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"Personality" and "physical activity"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444266/fundamentals-of-glycogen-metabolism-for-coaches-and-athletes
#1
Bob Murray, Christine Rosenbloom
The ability of athletes to train day after day depends in large part on adequate restoration of muscle glycogen stores, a process that requires the consumption of sufficient dietary carbohydrates and ample time. Providing effective guidance to athletes and others wishing to enhance training adaptations and improve performance requires an understanding of the normal variations in muscle glycogen content in response to training and diet; the time required for adequate restoration of glycogen stores; the influence of the amount, type, and timing of carbohydrate intake on glycogen resynthesis; and the impact of other nutrients on glycogenesis...
February 10, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444133/a-long-term-mechanistic-computational-model-of-physiological-factors-driving-the-onset-of-type-2-diabetes-in-an-individual
#2
Joydeep Sarkar, Gaurav Dwivedi, Qian Chen, Iris E Sheu, Mark Paich, Colleen M Chelini, Paul M D'Alessandro, Samuel P Burns
A computational model of the physiological mechanisms driving an individual's health towards onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is described, calibrated and validated using data from the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). The objective of this model is to quantify the factors that can be used for prevention of T2D. The model is energy and mass balanced and continuously simulates trajectories of variables including body weight components, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin among others on the time-scale of years...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443103/paradigms-of-lower-extremity-electrical-stimulation-training-after-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Ashraf S Gorgey, Refka E Khalil, Robert M Lester, Gary A Dudley, David R Gater
Skeletal muscle atrophy, increased adiposity and reduced physical activity are key changes observed after spinal cord injury (SCI) and are associated with numerous cardiometabolic health consequences. These changes are likely to increase the risk of developing chronic secondary conditions and impact the quality of life in persons with SCI. Surface neuromuscular electrical stimulation evoked resistance training (NMES-RT) was developed as a strategy to attenuate the process of skeletal muscle atrophy, decrease ectopic adiposity, improve insulin sensitivity and enhance mitochondrial capacity...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439193/cardiovascular-health-among-the-czech-population-at-the-beginning-of-the-21st-century-a-12-year-follow-up-study
#4
Michala Lustigova, Dagmar Dzurova, Hynek Pikhart, Ruzena Kubinova, Martin Bobak
BACKGROUND: In the late 1980s, Czechia was among the countries which had the highest cardiovascular mortality in the world. In spite of enormous improvements since that time, there are still large opportunities in further improving cardiovascular health. METHODS: Based on the Czech Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe sample (n=8449 at baseline, 12 years of follow-up, 494 cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths up to 2015-events), the impact of selected covariates such as education, smoking habits, high blood pressure, blood cholesterol level, diabetes, obesity, physical activity and binge drinking and their multifactorial effects on cardiovascular mortality was evaluated by Cox regression...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432578/physical-activity-and-masculinity-in-rural-men-a-qualitative-study-of-men-recruited-from-churches
#5
Leslie R Carnahan, Kristine Zimmermann, Manorama M Khare, Ellen Paulsey, Yamile Molina, JoEllen Wilbur, Stacie E Geller
The majority of rural US men fail to meet physical activity (PA) guidelines and are at risk for chronic diseases. This study sought to understand rural men's perceptions about PA and PA engagement and the influence of masculinity and social norms. From 2011 to 2014, 12 focus groups were conducted with men prior to a church-based health promotion intervention. Men were recruited from Illinois' rural, southernmost seven counties, where 40% of men report no exercise in the past 30 days. We used inductive content analysis methods to identify PA-related themes, and subsequently used elements of the Health, Illness, Men, and Masculinities framework as a lens to explore subthemes...
February 8, 2018: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431513/safety-and-feasibility-of-the-omnipod-hybrid-closed-loop-system-in-adult-adolescent-and-pediatric-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-using-a-personalized-model-predictive-control-algorithm
#6
Bruce A Buckingham, Gregory P Forlenza, Jordan E Pinsker, Mark P Christiansen, R Paul Wadwa, Jennifer Schneider, Thomas A Peyser, Eyal Dassau, Joon Bok Lee, Jason O'Connor, Jennifer E Layne, Trang T Ly
BACKGROUND: The safety and feasibility of the OmniPod personalized model predictive control (MPC) algorithm in adult, adolescent, and pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes were investigated. METHODS: This multicenter, observational trial included a 1-week outpatient sensor-augmented pump open-loop phase and a 36-h inpatient hybrid closed-loop (HCL) phase with announced meals ranging from 30 to 90 g of carbohydrates and limited physical activity. Patients aged 6-65 years with HbA1c between 6...
