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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778275/quantifying-the-effects-of-16p11-2-copy-number-variants-on-brain-structure-a-multisite-genetic-first-study
#1
Sandra Martin-Brevet, Borja Rodríguez-Herreros, Jared A Nielsen, Clara Moreau, Claudia Modenato, Anne M Maillard, Aurélie Pain, Sonia Richetin, Aia E Jønch, Abid Y Qureshi, Nicole R Zürcher, Philippe Conus, Wendy K Chung, Elliott H Sherr, John E Spiro, Ferath Kherif, Jacques S Beckmann, Nouchine Hadjikhani, Alexandre Reymond, Randy L Buckner, Bogdan Draganski, Sébastien Jacquemont
BACKGROUND: 16p11.2 breakpoint 4 to 5 copy number variants (CNVs) increase the risk for developing autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and language and cognitive impairment. In this multisite study, we aimed to quantify the effect of 16p11.2 CNVs on brain structure. METHODS: Using voxel- and surface-based brain morphometric methods, we analyzed structural magnetic resonance imaging collected at seven sites from 78 individuals with a deletion, 71 individuals with a duplication, and 212 individuals without a CNV...
March 27, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729682/structural-covariance-and-cortical-reorganisation-in-schizophrenia-a-mri-based-morphometric-study
#2
Lena Palaniyappan, Olha Hodgson, Vijender Balain, Sarina Iwabuchi, Penny Gowland, Peter Liddle
BACKGROUND: In patients with schizophrenia, distributed abnormalities are observed in grey matter volume. A recent hypothesis posits that these distributed changes are indicative of a plastic reorganisation process occurring in response to a functional defect in neuronal information transmission. We investigated the structural covariance across various brain regions in early-stage schizophrenia to determine if indeed the observed patterns of volumetric loss conform to a coordinated pattern of structural reorganisation...
May 6, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704324/voxel-wise-brain-wide-functional-connectivity-abnormalities-in-first-episode-drug-naive-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#3
Xilong Cui, Feng Liu, Jindong Chen, Guangrong Xie, Renrong Wu, Zhikun Zhang, Huafu Chen, Jingping Zhao, Wenbin Guo
Due to different foci and single sample across studies, abnormal functional connectivity (FC) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) with inconsistent results. The inconsistency may reflect a combination of clinical and methodological variability, which leads to limited reproducibility of these findings. The samples included 59 patients with MDD and 31 controls from Sample 1, 29 patients with MDD and 24 controls from Sample 2, and 31 patients with schizophrenia and 37 controls from Sample 3...
April 28, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695982/evaluating-the-specificity-of-cognitive-control-deficits-in-schizophrenia-using-antisaccades-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-healthy-individuals-with-poor-cognitive-control
#4
Amanda L Rodrigue, David J Schaeffer, Jordan E Pierce, Brett A Clementz, Jennifer E McDowell
Cognitive control impairments in schizophrenia (SZ) can be evaluated using antisaccade tasks and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Studies, however, often compare people with SZ to high performing healthy people, making it unclear if antisaccade-related disruptions are specific to the disease or due to generalized deficits in cognitive control. We included two healthy comparison groups in addition to people with SZ: healthy people with high cognitive control (HCC), who represent a more typical comparison group, and healthy people with low cognitive control (LCC), who perform similarly on antisaccade measures as people with SZ...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527507/cognitive-and-psychopathology-correlates-of-brain-white-grey-matter-structure-in-severely-psychotic-schizophrenic-inpatients
#5
Nerisa Banaj, Federica Piras, Fabrizio Piras, Valentina Ciullo, Mariangela Iorio, Claudia Battaglia, Donatella Pantoli, Giuseppe Ducci, Gianfranco Spalletta
The brain structural correlates of cognitive and psychopathological symptoms within the active phase in severely psychotic schizophrenic inpatients have been rarely investigated. Twenty-eight inpatients with a DSM-5 diagnosis of Schizophrenia (SZ), admitted for acute psychotic decompensation, were assessed through a comprehensive neuropsychological and psychopathological battery. All patients underwent a high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging investigation. Increased psychotic severity was related to reduced grey matter volumes in the medial portion of the right superior frontal cortex, the superior orbitofrontal cortex bilaterally and to white matter volume reduction in the medial portion of the left superior frontal area...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521610/visual-working-memory-encoding-in-schizophrenia-and-first-degree-relatives-neurofunctional-abnormalities-and-impaired-consolidation
#6
Michael Stäblein, Helena Storchak, Denisa Ghinea, Dominik Kraft, Christian Knöchel, David Prvulovic, Robert A Bittner, Andreas Reif, Viola Oertel-Knöchel
BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM) deficits in schizophrenia (SCZ) have been linked to impairments in the encoding phase that are associated with aberrant neuronal functioning. Similar abnormalities have been observed in unaffected first-degree relatives (REL) and are thus discussed as candidate endophenotypes. The process of WM consolidation - i.e. the formation of durable WM representations - is assumed to be impaired in SCZ, but no study has investigated WM consolidation and neuronal correlates of visual WM encoding in REL before...
