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Intestinal stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916802/local-juvenile-hormone-activity-regulates-gut-homeostasis-and-tumor-growth-in-adult-drosophila
#1
M M Rahman, X Franch-Marro, J L Maestro, D Martin, A Casali
Hormones play essential roles during development and maintaining homeostasis in adult organisms, regulating a plethora of biological processes. Generally, hormones are secreted by glands and perform a systemic action. Here we show that Juvenile Hormones (JHs), insect sesquiterpenoids synthesized by the corpora allata, are also synthesized by the adult Drosophila gut. This local, gut specific JH activity, is synthesized by and acts on the intestinal stem cell and enteroblast populations, regulating their survival and cellular growth through the JH receptors Gce/Met and the coactivator Tai...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913777/diabetes-and-the-small-intestine
#2
REVIEW
Jonathan Gotfried, Stephen Priest, Ron Schey
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and its associated complications are becoming increasingly prevalent. Gastrointestinal symptoms associated with diabetes is known as diabetic enteropathy (DE) and may manifest as either diarrhea, fecal incontinence, constipation, dyspepsia, nausea, and vomiting or a combination of symptoms. The long-held belief that vagal autonomic neuropathy is the primary cause of DE has recently been challenged by newer theories of disease development. Specifically, hyperglycemia and the resulting oxidative stress on neural networks, including the nitrergic neurons and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), are now believed to play a central role in the development of DE...
September 15, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912375/organ-culture-of-the-xenopus-tadpole-intestine
#3
Atsuko Ishizuya-Oka
During Xenopus metamorphosis, most tadpole organs remodel from the larval to adult form to prepare for adaptation to terrestrial life. Organ culture serves as an important tool for studying larval-to-adult organ remodeling independent of the effects of other parts of the body. Here, I introduce a protocol for organ culture in vitro using the Xenopus laevis tadpole intestine before metamorphic climax. During culture in the absence of exogenous 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), the most potent natural thyroid hormone, the intestine remains in its larval state without any metamorphic changes...
September 14, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910694/an-epidemiologic-perspective-on-the-stem-cell-hypothesis-in-human-carcinogenesis
#4
REVIEW
David Schottenfeld
BACKGROUND: Tomasetti and Vogelstein have hypothesized that the patterns of cancer incidence in various cells and tissues are highly correlated with the estimated lifetime number of stem cell divisions. The authors reviewed the risks in tissues of 17 types of cancer from the United States and 69 additional countries. Positive correlations were observed consistently between the tissue - specific cancer incidence and the estimated lifetime number of stem cell divisions. The authors concluded that approximately two-thirds of global cancer incidence may be attributed to random DNA replication errors...
September 11, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904533/gut-microbial-influences-on-the-mammalian-intestinal-stem-cell-niche
#5
REVIEW
Bailey C E Peck, Michael T Shanahan, Ajeet P Singh, Praveen Sethupathy
The mammalian intestinal epithelial stem cell (IESC) niche is comprised of diverse epithelial, immune, and stromal cells, which together respond to environmental changes within the lumen and exert coordinated regulation of IESC behavior. There is growing appreciation for the role of the gut microbiota in modulating intestinal proliferation and differentiation, as well as other aspects of intestinal physiology. In this review, we evaluate the diverse roles of known niche cells in responding to gut microbiota and supporting IESCs...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903034/piwi-is-required-to-limit-exhaustion-of-aging-somatic-stem-cells
#6
Pedro Sousa-Victor, Arshad Ayyaz, Rippei Hayashi, Yanyan Qi, David T Madden, Victoria V Lunyak, Heinrich Jasper
Sophisticated mechanisms that preserve genome integrity are critical to ensure the maintenance of regenerative capacity while preventing transformation of somatic stem cells (SCs), yet little is known about mechanisms regulating genome maintenance in these cells. Here, we show that intestinal stem cells (ISCs) induce the Argonaute family protein Piwi in response to JAK/STAT signaling during acute proliferative episodes. Piwi function is critical to ensure heterochromatin maintenance, suppress retrotransposon activation, and prevent DNA damage in homeostasis and under regenerative pressure...
