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Anal sphincter injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782264/anal-sphincter-defects-and-faecal-incontinence-15-24-years-after-first-delivery-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Rodrigo A Guzmán Rojas, Kjell Å Salvesen, Ingrid Volløyhaug
OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence of external (EAS) and internal anal sphincter (IAS) defects 15-24 years after childbirth in association to mode of delivery and faecal incontinence (FI), and compare the proportion of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) reported at delivery with defects on ultrasound. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study including 563 women, who delivered their first child from 1990-97. Women responded to a validated questionnaire (PFDI) in 2013-14...
August 6, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776641/the-great-divide-country-of-birth-as-a-risk-factor-for-obstetric-anal-sphincter-injuries
#2
James Brown, Supuni Kapurubandara, Emma Gibbs, Jennifer King
BACKGROUND: Obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) can complicate up to 6% of births and are a major contributor to preventable maternal morbidity. Asian women have a risk of third and fourth degree perineal tears up to four times greater than women of other ethnicities in the same community, but the lack of differentiation of Asian women into regional groups has limited insight into the reasons behind their increased risk. AIMS: To investigate risk of OASIS associated with country of birth...
August 4, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763709/similar-mechanisms-of-traumatic-rectal-injuries-in-patients-who-had-anal-sex-with-animals-to-those-who-were-butt-fisted-by-human-sexual-partner
#3
Damian Jacob Sendler
Sexual pleasure comes in various forms of physical play, for many it involves stimulation of the vagina, while the anus for others; some enjoy both. A recent report by Cappelletti et al.(1) shows a meta-analysis of cases describing anal trauma due to sexual fisting in human partners. This clinical article reports four cases of males diagnosed with zoophilia, and who received anal sex from animals, resulting in injuries. Surgical and psychiatric evaluations are summarized. Unusual etiology of sexual activity with animals caused peri-anal trauma in men who engaged in anal sex with dogs and farm animals...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727899/sacral-neuromodulation-for-combined-faecal-and-urinary-incontinence-following-obstetric-anal-sphincter-injury
#4
M Rydningen, Stine Riise, T Wilsgaard, R O Lindsetmo, S Norderval
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of sacral neuromodulation (SNM) in the treatment of faecal incontinence and concomitant urinary incontinence in women with a history of obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS). METHOD: In this prospective study, consecutive women with faecal incontinence following OASIS accepted for SNM were screened for concomitant urinary incontinence. The primary outcome was the change in urinary incontinence score (ICIQ-UI-SF) between baseline and 12 months...
July 20, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727729/induction-of-labor-versus-expectant-management-of-large-for-gestational-age-infants-in-nulliparous-women
#5
Karolina Moldéus, Yvonne W Cheng, Anna-Karin Wikström, Olof Stephansson
BACKGROUND: There is no apparent consensus on obstetric management, i.e., induction of labor or expectant management of women with suspected large-for-gestational-age (LGA)-fetuses. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To further examine the subject, a nationwide population-based cohort study from the Swedish Medical Birth Register in nulliparous non-diabetic women with singleton, vertex LGA (>90th centile) births, 1992-2013, was performed. Delivery of a live-born LGA infant induced at 38 completed weeks of gestation in non-preeclamptic pregnancies, was compared to those of expectant management, with delivery at 39, 40, 41, or 42 completed weeks of gestation and beyond, either by labor induction or via spontaneous labor...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721483/the-effectiveness-of-mediolateral-episiotomy-in-preventing-obstetric-anal-sphincter-injuries-during-operative-vaginal-delivery-a-ten-year-analysis-of-a-national-registry
#6
Jeroen van Bavel, Chantal W P M Hukkelhoven, Charlotte de Vries, Dimitri N M Papatsonis, Joey de Vogel, Jan-Paul W R Roovers, Ben Willem Mol, Jan Willem de Leeuw
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) are associated with an increased risk of faecal incontinence after vaginal delivery. The aim of this retrospective population-based cohort study was to assess whether mediolateral episiotomy is associated with a reduction in the rate of OASIS during operative vaginal delivery. METHODS: We used data from the Dutch Perinatal Registry (Perined) that includes records of almost all births between 2000 and 2010 in The Netherlands...
July 18, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718603/-long-term-consequences-of-obstetrical-anal-sphincter-injuries-on-sexual-function
#7
Maud De Rham, Sylvain Meyer, Chahin Achtari, Sandra Fornage
Obstetrical anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) can lead to sexual dysfunction. Literature is poor concerning long-term consequences of OASIS on female sexuality. The objective of this paper is to clarify long-term consequences of OASIS on sexual function. Dyspareunia and lubrication troubles are constantly reported based on articles reviewed in literature through Pubmed. Nevertheless, global sexual function seems not to be influenced by OASIS on a long-term basis. Therefore, sexual dysfunctions must be specifically analysed in women's follow-up after OASIS...