March 9, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515467/early-intervention-and-a-direction-of-novel-therapeutics-for-the-improvement-of-functional-outcomes-in-schizophrenia-a-selective-review
#7
REVIEW
Masayoshi Kurachi, Tsutomu Takahashi, Tomiki Sumiyoshi, Takashi Uehara, Michio Suzuki
Background: A recent review reported that the median proportion of patients recovering from schizophrenia was 13.5% and that this did not change over time. Various factors including the duration of untreated psychosis, cognitive impairment, negative symptoms, and morphological changes in the brain influence the functional outcome of schizophrenia. The authors herein reviewed morphological changes in the brain of schizophrenia patients, effects of early intervention, and a direction of developing novel therapeutics to achieve significant improvement of the functional outcome...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486865/motivational-deficits-in-schizophrenia-are-associated-with-reduced-differentiation-between-gain-and-loss-avoidance-feedback-in-the-striatum
#8
James A Waltz, Ziye Xu, Elliot C Brown, Rebecca R Ruiz, Michael J Frank, James M Gold
BACKGROUND: The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that motivational deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) are tied to a reduced ability to differentially signal gains and instances of loss-avoidance in the brain, leading to reduced ability to form adaptive representations of expected value. METHODS: We administered a reinforcement learning paradigm to 27 medicated SZ patients and 27 control subjects in which participants learned three probabilistic discriminations...
March 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483659/at-risk-individuals-display-altered-brain-activity-following-stress
#9
J M C van Leeuwen, M Vink, G Fernández, E J Hermans, M Joëls, R S Kahn, C H Vinkers
Stress is a major risk factor for almost all psychiatric disorders, however, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain largely elusive. In healthy individuals, a successful stress response involves an adequate neuronal adaptation to a changing environment. This adaptive response may be dysfunctional in vulnerable individuals, potentially contributing to the development of psychopathology. In the current study, we investigated brain responses to emotional stimuli following stress in healthy controls and at-risk individuals...
February 26, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481320/association-between-structural-and-functional-brain-alterations-in-drug-free-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-multimodal-meta-analysis
#10
Xin Gao, Wenjing Zhang, Li Yao, Yuan Xiao, Lu Liu, Jieke Liu, Siyi Li, Bo Tao, Chandan Shah, Qiyong Gong, John A Sweeney, Su Lui
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown both structural and functional abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. Recently, studies have begun to explore the association between structural and functional grey matter abnormalities. By conducting a meta-analysis on morphometric and functional imaging studies of grey matter alterations in drug-free patients, the present study aims to examine the degree of overlap between brain regions with anatomic and functional changes in patients with schizophrenia...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395610/disrupted-salience-processing-involved-in-motivational-deficits-for-real-life-activities-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#11
Byung-Hoon Kim, Yu-Bin Shin, Sunghyon Kyeong, Seon-Koo Lee, Jae-Jin Kim
Motivational deficits in patients with schizophrenia adversely affect various domains of daily living. This symptom in everyday life situations manifests in a complex behavioral pattern whose root cannot be simplified to an impaired reward-motivation scheme. This study aimed to identify impairment of the salience network that underlies motivational deficits seen in patients with schizophrenia in real-life situations. During the functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, 20 patients with schizophrenia and 20 normal controls performed a task mimicking real-life situations, in which an avatar proposed participation in a daily activity with either an intrinsic or extrinsic reward...
January 27, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349864/the-morphometric-co-atrophy-networking-of-schizophrenia-autistic-and-obsessive-spectrum-disorders
#12
Franco Cauda, Andrea Nani, Tommaso Costa, Sara Palermo, Karina Tatu, Jordi Manuello, Sergio Duca, Peter T Fox, Roberto Keller
By means of a novel methodology that can statistically derive patterns of co-alterations distribution from voxel-based morphological data, this study analyzes the patterns of brain alterations of three important psychiatric spectra-that is, schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCZD), autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD). Our analysis provides five important results. First, in SCZD, ASD, and OCSD brain alterations do not distribute randomly but, rather, follow network-like patterns of co-alteration...
May 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247717/higher-order-thalamic-nuclei-resting-network-connectivity-in-early-schizophrenia-and-major-depressive-disorder
#13
Jacob Penner, Elizabeth A Osuch, Betsy Schaefer, Jean Théberge, Richard W J Neufeld, Ravi S Menon, Nagalingam Rajakumar, James A Bourne, Peter C Williamson
The pulvinar and the mediodorsal (MDN) nuclei of the thalamus are higher order nuclei which have been implicated in directed effort and corollary discharge systems. We used seed-based resting fMRI to examine functional connectivity to bilateral pulvinar and MDN in 24 schizophrenic patients (SZ), 24 major depressive disorder patients (MDD), and 24 age-matched healthy controls. SZ had less connectivity than controls between the left pulvinar and precuneus, left ventral-lateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), and superior and medial-frontal regions, between the right pulvinar and right frontal pole, and greater connectivity between the right MDN and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC)...