February 12, 2018: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429607/using-behavioral-analytics-to-increase-exercise-a-randomized-n-of-1-study
#7
Sunmoo Yoon, Joseph E Schwartz, Matthew M Burg, Ian M Kronish, Carmela Alcantara, Jacob Julian, Faith Parsons, Karina W Davidson, Keith M Diaz
INTRODUCTION: This intervention study used mobile technologies to investigate whether those randomized to receive a personalized "activity fingerprint" (i.e., a one-time tailored message about personal predictors of exercise developed from 6 months of observational data) increased their physical activity levels relative to those not receiving the fingerprint. STUDY DESIGN: A 12-month randomized intervention study. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: From 2014 to 2015, 79 intermittent exercisers had their daily physical activity assessed by accelerometry (Fitbit Flex) and daily stress experience, a potential predictor of exercise behavior, was assessed by smartphone...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428345/self-regulatory-strategies-as-correlates-of-physical-activity-behavior-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Katie L Cederberg, Julia M Balto, Robert W Motl
OBJECTIVE: To examine self-regulation strategies as correlates of physical activity in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). DESIGN: Cross-sectional, or survey, study. SETTING: University-based research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of 68 persons with MS. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (EXSE), Physical Activity Self-Regulation Scale (PASR-12), and Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ)...
February 8, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427128/community-health-advisors-participation-in-a-dissemination-and-implementation-study-of-an-evidence-based-physical-activity-and-healthy-eating-program-in-a-faith-based-setting
#9
Patricia A Sharpe, Sara Wilcox, Deborah Kinnard, Margaret D Condrasky
Community health advisors (CHAs) have been widely involved in health promotion, but few details on role expectations, retention, and evaluation have been reported. In a dissemination and implementation (D&I) study of an evidence-based healthy eating and physical activity program, 59 churches were randomized to an intervention (n = 39) or control (delayed intervention) (n = 20) condition. In a novel approach, CHAs worked with church committees rather than congregants by providing training (n = 59) and technical assistance (n = 54) to the committees to implement a program focused on structural and policy-level changes to support congregants' behavioral changes...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426814/exploring-the-specific-needs-of-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis-for-mhealth-solutions-for-physical-activity-mixed-methods-study
#10
Guido Giunti, Jan Kool, Octavio Rivera Romero, Enrique Dorronzoro Zubiete
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the world's most common neurologic disorders, with symptoms such as fatigue, cognitive problems, and issues with mobility. Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) helps people with MS reduce fatigue and improve quality of life. The use of mobile technologies for health has grown in recent years with little involvement from relevant stakeholders. User-centered design (UCD) is a design philosophy with the goal of creating solutions specific to the needs and tasks of the intended users...
February 9, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426324/role-of-parental-and-environmental-characteristics-in-toddlers-physical-activity-and-screen-time-bayesian-analysis-of-structural-equation-models
#11
Eun-Young Lee, Kylie D Hesketh, Ryan E Rhodes, Christina M Rinaldi, John C Spence, Valerie Carson
BACKGROUND: Guided by the Socialization Model of Child Behavior (SMCB), this cross-sectional study examined direct and indirect associations of parental cognitions and behavior, the home and neighborhood environment, and toddlers' personal attributes with toddlers' physical activity and screen time. METHODS: Participants included 193 toddlers (1.6 ± 0.2 years) from the Parents' Role in Establishing healthy Physical activity and Sedentary behavior habits (PREPS) project...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426310/barriers-to-voluntary-participation-in-sport-for-children-a-systematic-review
#12
Sarah Somerset, Derek J Hoare
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have detailed the physical health benefits of children's participation in sport and a growing body of research also highlights the benefits for mental health. Children who participate in sport have also been shown to be advantaged academically. However, despite the benefits there is evidence that children are leading increasingly sedentary lifestyles and are at greater risk of chronic disease than those with active lifestyles. Sport provides an important means for children to achieve their recommended amount of daily physical activity...
February 9, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421967/effects-of-psychological-inoculation-versus-health-education-on-physical-activity-two-randomized-controlled-studies
#13
Hannah Dorling, Jieg Blervacq, Yori Gidron
BACKGROUND: Effects of health education (HE) on physical activity (PA) are limited. Also, HE fails to address people's personal barriers and social pressures. In contrast, "psychological inoculation" (PI) targets both topics. This research examined the effects of PI versus HE on PA-related barriers and on self-reported PA in 2 studies. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials were employed. Study 1 (N = 20) took place in Britain, while study 2 (N = 40) in Belgium, with nonphysically active participants...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421606/longitudinal-associations-between-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-physical-activity-knee-pain-and-dysfunction-and-physiological-falls-risk-in-community-dwelling-older-adults
#14
Saliu Balogun, Tania Winzenberg, Karen Wills, David Scott, Graeme Jones, Michele Callisaya, Dawn Aitken
AIMS: To describe the longitudinal associations between physiological falls risk, and between-person and within-person effects of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), physical activity (PA), knee pain and dysfunction in community-dwelling older people. METHODS: Data for 1053 participants (51% women; mean age 63 ± 7.4 years) studied at baseline, 2.5, 5, and 10 years were analysed. Falls risk (Z-score) was measured using the Physiological Profile Assessment. Knee pain and dysfunction were assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index (WOMAC)...