March 15, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695901/development-and-validation-of-a-bowel-routine-based-self-report-questionnaire-for-sacral-sparing-after-spinal-cord-injury
#8
N Liu, H Xing, M-W Zhou, F Biering-Sørensen
STUDY DESIGN: An observational study. OBJECTIVE: To develop a self-administered tool for assessment of sacral sparing after spinal cord injury (SCI) and to test its validity in individuals with SCI. SETTING: Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China. METHODS: A 5-item SCI sacral sparing self-report questionnaire was developed based on several events that most patients might experience during bowel routine. 102 participants who sustained SCI within 12 months were asked to complete the questionnaire followed by an anorectal examination...
July 11, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689239/structure-function-relationship-of-the-human-external-anal-sphincter
#9
Amanda M Stewart, Mark S Cook, Keisha Y Dyer, Marianna Alperin
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Obstetrical external anal sphincter (EAS) injury and subsequent dysfunction are leading risk factors for female fecal incontinence (FI). Limited knowledge of the EAS structure-function relationship hinders treatment optimization. We directly measured functionally relevant intrinsic parameters of human EAS and tested whether vaginal delivery alters the EAS structure-function relationship. METHODS: Major predictors of in vivo EAS function were compared between specimens procured from vaginally nulliparous (VN, n = 5) and vaginally parous (VP, n = 7) cadaveric donors: operational sarcomere length (Ls), which dictates force-length relationship; physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), which determines isometric force-generating capacity; fiber length (Lfn), responsible for muscle excursion and contractile velocity; and muscle stiffness...
July 8, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688109/root-causes-and-social-consequences-of-birth-injuries-in-western-uganda
#10
Jennifer N Angell, Priscilla Busingye, Gabriel Y-K Ganyaglo, Cheryl A Moyer
Incontinence-inducing delivery injuries, such as obstetric fistula and anal-sphincter tears, are devastating sequelae of prolonged and obstructed labor, and can only be repaired through surgery. Such injuries are most prevalent in settings where delays and limitations in accessing emergency obstetric services are common [1, 2]. The 2011 Demographic and Health Survey of Uganda [3] estimated that 2% of Ugandan women have experienced obstetric fistula and resulting trans-vaginal urine or fecal incontinence. This article is protected by copyright...
July 8, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685224/a-retrospective-review-of-1495-patients-with-obstetric-anal-sphincter-injuries-referred-for-assessment-of-function-and-endoanal-ultrasonography
#11
G P Thomas, L E Gould, F Casunuran, D A Kumar
AIM: Obstetric anal sphincter injuries are a significant risk factor for faecal incontinence. Correct identification and successful primary repair are important. The aim of this study was to review the outcome of all patients, with an obstetric anal sphincter injury, referred to our unit. METHOD: This is a retrospective review of 1495 patients over a 12-year period. All had a third or fourth degree tear and were referred at 4-months postpartum. RESULTS: Endoanal ultrasonography demonstrated residual sphincter defect in 792 (53%) and normal sphincters, with no evidence of repair, in 661 (44%)...
July 7, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681174/risk-factors-for-obstetric-anal-sphincter-injuries-oasi-at-a-tertiary-centre-in-south-india
#12
Sirisha Rao Gundabattula, Kameswari Surampudi
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Despite several studies that have reported risk factors for obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASI), data from the Indian subcontinent are scarce. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for these sphincter injuries in an Indian population. METHODS: This was a case-control study within a retrospective cohort of vaginal deliveries at a tertiary care facility. All vaginal births beyond 24 completed weeks of gestation and birth weight ≥500 g from January 2008 to December 2012 were identified from the hospital electronic database...
July 5, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678378/successful-treatment-of-passive-fecal-incontinence-in-an-animal-model-using-engineered-biosphincters-a-3-month-follow-up-study
#13
Jaime L Bohl, Elie Zakhem, Khalil N Bitar
Fecal incontinence (FI) is the involuntary passage of fecal material. Current treatments have limited successful outcomes. The objective of this study was to develop a large animal model of passive FI and to demonstrate sustained restoration of fecal continence using anorectal manometry in this model after implantation of engineered autologous internal anal sphincter (IAS) biosphincters. Twenty female rabbits were used in this study. The animals were divided into three groups: (a) Non-treated group: Rabbits underwent IAS injury by hemi-sphincterectomy without treatment...