February 28, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244020/association-between-structural-and-functional-brain-alterations-in-drug-free-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-multimodal-meta-analysis
#14
Xin Gao, Wenjing Zhang, Li Yao, Yuan Xiao, Lu Liu, Jieke Liu, Siyi Li, Bo Tao, Chandan Shah, Qiyong Gong, John A Sweeney, Su Lui
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown both structural and functional abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. Recently, studies have begun to explore the association between structural and functional grey matter abnormalities. By conducting a meta-analysis on morphometric and functional imaging studies of grey matter alterations in drug-free patients, the present study aims to examine the degree of overlap between brain regions with anatomic and functional changes in patients with schizophrenia...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228204/decreased-resting-state-interhemispheric-functional-connectivity-correlated-with-neurocognitive-deficits-in-drug-naive-first-episode-adolescent-onset-schizophrenia
#15
Yi Liu, Wenbin Guo, Yan Zhang, Luxian Lv, Feihu Hu, Renrong Wu, Jingping Zhao
Background: Given that adolescence is a critical epoch in the onset of schizophrenia, studying aberrant brain changes in adolescent-onset schizophrenia, particularly in patients with drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia, is important to understand the biological mechanism of this disorder. Previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown abnormal functional connectivity in separate hemispheres in patients with adult-onset schizophrenia. Our aim to study adolescent-onset schizophrenia can provide clues for the early aetiology of schizophrenia...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216861/impaired-mixed-emotion-processing-in-the-right-ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-schizophrenia-an-fmri-study
#16
Ádám György Szabó, Kinga Farkas, Csilla Marosi, Lajos R Kozák, Gábor Rudas, János Réthelyi, Gábor Csukly
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia has a negative effect on the activity of the temporal and prefrontal cortices in the processing of emotional facial expressions. However no previous research focused on the evaluation of mixed emotions in schizophrenia, albeit they are frequently expressed in everyday situations and negative emotions are frequently expressed by mixed facial expressions. METHODS: Altogether 37 subjects, 19 patients with schizophrenia and 18 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study...
December 8, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206399/association-between-structural-and-functional-brain-alterations-in-drug-free-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-multimodal-meta-analysis
#17
Xin Gao, Wenjing Zhang, Li Yao, Yuan Xiao, Lu Liu, Jieke Liu, Siyi Li, Bo Tao, Chandan Shah, Qiyong Gong, John Sweeney, Su Lui
Background: Neuroimaging studies have shown both structural and functional abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. Recently, studies have begun to explore the association between structural and functional grey matter abnormalities. By conducting a meta­-analysis on morphometric and functional imaging studies of grey matter alterations in drug-free patients, the present study aims to examine the degree of overlap between brain regions with anatomic and functional changes in patients with schizophrenia...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163021/schizophrenia-shows-disrupted-links-between-brain-volume-and-dynamic-functional-connectivity
#18
Anees Abrol, Barnaly Rashid, Srinivas Rachakonda, Eswar Damaraju, Vince D Calhoun
Studies featuring multimodal neuroimaging data fusion for understanding brain function and structure, or disease characterization, leverage the partial information available in each of the modalities to reveal data variations not exhibited through the independent analyses. Similar to other complex syndromes, the characteristic brain abnormalities in schizophrenia may be better understood with the help of the additional information conveyed by leveraging an advanced modeling method involving multiple modalities...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136642/common-and-distinct-structural-features-of-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-the-european-network-on-psychosis-affective-disorders-and-cognitive-trajectory-enpact-study
#19
Eleonora Maggioni, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Igor Nenadic, Francesco Benedetti, Christian Gaser, Heinrich Sauer, Roberto Roiz-Santiañez, Sara Poletti, Veronica Marinelli, Marcella Bellani, Cinzia Perlini, Mirella Ruggeri, A Carlo Altamura, Vaibhav A Diwadkar, Paolo Brambilla
INTRODUCTION: Although schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) share elements of pathology, their neural underpinnings are still under investigation. Here, structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data collected from a large sample of BD and SCZ patients and healthy controls (HC) were analyzed in terms of gray matter volume (GMV) using both voxel based morphometry (VBM) and a region of interest (ROI) approach. METHODS: The analysis was conducted on two datasets, Dataset1 (802 subjects: 243 SCZ, 176 BD, 383 HC) and Dataset2, a homogeneous subset of Dataset1 (301 subjects: 107 HC, 85 BD and 109 SCZ)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105546/the-effects-of-adjunctive-intranasal-oxytocin-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#20
Miho Ota, Sumiko Yoshida, Masanori Nakata, Toshihiko Yada, Hiroshi Kunugi
OBJECTIVES: Both human and animal studies have suggested that oxytocin may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of schizophrenia. We evaluated the effects of intranasal oxytocin on cognition and its predictive factors in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Subjects were 16 chronic schizophrenia patients who underwent intranasal oxytocin treatment for 3 months and were assessed for changes in severity of clinical symptoms and cognitions. Fifteen of the 16 subjects underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging...
January 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
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