September 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898760/live-cell-imaging-of-mouse-intestinal-organoids-reveals-heterogeneity-in-their-oxygenation
#7
Irina A Okkelman, Tara Foley, Dmitri B Papkovsky, Ruslan I Dmitriev
Intestinal organoids are widely applied in stem cell research, regenerative medicine, toxicology, pharmacology, and host-microbe interactions research. The variability of oxidative metabolism for stem and differentiated cell types constituting organoid is known to be important but so far it has not been studied in details. Here, we report the use of live cell microscopy of oxygen via the phosphorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (PLIM) method to address the oxygenation and variability of aerobic metabolism of individual organoids in the culture...
September 3, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892033/ultrasound-guided-intracardiac-injection-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-increase-homing-to-the-intestine-for-use-in-murine-models-of-experimental-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#8
Maneesh Dave, Paola Menghini, Keiki Sugi, Rodrigo A Somoza, Zhenghong Lee, Mukesh Jain, Arnold Caplan, Fabio Cominelli
Crohn's disease (CD) is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the small and large intestines. Murine and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have immunosuppressive potential and have been shown to suppress inflammation in mouse models of intestinal inflammation, even though the route of administration can limit their homing and effectiveness (1)(,)(3)(,)(4)(,)(5). Local application of MSCs to colonic injury models has shown greater efficacy at ameliorating inflammation in the colon. However, there is paucity of data on techniques to enhance the localization of human bone marrow-derived MSCs (hMSCs) to the small intestine, the site of inflammation in the SAMP-1/YitFc (SAMP) model of experimental Crohn's disease...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886980/-dose-constraints-to-organs-at-risk-for-conformational-and-stereotactic-radiotherapy-small-bowel-and-duodenum
#9
F Goupy, E Chajon, J Castelli, É Le Prisé, L Duvergé, N Jaksic, G Vogin, É Monpetit, V Klein, L de Bosschère, P Maingon
Radiotherapy of abdominopelvic primary or secondary lesions in conformational or stereotactic techniques is in full development. The small bowel is highly sensitive to irradiation and is the main organ at risk limiting prescription doses. This literature review aims to define the dose constraints to the small bowel and the duodenum in conformational and stereotactic body radiotherapy. The small bowel including the duodenum, jejunum and ileum is delineated on the simulation scanner. The radio-induced intestinal toxicities are acute related to the cellular depopulation of the intestinal mucosa, and late of more complex pathophysiology associating depletion in stem cells, microangiopathy, chronic inflammation and fibrosis...
September 5, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884943/xenotransplantation-of-human-intestine-into-mouse-abdomen-or-subcutaneous-tissue-novel-platforms-for-the-study-of-the-human-enteric-nervous-system
#10
N Nagy, N Marsiano, R S Bruckner, M Scharl, M J Gutnick, S Yagel, E Arciero, A M Goldstein, N Y Shpigel
BACKGROUND: Current efforts to develop stem cell therapy as a novel treatment for neurointestinal diseases are limited by the unavailability of a model system to study cell transplantation in the human intestine. We propose that xenograft models support enteric nervous system (ENS) development in the fetal human intestine when transplanted into mice subcutaneously or intra-abdominally. METHODS: Fetal human small and large intestine were grafted onto the small intestinal mesentery and into the subcutaneous tissue of immunodeficient mice for up to 4 months...
