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Insula and schizophrenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870884/a-combined-vbm-and-dti-study-of-schizophrenia-bilateral-decreased-insula-volume-and-cerebral-white-matter-disintegrity-corresponding-to-subinsular-white-matter-projections-unlinked-to-clinical-symptomatology
#1
Aslıhan Onay, Hale Yapıcı Eser, Çiğdem Ulaşoğlu Yıldız, Selçuk Aslan, Erhan Turgut Talı
PURPOSE: Grey matter and white matter changes within the brain are well defined in schizophrenia. However, most studies focused on either grey matter changes or white matter integrity separately; only in limited number of studies these changes were interpreted in the same frame. In addition, the relationship of these findings with clinical variables is not clearly established. Here, we aimed to investigate the grey matter and white matter changes in schizophrenia patients and exhibit the relation of these imaging findings with clinical variables...
September 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681486/ultrastructural-alterations-of-von-economo-neurons-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-schizophrenia
#2
Martin Krause, Carsten Theiss, Martin Brüne
Von Economo neurons (VEN) are large bipolar projection neurons mainly located in layer Vb of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula. Both regions are involved in cognitive and emotional procedures and are functionally and anatomically altered in schizophrenia. Although the detailed function of VEN remains unclear, it has been suggested that these neurons are involved in the pathomechanism of schizophrenia. Here, we were interested in the question whether or not the VEN of schizophrenia patients would show abnormalities at the ultrastructural level...
July 6, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623450/the-relationship-between-excitement-symptom-severity-and-extrastriatal-dopamine-d2-3-receptor-availability-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-high-resolution-pet-study-with-18-f-fallypride
#3
Yo-Han Joo, Jeong-Hee Kim, Young-Don Son, Hang-Keun Kim, Yeon-Jeong Shin, Sang-Yoon Lee, Jong-Hoon Kim
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between specific symptom severity and D2/3 receptor availability in extrastriatal regions in outpatients with schizophrenia to shed light on the role of extrastriatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of symptoms of schizophrenia. Sixteen schizophrenia patients receiving relatively low-dose maintenance atypical antipsychotics and seventeen healthy controls underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution positron emission tomography with [(18)F]fallypride...
June 16, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607170/oxytocin-and-serotonin-brain-mechanisms-in-the-nonhuman-primate
#4
Arthur Lefevre, Nathalie Richard, Mina Jazayeri, Pierre-Aurélien Beuriat, Sylvain Fieux, Luc Zimmer, Jean-René Duhamel, Angela Sirigu
Oxytocin (OT) is increasingly studied for its therapeutic potential in psychiatric disorders, which are associated with the deregulation of several neurotransmission systems. Studies in rodents demonstrated that the interaction between OT and serotonin (5-HT) is critical for several aspects of social behavior. Using PET scan in humans, we have recently found that 5-HT 1A receptor (5-HT1AR) function is modified after intranasal oxytocin intake. However, the underlying mechanism between OT and 5-HT remains unclear...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558941/effects-of-aripiprazole-versus-risperidone-on-brain-activation-during-planning-and-social-emotional-evaluation-in-schizophrenia-a-single-blind-randomized-exploratory-study
#5
Edith J Liemburg, Frank van Es, Henderikus Knegtering, André Aleman
Impaired function of prefrontal brain networks may be the source of both negative symptoms and neurocognitive problems in psychotic disorders. Whereas most antipsychotics may decrease prefrontal activation, the partial dopamine D2-receptor agonist aripiprazole is hypothesized to improve prefrontal function. This study investigated whether patients with a psychotic disorder would show stronger activation of prefrontal areas and associated regions after treatment with aripiprazole compared to risperidone treatment...
October 3, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556774/functional-mri-examination-of-empathy-for-pain-in-people-with-schizophrenia-reveals-abnormal-activation-related-to-cognitive-perspective-taking-but-typical-activation-linked-to-affective-sharing
#6
Damien Vistoli, Marie-Audrey Lavoie, Stephanie Sutliff, Philip L Jackson, Amélie M Achim
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with important disturbances in empathy that are related to everyday functioning. Empathy is classically defined as including affective (sharing others' emotions) and cognitive (taking others' cognitive perspectives) processes. In healthy individuals, studies on empathy for pain revealed specific brain systems associated with these sets of processes, notably the anterior middle cingulate (aMCC) and anterior insula (AI) for affective sharing and the bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ) for the cognitive processes, but the integrity of these systems in patients with schizophrenia remains uncertain...
