similar to previous human studies in which the responses to a single large optic flow patch were contrasted with responses to an array of 9 similar flow patches. This distinguishes cortical regions where neurons respond to flow in their receptive fields regardless of surrounding motion from those that are sensitive to whether the overall image arises from self-motion...
January 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106981/controlling-multi-cycle-replication-of-live-attenuated-hiv-1-using-an-unnatural-genetic-switch
#3
Zhe Yuan, Nanxi Wang, Guobin Kang, Wei Niu, Qingsheng Li, Jiantao Guo
A safe and effective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine is urgently needed, but remains elusive. While HIV-1 live-attenuated vaccine can provide potent protection as demonstrated in rhesus macaque-simian immunodeficiency virus model, the potential pathogenic consequences associated with the uncontrolled virus replication preclude such vaccine from clinical applications. We investigated a novel approach to address this problem by controlling live-attenuated HIV-1 replication through an unnatural genetic switch that was based on the amber suppression strategy...
January 20, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103319/an-hsv-2-trivalent-vaccine-is-immunogenic-in-rhesus-macaques-and-highly-efficacious-in-guinea-pigs
#4
Sita Awasthi, Lauren M Hook, Carolyn E Shaw, Bapi Pahar, Jacob A Stagray, David Liu, Ronald S Veazey, Harvey M Friedman
A genital herpes vaccine is urgently needed to prevent pain and suffering, reduce the incidence of neonatal herpes, and decrease the risk of HIV acquisition and transmission that accompanies genital infection. We evaluated a trivalent HSV-2 subunit antigen vaccine administered with CpG and alum in rhesus macaques and guinea pigs. The vaccine contains glycoproteins C, D and E (gC2, gD2, gE2) to block virus entry by gD2 and immune evasion by gC2 and gE2. In rhesus macaques, the trivalent vaccine induced plasma and mucosa neutralizing antibodies, antibodies that block gC2 and gE2 immune evasion activities, and stimulated CD4 T cell responses...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102941/synthesis-of-primaquine-glyco-conjugates-as-potential-tissue-schizontocidal-antimalarial-agents
#5
Chandra S Azad, Mridula Saxena, Arif J Siddiqui, Jyoti Bhardwaj, Sunil K Puri, Guru P Dutta, Nity Anand, Anil K Saxena
Primaquine (PQ) is the only drug used to prevent relapse of malaria due to P. vivax and P. ovale, by eradicating the dormant liver form of the parasite (hypnozoites). The side effects associated with PQ limits is uses in treatment of malaria. To overcome the premature oxidative deamination and to increase the life span of drug in the biological system the novel glyco-conjugates of PQ were synthesized by coupling of primaquine with hexoses in phosphate buffer. The saccharide part of the hybrid molecules thought to be direct the drug to the liver, where hypnozoites resides...
January 19, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102825/versatile-modular-three-dimensional-microelectrode-arrays-for-neuronal-ensemble-recordings-from-design-to-fabrication-assembly-and-functional-validation-in-non-human-primates
#6
Falk Barz, Alessandro Livi, Marco Lanzilotto, Monica Maranesi, Luca Bonini, Oliver Paul, Patrick Ruther
<i>Objective. </i>Application-specific designs of electrode arrays offer an improved effectiveness for providing access to targeted brain regions in neuroscientific research and brain machine interfaces. The simultaneous and stable recording of neuronal ensembles is the main goal in the design of advanced neural interfaces. Here, we describe the development and assembly of highly customizable three-dimensional microelectrode arrays and demonstrate their recording performance in chronic applications in non-human primates...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102802/norovirus-gii-17-natural-infections-in-rhesus-monkeys-china
#7
Zhanlong He, Bo Liu, Yufen Tao, Chao Li, Ming Xia, Weiming Zhong, Xi Jiang, Hongqi Liu, Ming Tan
Noroviruses are a leading viral cause of acute gastroenteritis among humans. During the 2014-15 epidemic season, norovirus GII.17 was detected in rhesus monkeys in China. Genetic, structural, and challenge studies revealed virus mutations and verified the infections. Thus, cross-species transmission may occur, and monkeys may be a virus reservoir.
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101958/a-review-of-maternal-alloimmunisation-to-rh-d-in-northern-ireland
#8
C J McCauley, K Morris, K Maguire
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the current incidence of maternal sensitisation to Rhesus (Rh) D in Northern Ireland, examine adherence to recommendations for administration of anti-D immunoglobulin and identify potential causes for all cases of anti-D alloimmunisation sensitisation from January 2010 to September 2015. BACKGROUND: Post-partum anti-D immunoglobulin administered to Rh D-negative women and routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis have greatly reduced the incidence of haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to immune anti-D...