September 8, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881583/troy-is-expressed-in-human-stomach-mucosa-and-a-novel-putative-prognostic-marker-of-intestinal-type-gastric-cancer
#11
Franziska Wilhelm, Christine Böger, Sandra Krüger, Hans-Michael Behrens, Christoph Röcken
Epithelial stem cells of gastrointestinal tissues are characterized and controlled by an active Wnt signaling. Recently, the Wnt target gene Troy has been proposed as a neoplastic marker in the murine intestine. In this study, we explored the putative tumor biological significance of Troy in humans by using immunohistochemistry (104 cases), quantitative RT-PCR (50 cases) and cell culture experiments (MKN45, MKN74). In the non-neoplastic gastric mucosa, Troy was expressed by Muc5AC-positive foveolar epithelium, parietal cells, chief cells and cells of the intestinal metaplasia...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875532/axin2-mturquoise2-a-novel-reporter-mouse-model-for-the-detection-of-canonical-wnt-signalling
#12
Jolanda J D de Roo, Cor Breukel, Amiet R Chhatta, Margot M Linssen, Sandra A Vloemans, Daniela Salvatori, Harald M M Mikkers, Sjef J Verbeek, Frank J T Staal
The canonical Wnt signalling pathway has been implicated in organogenesis and self-renewal of essentially all stem cell systems. In vivo reporter systems are crucial to assess the role of Wnt signalling in the biology and pathology of stem cell systems. We set out to develop a Turquoise (TQ) fluorescent protein based Wnt reporter. We used a CRISPR-Cas9 approach to insert a turquoise fluorescent protein encoding gene into the general Wnt target gene Axin2, thereby establishing a Wnt reporter mouse similar to previously generated Wnt reporter mice but with the mTurquoise2 gene instead of E...
September 5, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870287/stress-responsive-mir-31-is-a-major-modulator-of-mouse-intestinal-stem-cells-during-regeneration-and-tumorigenesis
#13
Yuhua Tian, Xianghui Ma, Cong Lv, Xiaole Sheng, Xiang Li, Ran Zhao, Yongli Song, Thomas Andl, Maksim V Plikus, Jinyue Sun, Fazheng Ren, Jianwei Shuai, Christopher J Lengner, Wei Cui, Zhengquan Yu
Intestinal regeneration and tumorigenesis are believed to be driven by intestinal stem cells (ISCs). Elucidating mechanisms underlying ISC activation during regeneration and tumorigenesis can help uncover the underlying principles of intestinal homeostasis and disease including colorectal cancer. Here we show that miR-31 drives ISC proliferation, and protects ISCs against apoptosis, both during homeostasis and regeneration in response to ionizing radiation injury. Furthermore, miR-31 has oncogenic properties, promoting intestinal tumorigenesis...
September 5, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868346/heterogeneity-among-lgr5-positive-colon-stem-cells
#14
Daisuke Shiokawa, Koji Okamoto
Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) is considered a representative marker of intestinal stem cells from both non-tumor and tumor tissues. However, it remains unclear whether all or only a fraction of Lgr5-positive cells behave as stem cells. Recently, we reported that Lgr5-positive cells from non-tumor and tumor tissues can be classified into overlapping yet distinct groups and that the tumor-specific groups are associated with tumorigenic capability, suggesting that these cells could represent targets for therapeutic intervention...
2017: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867347/functional-enterospheres-derived-in%C3%A2-vitro-from-human-pluripotent-stem%C3%A2-cells
#15
Rohan R Nadkarni, Soumeya Abed, Brian J Cox, Sonam Bhatia, Jennifer T Lau, Michael G Surette, Jonathan S Draper
Intestinal organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are valuable in vitro research models that enable simplified access to human gastrointestinal tissues. Here, we report the in vitro generation of enterospheres (hEnS) from hPSC-derived gastrointestinal epithelial precursors. hEnS are cystic spheroids with a simple uniform structure composed entirely of intestinal epithelium. hEnS express markers of mature brush border cells and share a transcriptome profile similar to that of more mature intestinal organoids...
