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Intestinal stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345968/mature-gastric-chief-cells-are-not-required-for-the-development-of-metaplasia
#1
Hiroto Kinoshita, Yoku Hayakawa, Zhengchuan Niu, Mitsuru Konishi, Masahiro Hata, Mayo Tsuboi, Yuki Hayata, Yohko Hikiba, Sozaburo Ihara, Hayato Nakagawa, Yoshihiro Hirata, Timothy C Wang, K Koike
During human gastric carcinogenesis, intestinal metaplasia (IM) is frequently seen in the atrophic stomach. In mice, a distinct type of metaplasia known as spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) is found in several inflammatory and genetically engineered models. Given the diversity of long- and short-term models of mouse SPEM, it remains unclear whether all models have a shared or distinct molecular mechanism. The origin of SPEM in mice is currently under debate. It is postulated that stem or progenitor cells acquire genetic alterations that then supply metaplastic cell clones, while the possibility of transdifferentiation or dedifferentiation from mature gastric chief cells has also been suggested...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344199/expression-and-prognostic-significance-of-doublecortin-like-kinase-1-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#2
Mengjiao Fan, Niansong Qian, Guanghai Dai
Doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1), a putative cancer stem cell marker in intestinal and pancreatic tumors, is associated with tumor pathogenesis and progression, and poor survival outcomes in numerous types of cancer. However, DCLK1 expression and its prognostic value remain unclear in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, the expression of DCLK1 was assessed using immunohistochemistry in 96 resected HCC and 68 adjacent tissue specimens. The staining intensity and the percentage of stained cells were scored on a scale of 0-3 and 0-4, respectively...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339782/loss-of-disease-tolerance-during-citrobacter-rodentium-infection-is-associated-with-impaired-epithelial-differentiation-and-hyperactivation-of-t-cell-responses
#3
Eugene Kang, Guangyan Zhou, Mitra Yousefi, Romain Cayrol, Jianguo Xia, Samantha Gruenheid
Citrobacter rodentium is an intestinal mouse pathogen widely used as a model to study the mucosal response to infection. Inbred mouse strains suffer one of two fates following infection: self-limiting colitis or fatal diarrheal disease. We previously reported that Rspo2 is a major genetic determinant of the outcome of C. rodentium infection; Rspo2 induction during infection of susceptible mice leads to loss of intestinal function and mortality. Rspo2 induction does not impact bacterial colonization, but rather, impedes the ability of the host to tolerate C...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339099/intestinal-adenovirus-shedding-before-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-is-a-risk-factor-for-invasive-infection-post-transplant
#4
Karin Kosulin, Bettina Berkowitsch, Susanne Matthes, Herbert Pichler, Anita Lawitschka, Ulrike Pötschger, Gerhard Fritsch, Thomas Lion
Human adenoviruses (HAdV) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric human stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Our previous studies identified the gastrointestinal tract as a site of HAdV persistence, but the role of intestinal virus shedding pre-transplant for the risk of ensuing invasive infection has not been entirely elucidated. Molecular HAdV monitoring of serial stool samples using RQ-PCR was performed in 304 children undergoing allogeneic HSCT. Analysis of stool and peripheral blood specimens was performed pre-transplant and at short intervals until day 100 post-HSCT...
January 9, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339095/patterning-the-gastrointestinal-epithelium-to-confer-regional-specific-functions
#5
REVIEW
Cayla A Thompson, Ann DeLaForest, Michele A Battle
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, in simplest terms, can be described as an epithelial-lined muscular tube extending along the cephalocaudal axis from the oral cavity to the anus. Although the general architecture of the GI tract organs is conserved from end to end, the presence of different epithelial tissue structures and unique epithelial cell types within each organ enables each to perform the distinct digestive functions required for efficient nutrient assimilation. Spatiotemporal regulation of signaling pathways and downstream transcription factors controls GI epithelial morphogenesis during development to confer essential regional-specific epithelial structures and functions...