January 19, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100613/dynamic-modulation-of-expression-of-lentiviral-restriction-factors-in-primary-cd4-t-cells-following-siv-infection
#9
Andrew R Rahmberg, Premeela A Rajakumar, James M Billingsley, R Paul Johnson
: Although multiple restriction factors have been shown to inhibit HIV/SIV replication, little is known about their expression in vivo Expression of 45 confirmed and putative HIV/SIV restriction factors was analyzed in CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood and jejunum in rhesus macaques, revealing distinct expression patterns in naïve and memory subsets. In both peripheral blood and jejunum, memory CD4+ T cells expressed higher levels of multiple restriction factors compared with naïve cells...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095513/changes-in-circulating-b-cell-subsets-associated-with-aging-and-acute-siv-infection-in-rhesus-macaques
#10
W L William Chang, Denise F Gonzalez, Hung T Kieu, Luis D Castillo, Ilhem Messaoudi, Xiaoying Shen, Georgia D Tomaras, Barbara L Shacklett, Peter A Barry, Ellen E Sparger
Aging and certain viral infections can negatively impact humoral responses in humans. To further develop the nonhuman primate (NHP) model for investigating B cell dynamics in human aging and infectious disease, a flow cytometric panel was developed to characterize circulating rhesus B cell subsets. Significant differences between human and macaque B cells included the proportions of cells within IgD+ and switched memory populations and a prominent CD21-CD27+ unswitched memory population detected only in macaques...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094793/caloric-restriction-improves-health-and-survival-of-rhesus-monkeys
#11
Julie A Mattison, Ricki J Colman, T Mark Beasley, David B Allison, Joseph W Kemnitz, George S Roth, Donald K Ingram, Richard Weindruch, Rafael de Cabo, Rozalyn M Anderson
Caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition extends lifespan and delays the onset of age-related disorders in most species but its impact in nonhuman primates has been controversial. In the late 1980s two parallel studies were initiated to determine the effect of CR in rhesus monkeys. The University of Wisconsin study reported a significant positive impact of CR on survival, but the National Institute on Aging study detected no significant survival effect. Here we present a direct comparison of longitudinal data from both studies including survival, bodyweight, food intake, fasting glucose levels and age-related morbidity...
January 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093272/a-method-for-obtaining-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-rna-sequences-from-laser-capture-microdissected-and-immune-captured-cd68-and-cd163-macrophages-from-frozen-tissue-sections-of-bone-marrow-and-brain
#12
Jaclyn Mallard, Emily Papazian, Caroline Soulas, David J Nolan, Marco Salemi, Kenneth C Williams
Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is used to extract cells or tissue regions for analysis of RNA, DNA or protein. Several methods of LCM are established for different applications, but a protocol for consistently obtaining lentiviral RNA from LCM captured immune cell populations is not described. Obtaining optimal viral RNA for analysis of viral genes from immune-captured cells using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and LCM is challenging. IHC protocols have long antibody incubation times that increase risk of RNA degradation...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090391/neurotoxin-induced-catecholaminergic-loss-in-the-colonic-myenteric-plexus-of-rhesus-monkeys
#13
Jeanette M Shultz, Henry Resnikoff, Viktorya Bondarenko, Valerie Joers, Andres Mejia, Heather Simmons, Marina E Emborg
OBJECTIVE: Constipation is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although pathology of the enteric nervous system (ENS) has been associated with constipation in PD, the contribution of catecholaminergic neurodegeneration to this symptom is currently debated. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) on the colonic myenteric plexus and shed light on the role of catecholaminergic innervation in gastrointestinal (GI) function...
November 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinsonism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089302/germinal-center-lymphocyte-ratios-and-successful-hiv-vaccines
#14
Paula Gonzalez-Figueroa, Jonathan A Roco, Carola G Vinuesa
Current HIV vaccines are poor inducers of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). A recent study in Cell Reports used serial fine-needle aspirates from rhesus macaque lymph nodes following HIV-1 surface envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer immunization, generating a substantial production of HIV-1 nAbs. A remarkable correlation was found between antibody titers and a high frequency and ratio of germinal center B and T follicular helper (TFH) lymphocytes.
January 11, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087539/quantitative-stability-of-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cell-clonal-output-in-transplanted-rhesus-macaques
#15
Samson J Koelle, Diego A Espinoza, Chuanfeng Wu, Jason Xu, Rong Lu, Brian Li, Robert E Donahue, Cynthia E Dunbar
Autologous transplantation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells lentivirally labeled with unique oligonucleotide barcodes flanked by sequencing primer targets enables quantitative assessment of the self-renewal and differentiation patterns of these cells in a myeloablative rhesus macaque model. Compared with other approaches to clonal tracking, this approach is highly quantitative and reproducible. We documented very stable multipotent long-term hematopoietic clonal output of monocytes, granulocytes, B cells and T cells from a polyclonal pool of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in four macaques followed for up to 49 months post-transplantation...
