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Intestinal stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913222/human-liver-regeneration-in-advanced-cirrhosis-is-organized-by-the-portal-tree
#1
Katalin Dezső, András Rókusz, Edina Bugyik, Armanda Szücs, András Szuák, Bence Dorogi, Mátyás Kiss, Ágnes Nemeskéri, Péter Nagy, Sándor Paku
BACKGROUND&AIMS: In advanced cirrhosis new hepatocytic nodules are generated by budding of ductules in areas of parenchymal extinction. However, the vascular alterations in the areas of parenchymal extinction, the blood supply and the structure of the new hepatocytic nodules have not been analyzed in detail. METHODS: Explanted human cirrhotic livers of three different etiologies and two experimental models of cirrhosis in rats were examined thoroughly. 3D reconstruction of the immunohistochemically stained serial sections and casting of human and experimental cirrhotic livers have been used to reveal the structural organization of the regenerative buds...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912759/intestinal-dysbiosis-and-allogeneic-hematopoietic-progenitor-cell-transplantation
#2
REVIEW
Vikram M Raghunathan, Iris Sheng, Seah H Lim
The intestinal microbiota is a diverse and dynamic ecosystem that is increasingly understood to play a vital role in human health. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients undergo prolonged exposure to antimicrobials, chemotherapeutic agents, and immunosuppressants, resulting in profound shifts in the gut microbiome. A growing body of research has revealed the ways in which these microbiologic shifts shape immune modulation, affecting susceptibility to infections and graft-versus-host disease, the two major post-transplant complications in this population...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910783/recent-advances-and-challenges-in-studies-of-control-of-cancer-stem-cells-and-the-gut-microbiome-by-the-trametes-derived-polysaccharopeptide-psp-review
#3
Joseph M Wu, Barbara B Doonan, Tze-Chen Hsieh, Qingyao Yang, Xiao-Tong Yang, Ming-Tat Ling
The medicinal mushroom Trametes versicolor has been well recognized for its activity in maintaining the general health of the population and in managing and treating human diseases in various cultures. Its use has been recently gaining acceptance and popularity in Western countries. The reported health benefits of T. versicolor led to a search for the identity of its bioactive ingredients. These efforts have resulted in the isolation of the polysaccharopeptide PSP from cultured mycelia of strain Cov-1, which expresses large amounts of PSP...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909715/a-new-scaffold-containing-small-intestinal-submucosa-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-improves-pancreatic-islet-function-and-survival-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#4
Dan Wang, Xiaoming Ding, Wujun Xue, Jin Zheng, Xiaohui Tian, Yang Li, Xiaohong Wang, Huanjin Song, Hua Liu, Xiaohui Luo
It is unknown whether a scaffold containing both small intestinal submucosa (SIS) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for transplantation may improve pancreatic islet function and survival. In this study, we examined the effects of a SIS-MSC scaffold on islet function and survival in vitro and in vivo. MSCs and pancreatic islets were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats, and SIS was isolated from Bamei pigs. The islets were apportioned among 3 experimental groups as follows: SIS-islets, SIS-MSC-islets and control-islets...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904037/analysis-of-cyp2r1-and-cyp26a1-expression-patterns-in-regeneration-in-mice-with-liver-injury
#5
Akiyo Hirose, Wataru Ochiai, Yuka Yamamoto, Masashi Fukaya, Hiroshi Iwasaki, Nozomi Wakui, Ayumi Takahashi, Yusuke Takahashi, Satoshi Kitaoka, Jo Hatogai, Nobutomo Ikarashi, Kiyoshi Sugiyama
Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) are involved in the metabolism of various substances in the liver and small intestine and show markedly higher expression levels in the liver compared to other organs. The liver exhibits a remarkable capacity to regenerate. After excision of 70% of the liver, the organ can regenerate to its original size in approximately 1 week. Unlike the normal liver, in the injured liver, hepatic stem cells known as oval cells are considered to play an important role in regeneration. However, the role of CYPs in liver regeneration remains unclear...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900603/enteropathy-associated-t-cell-lymphoma
#6
REVIEW
Sarah Ondrejka, Deepa Jagadeesh
Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma is a rare neoplasm with uniformly aggressive features that arises from intestinal T-cells. There is strong evidence supporting its association as a dire complication of celiac disease. The clinical presentation can vary from malabsorption and abdominal pain to an acute abdominal emergency. Originally, it was divided into types I and II in World Health Organization (WHO) classification schemes, reflective of epidemiology and differences in clinicopathologic features. The debate over the degree of separation of the two types is ongoing as new data emerges regarding the pathogenetics...
