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Insula and schizophrenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327107/brain-structure-differences-among-male-schizophrenic-patients-with-history-of-serious-violent-acts-an-mri-voxel-based-morphometric-study
#1
Noriomi Kuroki, Hiroko Kashiwagi, Miho Ota, Masanori Ishikawa, Hiroshi Kunugi, Noriko Sato, Naotsugu Hirabayashi, Toshio Ota
BACKGROUND: The biological underpinnings of serious violent behaviors in patients with schizophrenia remain unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of brain morphometry in patients with schizophrenia and a history of serious violent acts, who were being treated under relatively new legislation for offenders with mental illness in Japan where their relevant action should be strongly associated with their mental illness. We also investigated whether morphometric changes would depend on types of serious violent actions or not...
March 21, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320224/identification-of-common-neural-circuit-disruptions-in-cognitive-control-across-psychiatric-disorders
#2
Lisa M McTeague, Julia Huemer, David M Carreon, Ying Jiang, Simon B Eickhoff, Amit Etkin
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive deficits are a common feature of psychiatric disorders. The authors investigated the nature of disruptions in neural circuitry underlying cognitive control capacities across psychiatric disorders through a transdiagnostic neuroimaging meta-analysis. METHOD: A PubMed search was conducted for whole-brain functional neuroimaging articles published through June 2015 that compared activation in patients with axis I disorders and matched healthy control participants during cognitive control tasks...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275544/polygenic-risk-for-five-psychiatric-disorders-and-cross-disorder-and-disorder-specific-neural-connectivity-in-two-independent-populations
#3
Tianqi Wang, Xiaolong Zhang, Ang Li, Meifang Zhu, Shu Liu, Wen Qin, Jin Li, Chunshui Yu, Tianzi Jiang, Bing Liu
Major psychiatric disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism (AUT), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SZ), are highly heritable and polygenic. Evidence suggests that these five disorders have both shared and distinct genetic risks and neural connectivity abnormalities. To measure aggregate genetic risks, the polygenic risk score (PGRS) was computed. Two independent general populations (N = 360 and N = 323) were separately examined to investigate whether the cross-disorder PGRS and PGRS for a specific disorder were associated with individual variability in functional connectivity...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243099/abnormalities-of-localized-connectivity-in-schizophrenia-patients-and-their-unaffected-relatives-a-meta-analysis-of-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies
#4
Bo Xiao, Shuai Wang, Jianbo Liu, Tiantian Meng, Yuqiong He, Xuerong Luo
OBJECTIVE: The localized dysfunction of specialized brain regions in schizophrenia patients and their unaffected relatives has been identified in a large-scale brain network; however, evidence is inconsistent. We aimed to identify abnormalities in the localized connectivity in schizophrenia patients and their relatives by conducting a meta-analysis of regional homogeneity (ReHo) studies. METHODS: Fourteen studies on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, with 316 schizophrenia patients, 342 healthy controls, and 66 unaffected relatives, were included in the meta-analysis...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223929/the-effects-of-age-from-young-to-middle-adulthood-and-gender-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-dopaminergic-midbrain
#5
Andrew C Peterson, Sheng Zhang, Sien Hu, Herta H Chao, Chiang-Shan R Li
Dysfunction of the dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is implicated in psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, schizophrenia and movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the prevalence of these disorders varies by age and sex, the underlying neural mechanism is not well understood. The objective of this study was to delineate the distinct resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the VTA and SNc and examine the effects of age, from young to middle-adulthood, and sex on the rsFC of these two dopaminergic structures in a data set of 250 healthy adults (18-49 years of age, 104 men)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223812/resting-state-functional-connectivity-changes-within-the-default-mode-network-and-the-salience-network-after-antipsychotic-treatment-in-early-phase-schizophrenia
#6
Yingchan Wang, Weijun Tang, Xiaoduo Fan, Jianye Zhang, Daoying Geng, Kaida Jiang, Dianming Zhu, Zhenhua Song, Zeping Xiao, Dengtang Liu
OBJECTIVE: Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity (FC), particularly in the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network (SN), has been reported in schizophrenia, but little is known about the effects of antipsychotics on these networks. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of atypical antipsychotics on DMN and SN and the relationship between these effects and symptom improvement in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 33 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and treated with antipsychotics at Shanghai Mental Health Center...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193583/nicotinic-modulation-of-salience-network-connectivity-and-centrality-in-schizophrenia
#7
Jason Smucny, Korey P Wylie, Eugene Kronberg, Kristina T Legget, Jason R Tregellas
Although functional abnormalities of the salience network are associated with schizophrenia, the acute effects of nicotine on its function and network dynamics during the resting state in patients are poorly understood. In this study, the effects of a 7 mg nicotine patch (vs. placebo) on salience network connectivity were examined in 17 patients with schizophrenia and 19 healthy subjects. We hypothesized abnormal connectivity between the salience network and other major networks (e.g. executive network) in patients under placebo administration and amelioration of this difference after nicotine...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185094/abnormal-functional-connectivity-strength-in-patients-with-adolescent-onset-schizophrenia-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#8
Shuai Wang, Yajing Zhan, Yan Zhang, Luxian Lv, Renrong Wu, Jingping Zhao, Wenbin Guo
Structural and functional abnormalities were reported in the brain of patients with adolescent-onset schizophrenia (AOS). However, evidence of abnormal functional connectivity of the brain in AOS patients is limited. Thus, we analyzed the resting-state functional magnetic resonance scans of 48 drug-naive AOS patients and 31 healthy controls to determine their functional connectivity strength (FCS) and examined if FCS abnormalities were correlated with clinical characteristics. Compared with healthy controls, AOS patients showed significantly increased FCS in the left cerebellum VI and right inferior frontal gyrus/insula...
