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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230806/metabolic-profiling-and-identification-of-shikonins-in-root-periderm-of-two-invasive-echium-spp-weeds-in-australia
#1
Dominik Skoneczny, Paul A Weston, Xiaocheng Zhu, Geoff M Gurr, Ragan M Callaway, Russel A Barrow, Leslie A Weston
Metabolic profiling can be successfully implemented to analyse a living system's response to environmental conditions by providing critical information on an organism's physiological state at a particular point in time and allowing for both quantitative and qualitative assessment of a specific subset(s) of key metabolites. Shikonins are highly reactive chemicals that affect various cell signalling pathways and possess antifungal, antibacterial and allelopathic activity. Based on previous bioassay results, bioactive shikonins, are likely to play important roles in the regulation of rhizosphere interactions with neighbouring plants, microbes and herbivores...
February 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229535/enrichment-and-viability-inhibition-of-circulating-tumor-cells-on-a-dual-acid-responsive-composite-nanofiber-film
#2
Wenqian Wang, Yaya Cheng, Yansheng Li, Hao Zhou, Li-Ping Xu, Yongqiang Wen, Liang Zhao, Xueji Zhang
The formation and metastatic colonization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are responsible for the vast majority of cancer-related deaths. Over the last decade, drug delivery system (DDS) has been rapidly developed with nanotechnology arising, however, most of the reported tumor-targeting DDSs were just able to deliver drugs to the solid tumor cells but not CTCs. In here, a novel drug delivery system was constructed with composite nanofiber film to inhibit the viability of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). In this system, gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were functionalized with doxorubicin (DOX) through an acid-responsive cleavable linker to get the Au-DOX NPs...
February 23, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229459/differential-serotonergic-modulation-across-the-main-and-accessory-olfactory-bulbs
#3
Zhenbo Huang, Nicolas Thiebaud, Debra Ann Fadool
Mitral cells (MCs) contained in the main (MOB) and accessory (AOB) olfactory bulb have distinct intrinsic membrane properties but a comparison of the extent of neuromodulation across the two systems is not well explored. Herein, we investigated a widely-distributed CNS modulator, serotonin (5-HT), for its ability to modulate the biophysical properties of MCs across the MOB and AOB, using an in vitro, brain slice approach in postnatal 15-30 day mice. In the MOB, 5-HT elicited three types of responses in 93% of 180 cells tested...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227739/cortical-responses-following-simultaneous-and-sequential-retinal-neurostimulation-with-different-return-configurations
#4
Alejandro Barriga-Rivera, John W Morley, Nigel H Lovell, Gregg J Suaning, Alejandro Barriga-Rivera, John W Morley, Nigel H Lovell, Gregg J Suaning, Alejandro Barriga-Rivera, Gregg J Suaning, John W Morley, Nigel H Lovell
Researchers continue to develop visual prostheses towards safer and more efficacious systems. However limitations still exist in the number of stimulating channels that can be integrated. Therefore there is a need for spatial and time multiplexing techniques to provide improved performance of the current technology. In particular, bright and high-contrast visual scenes may require simultaneous activation of several electrodes. In this research, a 24-electrode array was suprachoroidally implanted in three normally-sighted cats...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227593/an-rf-based-wearable-sensor-system-for-indoor-tracking-to-facilitate-efficient-healthcare-management
#5
Yuzhe Ouyang, Kai Shan, Francis Minhthang Bui, Yuzhe Ouyang, Kai Shan, Francis Minhthang Bui, Yuzhe Ouyang, Kai Shan, Francis Minhthang Bui