January 12, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338545/identification-of-g2-m-phase-transitionby-sequential-nuclear-and-cytoplasmic-changes-and-molecular-markers-in-mice-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#6
Jiong Ren, Cai-Zhi Tang, Xu-Dong Li, Zhi-Bin Niu, Bo-Yang Zhang, Tao Zhang, Mei-Jiao Gao, Xin-Ze Ran, Yong-Ping Su, Feng-Chao Wang
Although the regulatory network of G2/M phase transition has been intensively studied in mammalian cell lines, the identification of morphological and molecular markers to identify G2/M phase transition in vivo remains elusive. In this study, we found no obvious morphological changes between the S phase and G2 phase in mice intestinal epithelial cells. The G2 phase could be identified by Brdu incorporation resistance, marginal and scattered foci of histone H3 phosphorylated at Ser10 (pHH3), and relatively intact Golgi ribbon...
January 17, 2018: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338385/does-the-mesenchymal-stem-cell-source-influence-smooth-muscle-regeneration-in-tissue-engineered-urinary-bladders
#7
Marta Pokrywczynska, Arkadiusz Jundzill, Karolina Warda, Lukasz Buchholz, Marta Rasmus, Jan Adamowicz, Magdalena Bodnar, Andrzej Marszalek, Anna Helmin-Basa, Jacek Michalkiewicz, Maciej Gagat, Alina Grzanka, Malgorzata Frontczak-Baniewicz, Agata Magdalena Gastecka, Tomasz Kloskowski, Maciej Nowacki, Camillo Ricordi, Tomasz Drewa
A variety of tissue engineering techniques utilizing different cells and biomaterials are currently being explored to construct urinary bladder walls de novo, but so far no approach is clearly superior. The aim of this study was to determine whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from different sources, (bone marrow [BM-MSCs] and adipose tissue [ADSCs]), differ in their potential to regenerate smooth muscles in tissue-engineered urinary bladders and to determine an optimal number of MSCs for urinary bladder smooth muscle regeneration...
November 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336836/current-status-of-tissue-engineering-applied-to-bladder-reconstruction-in-humans
#8
C Gasanz, C Raventós, J Morote
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Bladder reconstruction is performed to replace or expand the bladder. The intestine is used in standard clinical practice for tissue in this procedure. The complications of bladder reconstruction range from those of intestinal resection to those resulting from the continuous contact of urine with tissue not prepared for this contact. In this article, we describe and classify the various biomaterials and cell cultures used in bladder tissue engineering and reviews the studies performed with humans...
January 11, 2018: Actas Urologicas Españolas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335529/transient-scute-activation-via-a-self-stimulatory-loop-directs-enteroendocrine-cell-pair-specification-from-self-renewing-intestinal-stem-cells
#9
Jun Chen, Na Xu, Chenhui Wang, Pin Huang, Huanwei Huang, Zhen Jin, Zhongsheng Yu, Tao Cai, Renjie Jiao, Rongwen Xi
The process through which multiple types of cell-lineage-restricted progenitor cells are specified from multipotent stem cells is unclear. Here we show that, in intestinal stem cell lineages in adult Drosophila, in which the Delta-Notch-signalling-guided progenitor cell differentiation into enterocytes is the default mode, the specification of enteroendocrine cells (EEs) is initiated by transient Scute activation in a process driven by transcriptional self-stimulation combined with a negative feedback regulation between Scute and Notch targets...
January 15, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329541/a-role-for-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-intestinal-stem-cell-proliferation-and-mesenchymal-colorectal-cancer
#10
Jon Peñarando, Laura M López-Sánchez, Rafael Mena, Silvia Guil-Luna, Francisco Conde, Vanessa Hernández, Marta Toledano, Victoria Gudiño, Michela Raponi, Caroline Billard, Carlos Villar, César Díaz, José Gómez-Barbadillo, Juan De la Haba-Rodríguez, Kevin Myant, Enrique Aranda, Antonio Rodríguez-Ariza
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) has been highlighted as an important agent in cancer-related events. Although the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) isoform has received most attention, recent studies in the literature indicate that the endothelial isoenzyme (eNOS) can also modulate different tumor processes including resistance, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. However, the role of eNOS in cancer stem cell (CSC) biology and mesenchymal tumors is unknown. RESULTS: Here, we show that eNOS was significantly upregulated in VilCre ERT2 Apc fl/+ and VilCre ERT2 Apc fl/fl mouse intestinal tissue, with intense immunostaining in hyperproliferative crypts...