January 13, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081294/xenogeneic-bio-root-prompts-the-constructive-process-characterized-by-macrophage-phenotype-polarization-in-rodents-and-nonhuman-primates
#16
Hui Li, Jingjing Sun, Jie Li, Hefeng Yang, Xiangyou Luo, Jinlong Chen, Li Xie, Fangjun Huo, Tian Zhu, Weihua Guo, Weidong Tian
Tissue or organ regeneration using xenogeneic matrices is a promising approach to address the shortage of donor matrices for allotransplantation. Success of such approach has been demonstrated to correlate with macrophage-mediated fibrotic homeostasis and tissue remodeling. The previous studies have demonstrated that treated dentin matrix (TDM) could be a suitable bioactive substrate for allogeneic tooth root regeneration. This study constructed xenogeneic bioengineered tooth root (bio-root) via a combination of porcine TDM (pTDM) with allogeneic dental follicle cells (DFCs)...
January 12, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079409/promoting-awareness-of-neonatal-menstruation
#17
Paola Bianchi, Giuseppe Benagiano, Ivo Brosens
Neonatal uterine bleeding (NUB) has been carefully studied in the past through case reports, small series, clinical cohort studies, pathology investigations of fetal and neonatal. Following a historical recount, this review summarizes biological mechanisms conditioning NUB, starting from the persistence till birth of an 'ontogenetic progesterone resistance' (OPR), causing decreased responsiveness of target tissues to bioavailable progesterone. Several pregnancy-related conditions, such as preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, prematurity, post-maturity and even Rhesus or ABO incompatibility, influence the occurrence of NUB...
January 12, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077725/encoding-of-both-reaching-and-grasping-kinematics-in-dorsal-and-ventral-premotor-cortices
#18
Kazutaka Takahashi, Matthew D Best, Noah Huh, Kevin A Brown, Adil A Tobaa, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos
: Classically, it has been hypothesized that reach-to-grasp movements arise from two discrete parieto-frontal cortical networks. As part of these networks, the dorsal premotor cortex has been implicated in the control of reaching movements of the arm, while the ventral premotor cortex has been associated with the control of grasping movements of the hand. Recent studies have shown that such a strict delineation of function along anatomical boundaries is unlikely partly because reaching to different locations can alter distal hand kinematics and grasping different objects can affect kinematics of the proximal arm; Here, we used chronically implanted multi-electrode arrays to record unit spiking activity in both PMd and PMv simultaneously while rhesus macaques engaged in a reach-to-grasp task...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077654/neutralization-of-diverse-human-cytomegalovirus-strains-conferred-by-antibodies-targets-viral-gh-gl-pul128-131-pentameric-complex
#19
Sha Ha, Fengsheng Li, Matthew C Troutman, Daniel C Freed, Aimin Tang, John W Loughney, Dai Wang, I-Ming Wang, Josef Vlasak, David C Nickle, Richard R Rustandi, Melissa Hamm, Pete A DePhillips, Ningyan Zhang, Jason S McLellan, Hua Zhu, Stuart P Adler, Michael A McVoy, Zhiqiang An, Tong-Ming Fu
: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the leading cause of congenital viral infection and developing a prophylactic vaccine is of high priority to public health. We recently reported a replication-defective human cytomegalovirus with restored pentameric complex gH/gL/pUL128-131 for prevention of congenital HCMV infection. While the quantity of vaccine-induced antibody responses can be measured in a viral neutralization assay, assessing the quality of such responses, including the ability of vaccine-induced antibodies to cross neutralize the field strains of HCMV, remains a challenge...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077570/ktcnlncdb-a-first-platform-to-investigate-lncrnas-expressed-in-human-keratoconus-and-non-keratoconus-corneas
#20
Michał W Szcześniak, Michal Kabza, Justyna A Karolak, Malgorzata Rydzanicz, Dorota M Nowak, Barbara Ginter-Matuszewska, Piotr Polakowski, Rafal Ploski, Jacek P Szaflik, Marzena Gajecka
Keratoconus (KTCN, OMIM 148300) is a degenerative eye disorder characterized by progressive stromal thinning that leads to a conical shape of the cornea, resulting in optical aberrations and even loss of visual function. The biochemical background of the disease is poorly understood, which motivated us to perform RNA-Seq experiment, aimed at better characterizing the KTCN transcriptome and identification of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that might be involved in KTCN etiology. The in silico functional studies based on predicted lncRNA:RNA base-pairings led us to recognition of a number of lncRNAs possibly regulating genes with known or plausible links to KTCN...
2017: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
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