November 29, 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888356/intestinal-stem-cell-transplantation
#7
REVIEW
Tetsuya Nakamura, Mamoru Watanabe
Organoid technologies to expand intestinal epithelial cells are gaining increasing attention as a useful tool to investigate many aspects of intestinal epithelial biology and pathology. One important application of organoid systems would be to use intestinal epithelial cells expanded in culture for following transplantation experiments. In this article, we present a brief overview of the studies that have succeeded in generating new epithelial tissues in the surface of native intestines in mice by organoid transplantation...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888216/drosophila-sulf1-is-required-for-the-termination-of-intestinal-stem-cell-division-during-regeneration
#8
Masahiko Takemura, Hiroshi Nakato
Stem cell division is activated to trigger regeneration in response to tissue damage. The molecular mechanisms by which this stem cell mitotic activity is properly repressed at the end of regeneration are poorly understood. Here we show that a specific modification of heparan sulfate (HS) is critical in regulating Drosophila intestinal stem cell (ISC) division during normal midgut homeostasis and regeneration. Loss of the extracellular HS endosulfatase Sulf1 results in increased ISC division during normal homeostasis, which is caused by upregulation of mitogenic signaling including the JAK/STAT, EGFR, and Hedgehog pathways...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879260/antibiotics-impair-murine-hematopoiesis-by-depleting-intestinal-microbiota
#9
Kamilla S Josefsdottir, Megan T Baldridge, Claudine S Kadmon, Katherine Y King
Bone marrow suppression is an adverse effect associated with many antibiotics, especially when administered for prolonged treatment courses. Recent advances in our understanding of steady-state hematopoiesis have allowed us to explore the effects of antibiotics on hematopoietic progenitors in detail using a murine model. Antibiotic-treated mice exhibited anemia, thrombocytosis, and leukopenia, with pronounced pan-lymphopenia as demonstrated by flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood. Bone marrow progenitor analysis revealed depletion of hematopoietic stem cells and multipotent progenitors across all subtypes...
November 22, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878827/review-article-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-therapy-for-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#10
REVIEW
C Grégoire, C Lechanteur, A Briquet, É Baudoux, F Baron, E Louis, Y Beguin
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic relapsing diseases in which pro-inflammatory immune cells and cytokines induce intestinal tissue damage and disability. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) exert powerful immunomodulatory effects and stimulate tissue repair. AIM: To review the current data on mesenchymal stromal cell therapy in IBD. METHOD: We searched PubMed and 'ClinicalTrials.gov' databases using the terms 'mesenchymal stromal cells', 'mesenchymal stem cell transplantation', 'inflammatory bowel diseases', 'Crohn disease' and 'colitis, ulcerative'...
November 22, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876863/intestinal-tuft-cells-regulate-the-atm-mediated-dna-damage-response-via-dclk1-dependent-mechanism-for-crypt-restitution-following-radiation-injury
#11
Parthasarathy Chandrakesan, Randal May, Nathaniel Weygant, Dongfeng Qu, William L Berry, Sripathi M Sureban, Naushad Ali, Chinthalapally Rao, Mark Huycke, Michael S Bronze, Courtney W Houchen
Crypt epithelial survival and regeneration after injury require highly coordinated complex interplay between resident stem cells and diverse cell types. The function of Dclk1 expressing tuft cells regulating intestinal epithelial DNA damage response for cell survival/self-renewal after radiation-induced injury is unclear. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) were isolated and purified and utilized for experimental analysis. We found that small intestinal crypts of Villin(Cre);Dclk1(f/f) mice were hypoplastic and more apoptotic 24 h post-total body irradiation, a time when stem cell survival is p53-independent...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876210/conditioned-medium-from-ls-174t-goblet-cells-treated-with-oxyresveratrol-strengthens-tight-junctions-in-caco-2-cells
#12
Dahyun Hwang, HyunA Jo, Seonwook Hwang, Jeong-Keun Kim, In-Ho Kim, Young-Hee Lim
BACKGROUND: Strengthening of intestinal tight junctions provides an effective barrier from the external environment. Goblet cell-derived trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) increases transepithelial resistance by upregulating the expression of tight junction proteins. Oxyresveratrol (OXY) is a hydroxyl-substituted stilbene found in the roots, leaves, stems, and fruit of many plants and known to have various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the strengthening effect of OXY on intestinal tight junctions through stimulation of TFF production in goblet cells...