February 9, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139359/altered-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-in-schizophrenia-patients-with-persistent-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#9
Anna Alonso-Solís, Yolanda Vives-Gilabert, Maria J Portella, Mireia Rabella, Eva M Grasa, Alexandra Roldán, Alejandro Keymer-Gausset, Conrad Molins, Fidel Núñez-Marín, Beatriz Gómez-Ansón, Enric Alvarez, Iluminada Corripio
The aim of this study is to analyze the differences in low frequency fluctuation (LFF) values between schizophrenia patients with and without auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). Nineteen schizophrenia patients with persistent AVH (HP), fourteen non-hallucinating schizophrenia patients (nHP) and twenty healthy controls (HC) underwent R-fMRI. LFF values were calculated in the slow frequency band (0.01-0.08Hz). By means of group level contrasts, we performed direct voxel-wise group comparisons. Both groups of patients showed decreased amplitude LFF (ALFF) values in the occipital pole and lingual gyrus compared to HC, whereas increased ALFF values were found in the temporal pole and fusifom gyrus...
January 28, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126618/functional-connectivity-when-detecting-rare-visual-targets-in-schizophrenia
#10
Amy M Jimenez, Junghee Lee, Michael F Green, Jonathan K Wynn
Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate difficulties in attending to important stimuli (e.g., targets) and ignoring distractors (e.g., non-targets). We used a visual oddball task during fMRI to examine functional connectivity within and between the ventral and dorsal attention networks to determine the relative contribution of each network to detection of rare visual targets in schizophrenia. The sample comprised 25 schizophrenia patients and 27 healthy controls. Psychophysiological interaction analysis was used to examine whole-brain functional connectivity in response to targets...
March 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112029/two-patterns-of-anterior-insular-cortex-functional-connectivity-in-bipolar-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#11
Jian Li, Yanqing Tang, Fay Womer, Guoguang Fan, Qian Zhou, Wenge Sun, Ke Xu, Fei Wang
OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ) share structural abnormalities in the anterior insula cortex (AIC). The AIC appears to have a crucial role in emotional processing and regulation and cognitive control in BD and SZ. METHODS: Forty-six participants with BD, 68 with SZ and 66 healthy controls (HC) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) from AIC subregions (ventral and dorsal) was compared among the three groups...
January 23, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107346/decreased-functional-connectivity-of-insular-cortex-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-first-episode-schizophrenia-in-relation-to-symptom-severity
#12
Lijuan Pang, David Kennedy, Qinling Wei, Luxian Lv, Jinsong Gao, Hong Li, Meina Quan, Xue Li, Yongfeng Yang, Xiaoduo Fan, Xueqin Song
BACKGROUND: This study was to examine the insular cortical functional connectivity in drug naïve patients with first episode schizophrenia and to explore the relationship between the connectivity and the severity of clinical symptoms. METHODS: Thirty-seven drug naïve patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. A seed-based approach was used to analyze the resting-state functional imaging data. Insular cortical connectivity maps were bilaterally extracted for group comparison and validated by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092779/aberrant-spontaneous-neural-activity-and-correlation-with-evoked-brain-potentials-in-first-episode-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-deficit-and-non-deficit-schizophrenia
#13
Zhe Li, Wei Lei, Wei Deng, Zhong Zheng, Mingli Li, Xiaohong Ma, Qiang Wang, Chaohua Huang, Na Li, David A Collier, Qiyong Gong, Tao Li
The goals of the study were to analyze spontaneous neural activity between deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia (DS, NDS) using resting-state fMRI, and to investigate the correlation of fMRI with clinical features and evoked brain potentials. The amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was measured in 41 DS participants, 42 NDS participants, and 42 healthy controls. ALFF in the bilateral cerebellum posterior lobe was significantly decreased in patients, while ALFF in the right fusiform gyrus and the bilateral putamen was significantly increased...