September 12, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860595/intestinal-stem-cells-contribute-to-the-maturation-of-the-neonatal-small-intestine-and-colon-independently-of-digestive-activity
#16
Hirotsugu Yanai, Naho Atsumi, Toshihiro Tanaka, Naohiro Nakamura, Yoshihiro Komai, Taichi Omachi, Kiyomichi Tanaka, Kazuhiko Ishigaki, Kazuho Saiga, Haruyuki Ohsugi, Yoko Tokuyama, Yuki Imahashi, Shuichi Ohe, Hiroko Hisha, Naoko Yoshida, Keiki Kumano, Masanori Kon, Hiroo Ueno
The murine intestine, like that of other mammalians, continues to develop after birth until weaning; however, whether this occurs in response to an intrinsic developmental program or food intake remains unclear. Here, we report a novel system for the allotransplantation of small intestine and colon harvested from Lgr5 (EGFP-IRES-CreERT2/+); Rosa26 (rbw/+) mice immediately after birth into the subrenal capsule of wild-type mice. By histological and immunohistochemical analysis, the developmental process of transplanted small intestine and colon was shown to be comparable with that of the native tissues: mature intestines equipped with all cell types were formed, indicating that these organs do not require food intake for development...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855280/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-imaging-and-tracking-of-intestinal-organoids-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#17
Kwang Bo Jung, Hana Lee, Ye Seul Son, Ji Hye Lee, Hyun-Soo Cho, Mi-Ok Lee, Jung-Hwa Oh, Jaemin Lee, Seokho Kim, Cho-Rok Jung, Janghwan Kim, Mi-Young Son
Human intestinal organoids (hIOs) derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have immense potential as a source of intestines. Therefore, an efficient system is needed for visualizing the stage of intestinal differentiation and further identifying hIOs derived from hPSCs. Here, 2 fluorescent biosensors were developed based on human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines that stably expressed fluorescent reporters driven by intestine-specific gene promoters (KLF5(mCherry) and ISX(eGFP)). Then hIOs were efficiently induced from those transgenic hiPSC lines in which monomeric Cherry- or enhanced green fluorescent protein-expressing cells, which appeared during differentiation, could be identified in intact living cells in real time...
August 29, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854959/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-presenting-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-near-total-colonic-and-small-bowel-aganglionosis-a-case-report
#18
Brittany Badal, Michael J Wilsey, Sara Karjoo
BACKGROUND: Total colonic and small bowel aganglionosis is a rare condition typically requiring intestinal transplant for long-term survival. There have not been any previously reported cases of near total intestinal aganglionosis complicated by concerns for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and need for both multivisceral organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplant. CASE PRESENTATION: Our patient is a 35-month-old Egyptian boy who presented with bilious emesis and failure to pass meconium shortly after birth...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854151/aging-effects-on-intestinal-homeostasis-associated-with-expansion-and-dysfunction-of-intestinal-epithelial-stem-cells
#19
Emily C Moorefield, Sarah F Andres, R Eric Blue, Laurianne Van Landeghem, Amanda T Mah, M Agostina Santoro, Shengli Ding
Intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) are critical to maintain intestinal epithelial function and homeostasis. We tested the hypothesis that aging promotes IESC dysfunction using old (18-22 months) and young (2-4 month) Sox9-EGFP IESC reporter mice. Different levels of Sox9-EGFP permit analyses of active IESC (Sox9-EGFP(Low)), activatable reserve IESC and enteroendocrine cells (Sox9-EGFP(High)), Sox9-EGFP(Sublow) progenitors, and Sox9-EGFP(Negative) differentiated lineages. Crypt-villus morphology, cellular composition and apoptosis were measured by histology...
August 29, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853031/deiodinases-and-stem-cells-an-intimate-relationship
#20
REVIEW
D Salvatore
Thyroid hormone is a major determinant of tissue functions in vivo. The deiodinase family controls the tissue-specific activation or inactivation of intracellular thyroid hormones. Precise control of the T3-dependent transcriptional program is required by multiple cell systems, including the stem cell. In this context, the identification of a close connection between thyroid hormones and different signal pathways involved in the control of stem cell functions suggested that the deiodinases may play a role in the definition of stem cell biology and physiology...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
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