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Insula and schizophrenia

Shaun M Eack, Christina E Newhill, Matcheri S Keshavan
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive remediation is emerging as an effective psychosocial intervention for addressing untreated cognitive and functional impairments in persons with schizophrenia, and might achieve its benefits through neuroplastic changes in brain connectivity. This study seeks to examine the effects of cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) on fronto-temporal brain connectivity in a randomized controlled trial with individuals in the early course of schizophrenia. METHOD: Stabilized, early course outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N = 41) were randomly assigned to CET (n = 25) or an active enriched supportive therapy (EST) control (n = 16) and treated for 2 years...
2016: Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research
Liwen Zhang, Lisette van der Meer, Esther M Opmeer, Jan-Bernard C Marsman, Henricus G Ruhé, André Aleman
Disturbances in implicit self-processing have been reported both in psychotic patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia. It remains unclear whether these two psychotic disorders show disturbed functional connectivity during explicit self-reflection, which is associated with social functioning and illness symptoms. Therefore, we investigated functional connectivity during explicit self-reflection in BD with past psychosis and schizophrenia. Twenty-three BD-patients, 17 schizophrenia-patients and 21 health controls (HC) performed a self-reflection task, including the conditions self-reflection, close other-reflection and semantic control...
September 27, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Suena H Massey, Daniel Stern, Eva C Alden, Julie E Petersen, Derin J Cobia, Lei Wang, John G Csernansky, Matthew J Smith
BACKGROUND: Cognitive empathy is supported by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC), insula (INS), supplementary motor area (SMA), right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), and precuneus (PREC). In healthy controls, cortical thickness in these regions has been linked to cognitive empathy. As cognitive empathy is impaired in schizophrenia, we examined whether reduced cortical thickness in these regions was associated with poorer cognitive empathy in this population...
September 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Xi Chen, Mingjun Duan, Hui He, Mi Yang, Benjamin Klugah-Brown, Hao Xu, Yongxiu Lai, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao
The insula is involved in detecting the salience of internal and external stimuli, and it plays a critical role in psychosis. Previous studies have demonstrated the structural and functional alterations of the insula in schizophrenia. To acquire a full picture of the functional alterations of the insula in schizophrenia, the resting-state fMRI data of 46 patients with schizophrenia and 46 healthy control subjects were collected. We used clustering analysis to divide the insula into three subregions: the dorsal anterior insula (dAI), ventral anterior insula (vAI) and posterior insula (PI)...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Eva Janousova, Giovanni Montana, Tomas Kasparek, Daniel Schwarz
We examined how penalized linear discriminant analysis with resampling, which is a supervised, multivariate, whole-brain reduction technique, can help schizophrenia diagnostics and research. In an experiment with magnetic resonance brain images of 52 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 52 healthy controls, this method allowed us to select brain areas relevant to schizophrenia, such as the left prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulum, the right anterior insula, the thalamus, and the hippocampus. Nevertheless, the classification performance based on such reduced data was not significantly better than the classification of data reduced by mass univariate selection using a t-test or unsupervised multivariate reduction using principal component analysis...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
P Mikolas, T Melicher, A Skoch, M Matejka, A Slovakova, E Bakstein, T Hajek, F Spaniel
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of schizophrenia could improve the outcomes and limit the negative effects of untreated illness. Although participants with schizophrenia show aberrant functional connectivity in brain networks, these between-group differences have a limited diagnostic utility. Novel methods of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analyses, such as machine learning (ML), may help bring neuroimaging from the bench to the bedside. Here, we used ML to differentiate participants with a first episode of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (FES) from healthy controls based on resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC)...
October 2016: Psychological Medicine
Jung Suk Lee, Eun Seong Kim, Eun Joo Kim, Joohan Kim, Eosu Kim, Seung-Koo Lee, Jae-Jin Kim
Despite the possible relationship between impaired self-referential processing and anhedonia, it has not yet been investigated. This study investigated an abnormality in brain activation associated with self-referential processing and its relationship with anhedonia in schizophrenia, specifically in self-related brain regions of interest. Twenty patients with schizophrenia and 25 controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while rating the degree of relevance between faces (self, familiar other, or unfamiliar other) and words (positive, negative, or neutral)...