February 5, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420153/individualized-estimation-of-human-core-body-temperature-using-non-invasive-measurements
#15
Srinivas Laxminarayan, Vineet Rakesh, Tatsuya Oyama, Josh B Kazman, Ran Yanovich, Itay Ketko, Yoram Epstein, Shawnda A Morrison, Jaques Reifman
A rising core body temperature (Tc) during strenuous physical activity is a leading indicator of heat-injury risk. Hence, a system that can estimate Tc in real time and provide early warning of an impending temperature rise may enable proactive interventions to reduce the risk of heat injuries. However, real-time field assessment of Tc requires impractical invasive technologies. To address this problem, we developed a mathematical model that describes the relationships between Tc and non-invasive measurements of an individual's physical activity, heart rate, and skin temperature, and two environmental variables (ambient temperature and relative humidity)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416378/replacing-sedentary-time-with-physical-activity-a-15-year-follow-up-of-mortality-in-a-national-cohort
#16
Ing-Mari Dohrn, Lydia Kwak, Pekka Oja, Michael Sjöström, Maria Hagströmer
Background: Sedentary behavior is associated with health risks in adults. The potential benefits of reducing sedentary time may be dependent not only on decrease per se, but also on the type of activity it replaces. Few longitudinal studies have investigated the effects on mortality when replacing objectively assessed sedentary time with another physical activity (PA) behavior. Objective: To investigate the effects of replacing objectively assessed sedentary time with time in light-intensity PA or moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality or cancer mortality in a cohort with 15 years follow-up time...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415276/apathy-is-associated-with-greater-decline-in-subjective-but-not-in-objective-measures-of-physical-functioning-in-older-people-without-dementia
#17
Marieke Jantien Henstra, Thomas Christiaan Feenstra, Nathalie van der Velde, Roos C van der Mast, Hannie Comijs, Max L Stek, Didi Rhebergen
Background: In older people, both apathy and depression (which frequently co-occurs with apathy) have been associated with poor physical functioning, a major health concern. We investigated the association between apathy and physical functioning in older people without dementia and whether this association is modified by depression. Methods: We used the data from 380 older participants (with and without depression) taking part in the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons, with baseline scores on the Apathy Scale and baseline and 2-year follow-up scores on at least one measure of physical functioning...
February 3, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414293/physical-activity-and-disability-outcomes-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review-2011-2016
#18
REVIEW
Shannon Charron, Kyla A McKay, Helen Tremlett
BACKGROUND: Physical activity may be neuroprotective in multiple sclerosis (MS). One review (2011) of exercise and MS disability was inconclusive, but highlighted the need for more studies. OBJECTIVE: To perform an updated systematic literature review examining the relationship between physical activity and physical ability outcomes in persons with MS. METHODS: EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched for original interventional studies (2011-2016) evaluating exercise on quantitative outcomes of physical disability in MS...
February 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410593/cross-cultural-adaptation-and-construct-validity-of-the-korean-version-of-a-physical-activity-measure-for-community-dwelling-elderly
#19
Bongsam Choi
[Purpose] This study aimed to cross-cultural adapt and validate the Korean version of an physical activity measure (K-PAM) for community-dwelling elderly. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred and thirty eight community-dwelling elderlies, 32 males and 106 female, participated in the study. All participants were asked to fill out a fifty-one item questionnaire measuring perceived difficulty in the activities of daily living (ADL) for the elderly. One-parameter model of item response theory (Rasch analysis) was applied to determine the construct validity and to inspect item-level psychometric properties of 51 ADL items of the K-PAM...
January 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409750/modeling-individual-differences-a-case-study-of-the-application-of-system-identification-for-personalizing-a-physical-activity-intervention
#20
Sayali S Phatak, Mohammad T Freigoun, César A Martín, Daniel E Rivera, Elizabeth V Korinek, Marc A Adams, Matthew P Buman, Predrag Klasnja, Eric B Hekler
BACKGROUND: Control systems engineering methods, particularly, system identification (system ID), offer an idiographic (i.e., person-specific) approach to develop dynamic models of physical activity (PA) that can be used to personalize interventions in a systematic, scalable way. The purpose of this work is to: 1) apply system ID to develop individual dynamical models of PA (steps/day measured using Fitbit Zip) in the context of a goal setting and positive reinforcement intervention informed by Social Cognitive Theory; and 2) compare insights on potential tailoring variables (i...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
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