January 10, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320711/anatomical-physiological-and-functional-diversity-of-adipose-tissue
#11
REVIEW
Rachel K Zwick, Christian F Guerrero-Juarez, Valerie Horsley, Maksim V Plikus
Adipose tissue depots can exist in close association with other organs, where they assume diverse, often non-traditional functions. In stem cell-rich skin, bone marrow, and mammary glands, adipocytes signal to and modulate organ regeneration and remodeling. Skin adipocytes and their progenitors signal to hair follicles, promoting epithelial stem cell quiescence and activation, respectively. Hair follicles signal back to adipocyte progenitors, inducing their expansion and regeneration, as in skin scars. In mammary glands and heart, adipocytes supply lipids to neighboring cells for nutritional and metabolic functions, respectively...
January 9, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318852/-effects-of-electroacupuncture-on-ultrastructure-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-and-stem-cell-factor-kit-signal-pathway-of-gastric-antrum-in-diabetic-gastroparesis-rats
#12
Cheng-Cheng Zhang, Ya-Ping Lin, Yan Peng, Zeng-Hui Yue, Hai-Jiao Chen, Jian-Wen Yang, Wei-Wei Liu, Li Liu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on gastrointestinal motility and the ultrastructure of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and the expressions of c-kit receptor protein and stem cell factor (SCF) mRNA in diabetic gastroparesis (DGP) rats, so as to explore its mechanism. METHODS: Fifty SD rats were randomly divided into normal, model, acupoint, non-acupoint and metoclopramide groups (n=10 rats/group). DGP model was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 2%), and raised with high-sugar high-fat diet irregularly...
December 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316982/the-tankyrase-inhibitor-g007-lk-inhibits-small-intestine-lgr5-stem-cell-proliferation-without-altering-tissue-morphology
#13
Jens Henrik Norum, Ellen Skarpen, Andreas Brech, Raoul Kuiper, Jo Waaler, Stefan Krauss, Therese Sørlie
BACKGROUND: The WNT pathway regulates intestinal stem cells and is frequently disrupted in intestinal adenomas. The pathway contains several potential biotargets for interference, including the poly-ADP ribosyltransferase enzymes tankyrase1 and 2. LGR5 is a known WNT pathway target gene and marker of intestinal stem cells. The LGR5+ stem cells are located in the crypt base and capable of regenerating all intestinal epithelial cell lineages. RESULTS: We treated Lgr5-EGFP-Ires-CreERT2;R26R-Confetti mice with the tankyrase inhibitor G007-LK for up to 3 weeks to assess the effect on duodenal stem cell homeostasis and on the integrity of intestinal epithelium...
January 9, 2018: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316729/wnt-rspo-and-hippo-signalling-in-the-intestine-and-intestinal-stem-cells
#14
REVIEW
Vitezslav Kriz, Vladimir Korinek
In this review, we address aspects of Wnt, R-Spondin (RSPO) and Hippo signalling, in both healthy and transformed intestinal epithelium. In intestinal stem cells (ISCs), the Wnt pathway is essential for intestinal crypt formation and renewal, whereas RSPO-mediated signalling mainly affects ISC numbers. In human colorectal cancer (CRC), aberrant Wnt signalling is the driving mechanism initiating this type of neoplasia. The signalling role of the RSPO-binding transmembrane proteins, the leucine-rich-repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptors (LGRs), is possibly more pleiotropic and not only limited to the enhancement of Wnt signalling...