June 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521048/altered-coupling-between-resting-state-cerebral-blood-flow-and-functional-connectivity-in-schizophrenia
#7
Jiajia Zhu, Chuanjun Zhuo, Lixue Xu, Feng Liu, Wen Qin, Chunshui Yu
Background: Respective changes in resting-state cerebral blood flow (CBF) and functional connectivity in schizophrenia have been reported. However, their coupling alterations in schizophrenia remain largely unknown. Methods: 89 schizophrenia patients and 90 sex- and age-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional MRI to calculate functional connectivity strength (FCS) and arterial spin labeling imaging to compute CBF. The CBF-FCS coupling of the whole gray matter and the CBF/FCS ratio (the amount of blood supply per unit of connectivity strength) of each voxel were compared between the 2 groups...
May 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521044/cross-tissue-exploration-of-genetic-and-epigenetic-effects-on-brain-gray-matter-in-schizophrenia
#8
Dongdong Lin, Jiayu Chen, Stefan Ehrlich, Juan R Bustillo, Nora Perrone-Bizzozero, Esther Walton, Vincent P Clark, Yu-Ping Wang, Jing Sui, Yuhui Du, Beng C Ho, Charles S Schulz, Vince D Calhoun, Jingyu Liu
Closely linking genetics and environment factors, epigenetics has been of increasing interest in psychiatric disease studies. In this work, we integrated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), DNA methylation of blood and saliva, and brain gray matter (GM) measures to explore the role of genetic and epigenetic variation to the brain structure changes in schizophrenia (SZ). By focusing on the reported SZ genetic risk regions, we applied a multi-stage multivariate analysis to a discovery dataset (92 SZ patients and 110 controls, blood) and an independent replication dataset (93 SZ patients and 99 controls, saliva)...
May 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520743/whole-brain-volume-changes-and-its-correlation-with-clinical-symptom-severity-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-dartel-based-vbm-study
#9
Gwang-Won Kim, Yun-Hyeon Kim, Gwang-Woo Jeong
The purpose of this study was to evaluate gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations in whole-brain structures in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and further to assess the correlation between GM and WM volume variations and symptom severity in schizophrenia. A total of 22 patients with schizophrenia and 22 age-matched healthy controls participated. Magnetic resonance image data were processed using SPM8 software with diffeomorphic anatomical registration via an exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479528/-voxel-based-morphometry-for-schizophrenia-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Kiyotaka Nemoto
Various imaging studies have employed voxel based morphometry (VBM) to detect local volume reductions in schizophrenia. Indeed, the first study of VBM was applied to patients with schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia show reduced volume in frontal, temporal (especially superior temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and amygdala), and limbic regions (including insula and anterior cingulate cortex). Patients also show an increased volume in striatal regions. Even patients with first-episode show volume reduction and the reduced regions extend in accordance with the pathological process, which supports both the neurodevelopmental hypothesis and the neurodegenerative hypothesis...
May 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458998/resting-state-functional-connectivity-between-right-anterior-insula-and-right-orbital-frontal-cortex-correlate-with-insight-level-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#11
Jie Fan, Mingtian Zhong, Xiongzhao Zhu, Jun Gan, Wanting Liu, Chaoyang Niu, Haiyan Liao, Hongchun Zhang, Jinyao Yi, Changlian Tan
Few studies have explored the neurobiological basis of insight level in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), though the salience network (SN) has been implicated in insight deficits in schizophrenia. This study was then designed to investigate whether resting-state (rs) functional connectivity (FC) of SN was associated with insight level in OCD patients. We analyzed rs-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 21 OCD patients with good insight (OCD-GI), 19 OCD patients with poor insight (OCD-PI), and 24 healthy controls (HCs)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449613/emotion-recognition-and-theory-of-mind-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-of-neuroimaging-studies
#12
Martin Jáni, Tomáš Kašpárek
OBJECTIVES: Patients with schizophrenia have difficulties processing the emotional and cognitive states of others. Neuroimaging studies show inconsistent findings. METHODS: We used a Seed-based d Mapping meta-analytic method to explore brain activation during facial emotion recognition and theory of mind tasks in schizophrenia patients. RESULTS: The patients showed lesser recruitment of the facial emotion processing network; behavioural performance was associated with the activation of the precentral gyrus...
May 30, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393745/correlation-of-reduced-social-communicational-and-interactional-skills-with-regional-grey-matter-volumes-in-schizophrenia-patients
#13
Miho Ota, Junko Matsuo, Noriko Sato, Toshiya Teraishi, Hiroaki Hori, Kotaro Hattori, Yoko Kamio, Hiroshi Kunugi
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have detected similarities between autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. We investigated structural abnormalities associated with autistic-like traits in patients with schizophrenia by voxel-based morphometry. METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects were evaluated by the adult version of the social responsiveness scale (SRS-A), which is sensitive to autistic traits and symptoms even under subthreshold conditions, and magnetic resonance imaging...