To understand the utilization of clinical resources and improve the efficiency of healthcare, it is often necessary to accurately locate patients and doctors in a healthcare facility. However, existing tracking methods, such as GPS, Wi-Fi and RFID, have technological drawbacks or impose significant costs, thus limiting their applications in many clinical environments, especially those with indoor enclosures. This paper proposes a low-cost and flexible tracking system that is well suited for operating in an indoor environment...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227164/dynamical-information-encoding-in-neural-adaptation
#6
Luozheng Li, Wenhao Zhang, Yuanyuan Mi, Dahui Wang, Xiaohan Lin, Si Wu, Luozheng Li, Wenhao Zhang, Yuanyuan Mi, Dahui Wang, Xiaohan Lin, Si Wu, Si Wu, Dahui Wang, Xiaohan Lin, Yuanyuan Mi, Wenhao Zhang, Luozheng Li
Adaptation refers to the general phenomenon that a neural system dynamically adjusts its response property according to the statistics of external inputs. In response to a prolonged constant stimulation, neuronal firing rates always first increase dramatically at the onset of the stimulation; and afterwards, they decrease rapidly to a low level close to background activity. This attenuation of neural activity seems to be contradictory to our experience that we can still sense the stimulus after the neural system is adapted...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226429/postural-responses-after-utilization-of-a-computerized-biofeedback-based-intervention-aimed-at-improving-static-and-dynamic-balance-in-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-study
#7
Rakesh Pilkar, Nibal Arzouni, Arvind Ramanujam, Kathleen Chervin, Karen J Nolan, Rakesh Pilkar, Nibal Arzouni, Arvind Ramanujam, Kathleen Chervin, Karen J Nolan, Arvind Ramanujam, Kathleen Chervin, Nibal Arzouni, Karen J Nolan, Rakesh Pilkar
Balance dysfunction is one of the most disabling aspects of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Without rapid transmission and accurate perception of somatosensory inputs, the automatic postural responses required during standing may be delayed or absent after TBI which can lead to instability. Further, the sensitivity level to which environmental perturbations can be detected is also vital, as the central nervous system will only employ balance control strategies when it perceives a change in equilibrium. Such undetectable perturbations, however small they may be, can result in fatal falls, especially after TBI...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225020/improved-antitumor-activity-of-trail-fusion-protein-via-formation-of-self-assembling-nanoparticle
#8
Kaizong Huang, Ningjun Duan, Chunmei Zhang, Ran Mo, Zichun Hua
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been known as a promising agent for cancer therapy due to its specific apoptosis-inducing effect on tumor cells rather than most normal cells. However, systemically delivered TRAIL suffers from a rapid clearance from the body with an extremely short half-life. Thermally responsive elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are a promising class of temperature sensitive biopolymers based on the structural motif found in mammalian tropoelastin and retain the advantages of polymeric drug delivery systems...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224367/novel-treatment-with-intraperitoneal-moc31pe-immunotoxin-in-colorectal-peritoneal-metastasis-results-from-the-immunopeca-phase-1-trial
#9
Ida S Frøysnes, Yvonne Andersson, Stein G Larsen, Ben Davidson, Janne-Merete Torset Øien, Kari Hauge Olsen, Karl-Erik Giercksky, Lars Julsrud, Øystein Fodstad, Svein Dueland, Kjersti Flatmark
BACKGROUND: MOC31PE immunotoxin was developed to rapidly kill cells expressing the tumor-associated epithelial cell adhesion molecule, which is highly expressed in colorectal cancer. Although cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) may offer long-term survival to patients with peritoneal metastasis from colorectal cancer (PM-CRC), most patients experience disease relapse and novel therapeutic options are needed. On this basis, MOC31PE is being developed as a novel therapeutic principle to target PM-CRC...