January 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887704/aberrant-modulation-of-brain-activation-by-emotional-valence-during-self-referential-processing-among-patients-with-delusions-of-reference
#14
Todd A Girard, Louis Lakatos, Mahesh Menon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Delusions of reference are thought to reflect abnormally heightened attributions of salience to mundane events or stimuli that lead to convictions that they are personally significant or directed at the observer. Recent findings highlight abnormal recruitment of brain regions associated with self-referential processes among patients with referential delusions. Given the inherent overlap of emotion, incentive salience, and self-relevance, as well as with aberrant thought processes in psychosis, this study investigated the implicit relations between participants' perception of the emotional valence of stimuli on neural correlates of self-referent judgments among schizophrenia-spectrum patients with referential delusions...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817844/brain-structure-biomarkers-in-the-psychosis-biotypes-findings-from-the-bipolar-schizophrenia-network-for-intermediate-phenotypes
#15
Elena I Ivleva, Brett A Clementz, Anthony M Dutcher, Sara J M Arnold, Haekyung Jeon-Slaughter, Sina Aslan, Bradley Witte, Gaurav Poudyal, Hanzhang Lu, Shashwath A Meda, Godfrey D Pearlson, John A Sweeney, Matcheri S Keshavan, Carol A Tamminga
BACKGROUND: The current definitions of psychotic illness lack biological validity, motivating alternative biomarker-driven disease entities. Building on experimental constructs-Biotypes-that were previously developed from cognitive and neurophysiologic measures, we contrast brain anatomy characteristics across Biotypes alongside conventional diagnoses, examining gray matter density (GMD) as an independent validator for the Biotypes. METHODS: Whole brain GMD measures were examined in probands, their relatives, and healthy subjects organized by Biotype and then by DSM-IV-TR diagnosis (n = 1409) using voxel-based morphometry with subsequent subject-level regional characterization and distribution analyses...
August 31, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713804/cognitive-enhancement-therapy-improves-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-early-course-schizophrenia
#16
Shaun M Eack, Christina E Newhill, Matcheri S Keshavan
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive remediation is emerging as an effective psychosocial intervention for addressing untreated cognitive and functional impairments in persons with schizophrenia, and might achieve its benefits through neuroplastic changes in brain connectivity. This study seeks to examine the effects of cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) on fronto-temporal brain connectivity in a randomized controlled trial with individuals in the early course of schizophrenia. METHOD: Stabilized, early course outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N = 41) were randomly assigned to CET (n = 25) or an active enriched supportive therapy (EST) control (n = 16) and treated for 2 years...
2016: Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693668/altered-functional-connectivity-during-self-and-close-other-reflection-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-with-past-psychosis-and-patients-with-schizophrenia
#17
Liwen Zhang, Lisette Vander Meer, Esther M Opmeer, Jan-Bernard C Marsman, Henricus G Ruhé, André Aleman
Disturbances in implicit self-processing have been reported both in psychotic patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia. It remains unclear whether these two psychotic disorders show disturbed functional connectivity during explicit self-reflection, which is associated with social functioning and illness symptoms. Therefore, we investigated functional connectivity during explicit self-reflection in BD with past psychosis and schizophrenia. Twenty-three BD-patients, 17 schizophrenia-patients and 21 health controls (HC) performed a self-reflection task, including the conditions self-reflection, close other-reflection and semantic control...
December 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665257/cortical-thickness-of-neural-substrates-supporting-cognitive-empathy-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia
#18
Suena H Massey, Daniel Stern, Eva C Alden, Julie E Petersen, Derin J Cobia, Lei Wang, John G Csernansky, Matthew J Smith
BACKGROUND: Cognitive empathy is supported by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC), insula (INS), supplementary motor area (SMA), right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), and precuneus (PREC). In healthy controls, cortical thickness in these regions has been linked to cognitive empathy. As cognitive empathy is impaired in schizophrenia, we examined whether reduced cortical thickness in these regions was associated with poorer cognitive empathy in this population...
January 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662482/functional-abnormalities-of-the-right-posterior-insula-are-related-to-the-altered-self-experience-in-schizophrenia
#19
Xi Chen, Mingjun Duan, Hui He, Mi Yang, Benjamin Klugah-Brown, Hao Xu, Yongxiu Lai, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao
The insula is involved in detecting the salience of internal and external stimuli, and it plays a critical role in psychosis. Previous studies have demonstrated the structural and functional alterations of the insula in schizophrenia. To acquire a full picture of the functional alterations of the insula in schizophrenia, the resting-state fMRI data of 46 patients with schizophrenia and 46 healthy control subjects were collected. We used clustering analysis to divide the insula into three subregions: the dorsal anterior insula (dAI), ventral anterior insula (vAI) and posterior insula (PI)...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610072/supervised-multivariate-whole-brain-reduction-did-not-help-to-achieve-high-classification-performance-in-schizophrenia-research
#20
Eva Janousova, Giovanni Montana, Tomas Kasparek, Daniel Schwarz
We examined how penalized linear discriminant analysis with resampling, which is a supervised, multivariate, whole-brain reduction technique, can help schizophrenia diagnostics and research. In an experiment with magnetic resonance brain images of 52 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 52 healthy controls, this method allowed us to select brain areas relevant to schizophrenia, such as the left prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulum, the right anterior insula, the thalamus, and the hippocampus. Nevertheless, the classification performance based on such reduced data was not significantly better than the classification of data reduced by mass univariate selection using a t-test or unsupervised multivariate reduction using principal component analysis...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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