August 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
C Wang, F Ji, Z Hong, J S Poh, R Krishnan, J Lee, G Rekhi, R S E Keefe, R A Adcock, S J Wood, A Fornito, O Pasternak, M W L Chee, J Zhou
BACKGROUND: Salience network (SN) dysconnectivity has been hypothesized to contribute to schizophrenia. Nevertheless, little is known about the functional and structural dysconnectivity of SN in subjects at risk for psychosis. We hypothesized that SN functional and structural connectivity would be disrupted in subjects with At-Risk Mental State (ARMS) and would be associated with symptom severity and disease progression. METHOD: We examined 87 ARMS and 37 healthy participants using both resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging...
October 2016: Psychological Medicine
Letícia Sanguinetti Czepielewski, Lei Wang, Clarissa S Gama, Deanna M Barch
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SZ) is often characterized by cognitive and intellectual impairment. However, there is much heterogeneity across individuals, suggesting different trajectories of the illness. Recent findings have shown brain volume differences across subgroups of individuals with psychosis (SZ and bipolar disorder), such that those with intellectual and cognitive impairments presented evidence of early cerebral disruption, while those with cognitive but not intellectual impairments showed evidence of progressive brain abnormalities...
July 1, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Ulysses S Torres, Fabio L S Duran, Maristela S Schaufelberger, José A S Crippa, Mario R Louzã, Paulo C Sallet, Caroline Y O Kanegusuku, Helio Elkis, Wagner F Gattaz, Débora P Bassitt, Antonio W Zuardi, Jaime Eduardo C Hallak, Claudia C Leite, Claudio C Castro, Antonio Carlos Santos, Robin M Murray, Geraldo F Busatto
BACKGROUND: Structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia have been repeatedly demonstrated in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, but it remains unclear whether these are static or progressive in nature. While longitudinal MRI studies have been traditionally used to assess the issue of progression of brain abnormalities in schizophrenia, information from cross-sectional neuroimaging studies directly comparing first-episode and chronic schizophrenia patients to healthy controls may also be useful to further clarify this issue...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Kristina Wiebels, Karen E Waldie, Reece P Roberts, Haeme R P Park
Neuroimaging research into the brain structure of schizophrenia patients has shown consistent reductions in grey matter volume relative to healthy controls. Examining structural differences in individuals with high levels of schizotypy may help elucidate the course of disorder progression, and provide further support for the schizotypy-schizophrenia continuum. Thus far, the few studies investigating grey matter differences in schizotypy have produced inconsistent results. In the current study, we used a multivariate partial least squares (PLS) approach to clarify the relationship between psychometric schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences) and grey matter volume in 49 healthy adults...
August 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Jan Lošák, Jitka Hüttlová, Petra Lipová, Radek Mareček, Martin Bareš, Pavel Filip, Jozef Žůbor, Libor Ustohal, Jiří Vaníček, Tomáš Kašpárek
Abnormalities in both time processing and dopamine (DA) neurotransmission have been observed in schizophrenia. Time processing seems to be linked to DA neurotransmission. The cognitive dysmetria hypothesis postulates that psychosis might be a manifestation of the loss of coordination of mental processes due to impaired timing. The objective of the present study was to analyze timing abilities and their corresponding functional neuroanatomy in schizophrenia. We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a predictive motor timing paradigm in 28 schizophrenia patients and 27 matched healthy controls (HC)...
May 17, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Raphael Underwood, Veena Kumari, Emmanuelle Peters
Cognitive models of psychosis propose that maladaptive appraisals of anomalous experiences contribute to distress and disability in psychosis. Attentional, attributional and reasoning biases are hypothesised to drive these threat-based appraisals. Experimental and self-report data have provided support for the presence of these biases in psychosis populations, but recently there have been calls for neurobiological data to be integrated into these findings. Currently, little investigation has been conducted into the neural correlates of maladaptive appraisals...
May 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Martin Krause, Martin Brüne, Carsten Theiss
Ultra-structural analysis of human post-mortem brain tissue is important for investigations into the pathomechanism of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially those lacking alternative models of studying human-specific morphological features. For example, Von Economo Neurons (VENs) mainly located in the anterior cingulate cortex and in the anterior part of the insula, which seem to play a role in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions, including frontotemporal dementia, autism and schizophrenia, can hardly be studied in nonhuman animals...