February 21, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224315/modeling-of-free-fatty-acid-dynamics-insulin-and-nicotinic-acid-resistance-under-acute-and-chronic-treatments
#10
Robert Andersson, Tobias Kroon, Joachim Almquist, Mats Jirstrand, Nicholas D Oakes, Neil D Evans, Michael J Chappel, Johan Gabrielsson
Nicotinic acid (NiAc) is a potent inhibitor of adipose tissue lipolysis. Acute administration results in a rapid reduction of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. Sustained NiAc exposure is associated with tolerance development (drug resistance) and complete adaptation (FFA returning to pretreatment levels). We conducted a meta-analysis on a rich pre-clinical data set of the NiAc-FFA interaction to establish the acute and chronic exposure-response relations from a macro perspective. The data were analyzed using a nonlinear mixed-effects framework...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223145/rapid-induction-of-dopamine-sensitization-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-induced-by-a-single-injection-of-cocaine
#11
Bryan F Singer, Myranda A Bryan, Pavlo Popov, Terry E Robinson, Brandon J Aragona
Repeated intermittent exposure to cocaine results in the neurochemical sensitization of dopamine (DA) transmission within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Indeed, the excitability of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is enhanced within hours of initial psychostimulant exposure. However, it is not known if this is accompanied by a comparably rapid change in the ability of cocaine to increase extracellular DA concentrations in the ventral striatum. To address this question we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in awake-behaving rats to measure DA responses in the NAc shell following an initial intravenous cocaine injection, and then again 2-h later...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222516/intelligent-assistive-technology-for-alzheimer-s-disease-and-other-dementias-a-systematic-review
#12
Marcello Ienca, Jotterand Fabrice, Bernice Elger, Maurizio Caon, Alessandro Scoccia Pappagallo, Reto W Kressig, Tenzin Wangmo
Intelligent assistive technologies (IATs) have the potential of offering innovative solutions to mitigate the global burden of dementia and provide new tools for dementia care. While technological opportunities multiply rapidly, clinical applications are rare as the technological potential of IATs remains inadequately translated into dementia care. In this article, the authors present the results of a systematic review and the resulting comprehensive technology index of IATs with application in dementia care...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220863/engineering-botulinum-neurotoxin-c1-as-a-molecular-vehicle-for-intra-neuronal-drug-delivery
#13
Edwin J Vazquez-Cintron, Phillip H Beske, Luis Tenezaca, Bao Q Tran, Jonathan M Oyler, Elliot J Glotfelty, Christopher A Angeles, Aurelia Syngkon, Jean Mukherjee, Suzanne R Kalb, Philip A Band, Patrick M McNutt, Charles B Shoemaker, Konstantin Ichtchenko
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) binds to and internalizes its light chain into presynaptic compartments with exquisite specificity. While the native toxin is extremely lethal, bioengineering of BoNT has the potential to eliminate toxicity without disrupting neuron-specific targeting, thereby creating a molecular vehicle capable of delivering therapeutic cargo into the neuronal cytosol. Building upon previous work, we have developed an atoxic derivative (ad) of BoNT/C1 through rationally designed amino acid substitutions in the metalloprotease domain of wild type (wt) BoNT/C1...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220437/chitin-induced-responses-in-the-moss-physcomitrella-patens
#14
Simon Bressendorff, Magnus Wohlfahrt Rasmussen, Morten Petersen, John Mundy
A MAP kinase pathway below a chitin receptor in the moss Physcomitrella patens induces immune responses including rapid growth inhibition, a novel fluorescence burst, and cell wall depositions. The molecular mechanisms producing these three responses are currently unknown but warrant further investigation in this simple model system. Here we describe qualitative, time-lapse, and quantitative assays to monitor and measure these responses.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219965/a-public-health-response-to-opioid-use-in-pregnancy
#15
Stephen W Patrick, Davida M Schiff
The use of opioids during pregnancy has grown rapidly in the past decade. As opioid use during pregnancy increased, so did complications from their use, including neonatal abstinence syndrome. Several state governments responded to this increase by prosecuting and incarcerating pregnant women with substance use disorders; however, this approach has no proven benefits for maternal or infant health and may lead to avoidance of prenatal care and a decreased willingness to engage in substance use disorder treatment programs...
February 20, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219084/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hyperfibrinolysis-in-trauma-a-european-perspective
#16
Lewis S Gall, Karim Brohi, Ross A Davenport
Fibrinolysis activation occurs almost universally after severe trauma. Systemic hyperfibrinolysis is a key component of acute traumatic coagulopathy and associated with poor clinical outcomes, although controversy exists over optimal treatment strategies. The mechanistic drivers and dynamics of fibrinolytic activation in response to injury and trauma resuscitation are currently unclear. Furthermore, therapeutic triggers are compounded by the lack of a sensitive and rapid diagnostic tool, with discrepancy between hyperfibrinolysis diagnosed by viscoelastic hemostatic assays versus biomarkers for fibrinolysis...