November 18, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872880/data-on-quantification-of-signaling-pathways-activated-by-kit-and-pdgfra-mutants
#13
Christelle Bahlawane, Martine Schmitz, Elisabeth Letellier, Karthik Arumugam, Nathalie Nicot, Petr V Nazarov, Serge Haan
The present data are related to the article entitled "Insights into ligand stimulation effects on gastro-intestinal stromal tumors signaling" (C. Bahlawane, M. Schmitz, E. Letellier, K. Arumugam, N. Nicot, P.V. Nazarov, S. Haan, 2016) [1]. Constitutive and ligand-derived signaling pathways mediated by KIT and PDGFRA mutated proteins found in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) were compared. Expression of mutant proteins was induced by doxycycline in an isogenic background (Hek293 cells). Kit was identified by FACS at the cell surface and found to be quickly degraded or internalized upon SCF stimulation for both Kit Wild type and Kit mutant counterparts...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872482/development-of-a-rapid-screen-for-the-endodermal-differentiation-potential-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-lines
#14
Richard Siller, Elena Naumovska, Santosh Mathapati, Max Lycke, Sebastian Greenhough, Gareth J Sullivan
A challenge facing the human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) field is the variability observed in differentiation potential of hPSCs. Variability can lead to time consuming and costly optimisation to yield the cell type of interest. This is especially relevant for the differentiation of hPSCs towards the endodermal lineages. Endodermal cells have the potential to yield promising new knowledge and therapies for diseases affecting multiple organ systems, including lung, thymus, intestine, pancreas and liver, as well as applications in regenerative medicine and toxicology...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870267/thyroid-hormone-induced-activation-of-notch-signaling-is-required-for-adult-intestinal-stem-cell-development-during-xenopus-laevis-metamorphosis
#15
Takashi Hasebe, Kenta Fujimoto, Mitsuko Kajita, Liezhen Fu, Yun-Bo Shi, Atsuko Ishizuya-Oka
In Xenopus laevis intestine during metamorphosis, the larval epithelial cells are removed by apoptosis, and the adult epithelial stem (AE) cells appear concomitantly. They proliferate and differentiate to form the adult epithelium (Ep). Thyroid hormone (TH) is well established to trigger this remodeling by regulating the expression of various genes including Notch receptor. To study the role of Notch signaling, we have analyzed the expression of its components, including the ligands (DLL and Jag), receptor (Notch), and targets (Hairy), in the metamorphosing intestine by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry...
November 21, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869805/engineered-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-intestinal-tissues-with-a-functional-enteric-nervous-system
#16
Michael J Workman, Maxime M Mahe, Stephen Trisno, Holly M Poling, Carey L Watson, Nambirajan Sundaram, Ching-Fang Chang, Jacqueline Schiesser, Philippe Aubert, Edouard G Stanley, Andrew G Elefanty, Yuichiro Miyaoka, Mohammad A Mandegar, Bruce R Conklin, Michel Neunlist, Samantha A Brugmann, Michael A Helmrath, James M Wells
The enteric nervous system (ENS) of the gastrointestinal tract controls many diverse functions, including motility and epithelial permeability. Perturbations in ENS development or function are common, yet there is no human model for studying ENS-intestinal biology and disease. We used a tissue-engineering approach with embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) to generate human intestinal tissue containing a functional ENS. We recapitulated normal intestinal ENS development by combining human-PSC-derived neural crest cells (NCCs) and developing human intestinal organoids (HIOs)...
November 21, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868043/enterocyte-progenitors-can-dedifferentiate-to-replace-lost-lgr5-intestinal-stem-cells-revealing-that-many-different-progenitor-populations-can-regain-stemness
#17
EDITORIAL
Jennifer C Jones, Peter J Dempsey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867006/intercellular-coupling-of-the-cell-cycle-and-circadian-clock-in-adult-stem-cell-culture
#18
Toru Matsu-Ura, Andrey Dovzhenok, Eitaro Aihara, Jill Rood, Hung Le, Yan Ren, Andrew E Rosselot, Tongli Zhang, Choogon Lee, Karl Obrietan, Marshall H Montrose, Sookkyung Lim, Sean R Moore, Christian I Hong
Circadian clock-gated cell division cycles are observed from cyanobacteria to mammals via intracellular molecular connections between these two oscillators. Here we demonstrate WNT-mediated intercellular coupling between the cell cycle and circadian clock in 3D murine intestinal organoids (enteroids). The circadian clock gates a population of cells with heterogeneous cell-cycle times that emerge as 12-hr synchronized cell division cycles. Remarkably, we observe reduced-amplitude oscillations of circadian rhythms in intestinal stem cells and progenitor cells, indicating an intercellular signal arising from differentiated cells governing circadian clock-dependent synchronized cell division cycles...
December 1, 2016: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866962/distribution-of-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptor-subtypes-in-the-murine-small-intestine
#19
Eleanor D Muise, Neeru Gandotra, John J Tackett, Michaela C Bamdad, Robert A Cowles
AIMS: Serotonin stimulates enterocyte turnover in the small intestine and studies suggest this is mediated by neuronal signaling via a cholinergic pathway. Distribution of the five known muscarinic receptor subtypes (mAChRs) in the small intestine has not been fully studied, and their role in intestinal growth is unknown. We hypothesized that mAChRs have distinct anatomic distributions within the bowel, and that mAChRs present within intestinal crypts mediate the effects of acetylcholine on the small intestinal mucosa...
November 17, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866474/heme-oxygenase-1-transduced-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-reducing-acute-rejection-and-improving-small-bowel-transplantation-outcomes-in-rats
#20
Yang Yang, Hong Li Song, Wen Zhang, Ben Juan Wu, Nan Nan Fu, Chong Dong, Zhong Yang Shen
BACKGROUND: We determined whether bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) transduced with heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a cytoprotective and immune-protective factor, could improve outcomes for small bowel transplantation (SBTx) in rats. METHODS: We performed heterotopic SBTx from Brown Norway rats to Lewis rats, before infusing Ad/HO-1-transduced BMMSCs (Ad/HO-1/BMMSCs) through the superficial dorsal veins of the penis. Respective infusions with Ad/BMMSCs, BMMSCs, and normal saline served as controls...
November 20, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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