July 5, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666061/conditional-neuromodulation-of-neurogenic-detrusor-overactivity-using-transrectal-stimulation-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-proof-of-principle-study
#14
Sarah Louise Knight, Nuwani Edirisinghe, Brian Leaker, Judith Susser, Michael Duncan Craggs
AIMS: A proof of principle study of a novel wearable device to control neurogenic detrusor over-activity in eight male spinal cord injured subjects using conditional neuromodulation. METHODS: Transrectal stimulation was delivered through the device in response to simultaneously recorded external anal sphincter (EAS) contraction as a marker for neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO). The effect of conditional neuromodulation on bladder capacity and maximum detrusor pressure was investigated in addition to reliability of dyssynergic sphincter contraction as a marker for NDO...
June 30, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628271/surgical-treatment-of-trans-sphincteric-anal-fistulas-with-the-fat-graft-technique-a-minimally-invasive-procedure
#15
N Stroumza, G Fuzco, J Laporte, R Nail Barthelemy, S Houry, M Atlan
AIM: Anal fistulas are common pathologies with a significant social impact; however their treatment is often complex and the recurrence rate can be significant. Some surgical treatments for fistula are also associated with the risk of sphincter injury. In this technical note, we aim to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of the Fat GRAFT technique (Fat Grafting in Anal Fistula Treatment) in the treatment of recurrent anal fistulas. METHOD: All patients presenting with recurrent trans-sphincteric anal fistulas over an 18-month period were included...
June 19, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626856/delivery-parameters-neonatal-parameters-and-incidence-of-urinary-incontinence-six-months-postpartum-a-cohort-study
#16
Stian Langeland Wesnes, Yngvild Hannestad, Guri Rortveit
INTRODUCTION: Contradictory results have been reported regarding most delivery parameters as risk factors for urinary incontinence. We investigated the association between the incidence of urinary incontinence six months postpartum and single obstetric risk factors as well as combinations of risk factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health during 1998-2008...
June 19, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544989/impact-of-mediolateral-episiotomy-on-incidence-of-obstetrical-anal-sphincter-injury-diagnosed-by-endoanal-ultrasound
#17
Kristina Drusany Staric, Adolf Lukanovic, Petra Petrocnik, Vita Zacesta, Corrado Cescon, Miha Lucovnik
OBJECTIVE: to examine potential association between mediolateral episiotomy and reduced incidence of obstetrical anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) diagnosed by endoanal ultrasound. DESIGN: prospective cohort study. SETTING: tertiary referral university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: sixty nulliparous women at 28-33 weeks of gestation with singleton pregnancies were included between 2010 and 2012. MEASUREMENTS AND FINDINGS: participants were examined with endoanal ultrasound at 28-33 weeks gestation and at 6-7 weeks post-partum...
May 18, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523401/functional-and-quality-of-life-outcomes-following-obstetric-anal-sphincter-injury-oasi-does-the-grade-of-injury-affect-outcomes
#18
Lisa Ramage, Clarence Yen, Shengyang Qiu, Constantinos Simillis, Christos Kontovounisios, Paris Tekkis, Emile Tan
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to compare functional and quality of life data in patients with increasing grades of obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI) presenting to a tertiary colorectal pelvic floor clinic within 24 months of delivery. METHODS: Prospective data were collected from the patients for the period 2009-2016 and included data on functional outcomes and motor anorectal manometry parameters. The instruments used for the evaluation of functional outcomes were the Birmingham Bowel and Urinary Symptoms Questionnaire, the Wexner Incontinence Score, Short Form 36, and the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire...
May 18, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523399/anal-sphincter-injury-in-vaginal-deliveries-complicated-by-shoulder-dystocia
#19
Mark P Hehir, Zachary Rubeo, Karen Flood, Anne H Mardy, Colm O'Herlihy, Peter C Boylan, Mary E D'Alton
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Shoulder dystocia is an obstetric emergency that occurs in 0.2-3% of all cephalic vaginal deliveries. We hypothesized that because of the difficult nature of deliveries complicated by shoulder dystocia, the condition may be associated with anal sphincter injury. We sought to identify risk factors for obstetric anal sphincter injury in women with shoulder dystocia. METHODS: This retrospective analysis included all cases of shoulder dystocia from 2007 to 2011 at two large tertiary referral centers, in the USA and Ireland...
May 18, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489924/neonatal-and-maternal-outcomes-of-successful-manual-rotation-to-correct-malposition-of-the-fetal-head-a-retrospective-and-prospective-observational-study
#20
Nicola Tempest, Naomi McGuinness, Steven Lane, Dharani K Hapangama
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the neonatal and maternal outcomes associated with successful operative vaginal births assisted by manual rotation. DESIGN: Prospective and retrospective observational study. SETTING: Delivery suite in a tertiary referral teaching hospital in England. POPULATION: A cohort of 2,426 consecutive operative births, in the second stage of labour, complicated with malposition of the fetal head during 2006-2013...
2017: PloS One
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