January 8, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312533/loss-of-pacs-2-delays-regeneration-in-dss-induced-colitis-but-does-not-affect-the-apcmin-model-of-colorectal-cancer
#15
Sarah L Dombernowsky, Jeanette Schwarz, Jacob Samsøe-Petersen, Reidar Albrechtsen, Kim B Jensen, Gary Thomas, Marie Kveiborg
PACS-2 is a multifunctional sorting protein that mediates cell homeostasis. We recently identified PACS-2 in a functional genome-wide siRNA screen for novel regulators of the metalloproteinase ADAM17, the main sheddase for ligands of the ErbB receptor family. Of note, we showed that Pacs2-/- mice have significantly reduced EGFR activity and proliferative index in the intestinal epithelium. As EGFR signaling is highly mitogenic for intestinal epithelial stem cells, and plays essential roles in intestinal epithelial regeneration and tumor development, we have now examined the role of PACS-2 in these processes...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311761/plasma-vascular-non-inflammatory-molecule-3-is-associated-with-gastrointestinal-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-in-mice
#16
Na Wang, Xiaoyi Qin, Yigeng Cao, Bin Liang, Kang Yu, Haige Ye
Background: Gastrointestinal acute graft-versus-host disease (GI aGVHD) is a lethal complication following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, it is still very difficult to make a diagnosis of GI aGVHD in practice. To date, no consensus plasma biomarker of GI aGVHD can be used to help make a diagnosis. Here, we attempted to identify GI aGVHD associated plasma proteins in murine model, which can help make a diagnosis of GI aGVHD. Methods: We used 8-plex isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (8-plex iTRAQ) to screen out proteins in plasma samples taken from murine models before and after allogeneic HSCT...
2018: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304343/think-about-the-environment-cellular-reprogramming-by-the-extracellular-matrix
#17
David J Huels, Jan Paul Medema
In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Yui et al. (2018) show how tissue regeneration is driven by changes in the microenvironment. During intestinal regeneration, the epithelium is reprogrammed into a fetal state by an altered extracellular matrix (ECM), which is dependent on YAP/TAZ activation.
January 4, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303998/linking-dna-damage-and-age-related-promoter-dna-hyper-methylation-in-the-intestine
#18
Torsten Thalheim, Maria Herberg, Joerg Galle
Aberrant DNA methylation in stem cells is a hallmark of aging and tumor development. Here, we explore whether and how DNA damage repair might impact on these time-dependent changes, in particular in proliferative intestinal stem cells. We introduce a 3D multiscale computer model of intestinal crypts enabling simulation of aberrant DNA and histone methylation of gene promoters during aging. We assume histone state-dependent activity of de novo DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and methylation-dependent binding of maintenance DNMTs to CpGs...
January 5, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287261/a-combination-of-nmr-and-liquid-chromatography-to-characterize-the-protective-effects-of-rhus-tripartita-extracts-on-ethanol-induced-toxicity-and-inflammation-on-intestinal-cells
#19
Zaineb Ben Barka, Konstantinos Grintzalis, Madeleine Polet, Clement Heude, Ulf Sommer, Hanène Ben Miled, Khémais Ben Rhouma, Sakly Mohsen, Olfa Tebourbi, Yves-Jacques Schneider
Consumption of ethanol may have severe effects on human organs and tissues and lead to acute and chronic inflammation of internal organs. The present study aims at investigating the potential protective effects of three different extracts prepared from the leaves, root, and stem of the sumac, Rhus tripartita, against ethanol-induced toxicity and inflammation using intestinal cells as a cell culture system, in vitro model of the intestinal mucosa. The results showed an induction of cytotoxicity by ethanol, which was partially reversed by co-administration of the plant extracts...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286482/real-time-measurement-of-epithelial-barrier-permeability-in-human-intestinal-organoids
#20
David R Hill, Sha Huang, Yu-Hwai Tsai, Jason R Spence, Vincent B Young
Advances in 3D culture of intestinal tissues obtained through biopsy or generated from pluripotent stem cells via directed differentiation, have resulted in sophisticated in vitro models of the intestinal mucosa. Leveraging these emerging model systems will require adaptation of tools and techniques developed for 2D culture systems and animals. Here, we describe a technique for measuring epithelial barrier permeability in human intestinal organoids in real-time. This is accomplished by microinjection of fluorescently-labeled dextran and imaging on an inverted microscope fitted with epifluorescent filters...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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