February 20, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218888/using-clinical-signs-and-symptoms-for-medical-management-of-radiation-casualties-2015-nato-exercise
#17
H Dörr, M Abend, W F Blakely, D L Bolduc, D Boozer, T Costeira, T Dant, A De Amicis, S De Sanctis, M Dondey, M Drouet, F Entine, S Francois, G Gagna, N Guitard, F Hérodin, M Hoefer, A Lamkowski, G La Sala, F Lista, P Loiacono, M Majewski, P Martigne, D Métivier, X Michel, J Pateux, J Pejchal, G Reeves, D Riccobono, Z Sinkorova, L Soyez, D Stricklin, A Tichy, M Valente, C R Woodruff, L Zarybnicka, M Port
The utility of early-phase (≤5 days) radiation-induced clinical signs and symptoms (e.g., vomiting, diarrhea, erythema and changes in blood cell counts) was examined for the prediction of later occurring acute radiation syndrome (ARS) severity and the development of medical management strategies. Medical treatment protocols for radiation accident victims (METREPOL) was used to grade ARS severities, which were assigned response categories (RCs). Data on individuals (n = 191) with mild (RC1, n = 45), moderate (RC2, n = 19), severe (RC3, n = 20) and fatal (RC4, n = 18) ARS, as well as nonexposed individuals (RC0, n = 89) were generated using either METREPOL (n = 167) or the system for evaluation and archiving of radiation accidents based on case histories (SEARCH) database (n = 24), the latter comprised of real-case descriptions...
February 20, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218533/water-table-dynamics-and-biogeochemical-cycling-in-a-shallow-variably-saturated-floodplain
#18
Steven B Yabusaki, Michael J Wilkins, Yilin Fang, Kenneth H Williams, Bhavna Arora, John R Bargar, Harry R Beller, Nicholas J Bouskill, Eoin L Brodie, John N Christensen, Mark E Conrad, Robert E Danczak, Eric King, Nicolas F Spycher, Carl I Steefel, Tetsu K Tokunaga, Roelof Jan Versteeg, Scott R Waichler, Haruko M Wainwright
Three-dimensional variably saturated flow and multicomponent biogeochemical reactive transport modeling, based on published and newly generated data, is used to better understand the interplay of hydrology, geochemistry, and biology controlling the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, iron, sulfur, and uranium in a shallow floodplain. In this system, aerobic respiration generally maintains anoxic groundwater below an oxic vadose zone until seasonal snowmelt-driven water table peaking transports dissolved oxygen (DO) and nitrate from the vadose zone into the alluvial aquifer...
February 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218519/probing-the-dynamic-interaction-between-damaged-dna-and-a-cellular-responsive-protein-using-a-piezoelectric-mass-biosensor
#19
Yulong Jin, Yunfeng Xie, Kui Wu, Yanyan Huang, Fuyi Wang, Rui Zhao
The binding events between damaged DNA and recognition biomolecules are of great interest for understanding of the activity of DNA-damaging drugs and the related DNA repair networks. Herein, a simple and sensitive sensor system was tailored for real-time probing the dynamic molecular recognition between cisplatin-damaged DNA (cisPt-DNA) and a cellular responsive protein, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). By integrating of flow injection analysis (FIA) with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), the interaction time-course of cisPt-DNA and HMGB1 domain A (HMGB1a) was investigated...
February 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217887/gastric-antral-vascular-ectasia-in-systemic-sclerosis-where-do-we-stand
#20
REVIEW
Hala El-Gendy, Kyrillus S Shohdy, Gehad G Maghraby, Kerolos Abadeer, Moustafa Mahmoud
Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) continues to be a challenge in both diagnosis and treatment. GAVE has a diverse group of associations and presumed causes, including cirrhosis, chronic renal failure and autoimmune connective tissue diseases. However, in most occasions, the management plan of GAVE itself is the same whatever the underlying disease by using Argon plasma coagulation (APC). Herein, we will discuss three cases of systemic sclerosis-associated GAVE presenting with either acute or chronic gastrointestinal bleeding showing variable responses to APC...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
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