July 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
E Maggioni, M Bellani, A C Altamura, P Brambilla
Although schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) share elements of pathology (Ellison-Wright and Bullmore, 2009), the neural mechanisms underlying these disorders are still under investigation. Up until now, many neuroimaging studies investigated the brain structural differences of SCZ and BD compared with healthy controls (HC), trying to identify the possible neuroanatomical markers for the two disorders. However, just a few studies focused on the brain structural changes between the two diagnoses. The present review summarises the findings of the voxel-based grey matter (GM) comparisons between SCZ and BD, with the objective to highlight the possible consistent anatomical differences between the two disorders...
August 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Robert J Thoma, Charlotte Chaze, Jeffrey David Lewine, Vince D Calhoun, Vincent P Clark, Juan Bustillo, Jon Houck, Judith Ford, Rose Bigelow, Corbin Wilhelmi, Julia M Stephen, Jessica A Turner
Functional MRI studies have identified a distributed set of brain activations to be associated with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). However, very little is known about how activated brain regions may be linked together into AVH-generating networks. Fifteen volunteers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder pressed buttons to indicate onset and offset of AVH during fMRI scanning. When a general linear model was used to compare blood oxygenation level dependence signals during periods in which subjects indicated that they were versus were not experiencing AVH ("AVH-on" versus "AVH-off"), it revealed AVH-related activity in bilateral inferior frontal and superior temporal regions; the right middle temporal gyrus; and the left insula, supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and extranuclear white matter...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jacob Penner, Kristen A Ford, Reggie Taylor, Betsy Schaefer, Jean Théberge, Richard W J Neufeld, Elizabeth A Osuch, Ravi S Menon, Nagalingam Rajakumar, John M Allman, Peter C Williamson
Anomalies in the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior insulae, and large-scale brain networks associated with them have been proposed to underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD). In this study, we examined the connectivity of the medial prefrontal cortices and anterior insulae in 24 healthy controls, 24 patients with schizophrenia, and 24 patients with MDD early in illness with seed-based resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis using Statistical Probability Mapping...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
K N Jørgensen, S Nerland, L B Norbom, N T Doan, R Nesvåg, L Mørch-Johnsen, U K Haukvik, I Melle, O A Andreassen, L T Westlye, I Agartz
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share genetic risk factors and one possible illness mechanism is abnormal myelination. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tissue intensities are sensitive to myelin content. Therefore, the contrast between grey- and white-matter intensities may reflect myelination along the cortical surface. METHOD: MRI images were obtained from patients with schizophrenia (n = 214), bipolar disorder (n = 185), and healthy controls (n = 278) and processed in FreeSurfer...
July 2016: Psychological Medicine
Katharina Stegmayer, Stephan Bohlhalter, Tim Vanbellingen, Andrea Federspiel, Jeanne Moor, Roland Wiest, René Müri, Werner Strik, Sebastian Walther
INTRODUCTION: The neural correlates of impaired performance of gestures are currently unclear. Lesion studies showed variable involvement of the ventro-dorsal stream particularly left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in gesture performance on command. However, findings cannot be easily generalized as lesions may be biased by the architecture of vascular supply and involve brain areas beyond the critical region. The neuropsychiatric syndrome of schizophrenia shares apraxic-like errors and altered brain structure without macroanatomic lesions...
May 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Henning Peters, Valentin Riedl, Andrei Manoliu, Martin Scherr, Dirk Schwerthöffer, Claus Zimmer, Hans Förstl, Josef Bäuml, Christian Sorg, Kathrin Koch
BACKGROUND: In patients with schizophrenia in a psychotic episode, intra-striatal intrinsic connectivity is increased in the putamen but not ventral striatum. Furthermore, multimodal changes have been observed in the anterior insula that interact extensively with the putamen. AIMS: We hypothesised that during psychosis, putamen extra-striatal functional connectivity is altered with both the anterior insula and areas normally connected with the ventral striatum (i...
February 18, 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
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