April 10, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390850/grey-matter-reduction-in-the-caudate-nucleus-in-patients-with-persistent-negative-symptoms-an-ale-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Ying Li, Wen-Xiu Li, Dong-Jie Xie, Yi Wang, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan
OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we used Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analysis to quantitatively examine brain grey matter reduction in schizophrenia patients with persistent negative symptoms (PNS). METHOD: A total of 12 voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies were included in ALE meta-analysis using more stringent criterion of PNS. RESULTS: Significant grey matter reduction in the PNS group relative to controls was observed in the left caudate nucleus, the left precentral region, the left middle frontal region, the bilateral parahippocampal region, the left anterior cingulate region, the bilateral medial frontal gyrus, the thalamus and the insula...
April 5, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351544/comparing-the-effect-of-clozapine-and-risperidone-on-cue-reactivity-in-male-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-a-cannabis-use-disorder-a-randomized-fmri-study
#15
Marise W J Machielsen, Dick J Veltman, Wim van den Brink, Lieuwe de Haan
OBJECTIVE: Cannabis use disorders (CUDs) are highly comorbid in patients with schizophrenia and associated with poor outcome. Clozapine has been put forward as the first choice antipsychotic in this patient group. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the assumed superiority of clozapine. METHODS: A total of 38 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia (30 with and 8 without a DSM-IV CUD) and 20 healthy comparison subjects were included between April 2009 and June 2012...
March 25, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327107/brain-structure-differences-among-male-schizophrenic-patients-with-history-of-serious-violent-acts-an-mri-voxel-based-morphometric-study
#16
Noriomi Kuroki, Hiroko Kashiwagi, Miho Ota, Masanori Ishikawa, Hiroshi Kunugi, Noriko Sato, Naotsugu Hirabayashi, Toshio Ota
BACKGROUND: The biological underpinnings of serious violent behaviors in patients with schizophrenia remain unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of brain morphometry in patients with schizophrenia and a history of serious violent acts, who were being treated under relatively new legislation for offenders with mental illness in Japan where their relevant action should be strongly associated with their mental illness. We also investigated whether morphometric changes would depend on types of serious violent actions or not...
March 21, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320224/identification-of-common-neural-circuit-disruptions-in-cognitive-control-across-psychiatric-disorders
#17
Lisa M McTeague, Julia Huemer, David M Carreon, Ying Jiang, Simon B Eickhoff, Amit Etkin
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive deficits are a common feature of psychiatric disorders. The authors investigated the nature of disruptions in neural circuitry underlying cognitive control capacities across psychiatric disorders through a transdiagnostic neuroimaging meta-analysis. METHOD: A PubMed search was conducted for whole-brain functional neuroimaging articles published through June 2015 that compared activation in patients with axis I disorders and matched healthy control participants during cognitive control tasks...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275544/polygenic-risk-for-five-psychiatric-disorders-and-cross-disorder-and-disorder-specific-neural-connectivity-in-two-independent-populations
#18
Tianqi Wang, Xiaolong Zhang, Ang Li, Meifang Zhu, Shu Liu, Wen Qin, Jin Li, Chunshui Yu, Tianzi Jiang, Bing Liu
Major psychiatric disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism (AUT), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SZ), are highly heritable and polygenic. Evidence suggests that these five disorders have both shared and distinct genetic risks and neural connectivity abnormalities. To measure aggregate genetic risks, the polygenic risk score (PGRS) was computed. Two independent general populations (N = 360 and N = 323) were separately examined to investigate whether the cross-disorder PGRS and PGRS for a specific disorder were associated with individual variability in functional connectivity...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243099/abnormalities-of-localized-connectivity-in-schizophrenia-patients-and-their-unaffected-relatives-a-meta-analysis-of-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies
#19
Bo Xiao, Shuai Wang, Jianbo Liu, Tiantian Meng, Yuqiong He, Xuerong Luo
OBJECTIVE: The localized dysfunction of specialized brain regions in schizophrenia patients and their unaffected relatives has been identified in a large-scale brain network; however, evidence is inconsistent. We aimed to identify abnormalities in the localized connectivity in schizophrenia patients and their relatives by conducting a meta-analysis of regional homogeneity (ReHo) studies. METHODS: Fourteen studies on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, with 316 schizophrenia patients, 342 healthy controls, and 66 unaffected relatives, were included in the meta-analysis...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223929/the-effects-of-age-from-young-to-middle-adulthood-and-gender-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-dopaminergic-midbrain
#20
Andrew C Peterson, Sheng Zhang, Sien Hu, Herta H Chao, Chiang-Shan R Li
Dysfunction of the dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is implicated in psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, schizophrenia and movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the prevalence of these disorders varies by age and sex, the underlying neural mechanism is not well understood. The objective of this study was to delineate the distinct resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the VTA and SNc and examine the effects of age, from young to middle-adulthood, and sex on the rsFC of these two dopaminergic structures in a data set of 250 healthy adults (18-49 years of age, 104 men)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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