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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728145/extracellular-dna-contributes-to-dental-biofilm-stability
#1
Sebastian Schlafer, Rikke L Meyer, Irene Dige, Viduthalai R Regina
Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is a major matrix component of many bacterial biofilms. While the presence of eDNA and its role in biofilm stability have been demonstrated for several laboratory biofilms of oral bacteria, there is no data available on the presence and function of eDNA in in vivo grown dental biofilms. This study aimed to determine whether eDNA was part of the matrix in biofilms grown in situ in the absence of sucrose and whether treatment with DNase dispersed biofilms grown for 2.5, 5, 7.5, 16.5, or 24 h...
July 21, 2017: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726635/as-cath1-6-novel-cathelicidins-with-potent-antimicrobial-and-immunomodulatory-properties-from-alligator-sinensis-play-pivotal-roles-in-host-anti-microbial-immune-responses
#2
Yan Chen, Shasha Cai, Xue Qiao, Mali Wu, Zhilai Guo, Renping Wang, Yi-Qun Kuang, Haining Yu, Yipeng Wang
Crocodilians are regarded as possessing a powerful immune system. However, the composition and action of crocodilian immune system has remained unclear until now. Cathelicidins, the principal family of host defense peptides, play pivotal roles in vertebrate immune defense against microbial invasions. However, cathelicidins from crocodilians have not been extensively studied to date. In the present study, six novel cathelicidins (As-CATH1~6) were identified and characterized from the endangered Chinese Alligator ( Alligator sinensis )...
July 18, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726375/nanoscale-hydrodynamic-film-for-diffusive-mass-transport-control-in-compartmentalized-microfluidic-chambers
#3
Minseok Kim, Ji Won Lim, Sung Kuk Lee, Taesung Kim
A compartmentalized microfluidic chamber array that not only offers separate cell culture environments but also independent control of the diffusion of small molecules provides an extremely useful platform for cell cultivations and versatile cellular assays. However, it is challenging to incorporate both cell compartmentalization and active diffusion control in real-time and precise manners. Here, we present a novel nanoscale hydrodynamic film (NHF) that is formed between a solid substrate and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface...
July 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725336/high-quality-draft-genome-sequence-of-a-biofilm-forming-lignocellulolytic-aspergillus-niger-strain-atcc-10864
#4
Sujay Paul, Yvette Ludeña, Gretty K Villena, Fengan Yu, David H Sherman, Marcel Gutiérrez-Correa
Filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger has high industrial value due to their lignocellulolytic enzyme activities and ATCC 10864 is one of the few type strains of A. niger which has a unique biofilm forming capability. Here we report the first draft genome sequence of A. niger ATCC 10864 strain. The genome of A. niger ATCC 10864 is 36,172,237 bp long and comprise of 310 scaffolds with 49.5% average GC content. A total of 10,804 protein-coding genes were predicted among which 10,761 genes were with putative functions...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725299/role-of-streptococcus-mutans-two-component-systems-in-antimicrobial-peptide-resistance-in-the-oral-cavity
#5
REVIEW
Miki Kawada-Matsuo, Hitoshi Komatsuzawa
Approximately 100 trillion microorganisms exist in the oral cavity. For the commensal bacteria of the oral cavity, it is important to adapt to environmental stimuli, including human- or bacteria-derived antimicrobial agents. Recently, bacterial-specific signal transduction regulatory systems, called two-component systems (TCSs), which appear to be focused on sensing and adapting to the environment, were discovered. Streptococcus mutans is an oral commensal bacteria and is also known as a cariogenic bacteria...
August 2017: Japanese Dental Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725026/microbiome-analysis-and-confocal-microscopy-of-used-kitchen-sponges-reveal-massive-colonization-by-acinetobacter-moraxella-and-chryseobacterium-species
#6
Massimiliano Cardinale, Dominik Kaiser, Tillmann Lueders, Sylvia Schnell, Markus Egert
The built environment (BE) and in particular kitchen environments harbor a remarkable microbial diversity, including pathogens. We analyzed the bacterial microbiome of used kitchen sponges by 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes and fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy (FISH-CLSM). Pyrosequencing showed a relative dominance of Gammaproteobacteria within the sponge microbiota. Five of the ten most abundant OTUs were closely related to risk group 2 (RG2) species, previously detected in the BE and kitchen microbiome...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724953/antimicrobial-efficacy-and-synergy-of-metal-ions-against-enterococcus-faecium-klebsiella-pneumoniae-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-planktonic-and-biofilm-phenotypes
#7
Misha Y Vaidya, Andrew J McBain, Jonathan A Butler, Craig E Banks, Kathryn A Whitehead
The effects of metal ion solutions (silver, copper, platinum, gold and palladium) were determined individually and in combination against Enterococcus faecium, Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Platinum, gold and palladium showed the greatest antimicrobial efficacy in zone of inhibition (ZoI) assays. When tested in combinations using ZoI assays, gold/platinum, gold/palladium and platinum/palladium were indicative of synergy. Microbial inhibitory concentration demonstrated platinum and gold against Enterococcus faecium, platinum against Klebsiella pneumoniae and platinum and silver against Acinetobacter baumannii were optimal...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724921/saliva-and-tooth-biofilm-bacterial-microbiota-in-adolescents-in-a-low-caries-community
#8
Linda Eriksson, Pernilla Lif Holgerson, Ingegerd Johansson
The oral cavity harbours a complex microbiome that is linked to dental diseases and serves as a route to other parts of the body. Here, the aims were to characterize the oral microbiota by deep sequencing in a low-caries population with regular dental care since childhood and search for association with caries prevalence and incidence. Saliva and tooth biofilm from 17-year-olds and mock bacteria communities were analysed using 16S rDNA Illumina MiSeq (v3-v4) and PacBio SMRT (v1-v8) sequencing including validity and reliability estimates...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724376/sonication-contribution-to-identifying-prosthetic-joint-infection-with-ralstonia-pickettii-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Rares Mircea Birlutiu, Mihai Dan Roman, Razvan Silviu Cismasiu, Sorin Radu Fleaca, Crina Maria Popa, Manuela Mihalache, Victoria Birlutiu
BACKGROUND: In the context of an increase number of primary and revision total hip and total knee arthroplasty performed yearly, an increased risk of complication is expected. Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains the most common and feared arthroplasty complication. Ralstonia pickettii is a Gram-negative bacterium, that has also been identified in biofilms. It remains an extremely rare cause of PJI. There is no report of an identification of R. pickettii on an extracted spacer loaded with antibiotic...
July 19, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723971/termination-factor-rho-from-the-control-of-pervasive-transcription-to-cell-fate-determination-in-bacillus-subtilis
#10
Vladimir Bidnenko, Pierre Nicolas, Aleksandra Grylak-Mielnicka, Olivier Delumeau, Sandrine Auger, Anne Aucouturier, Cyprien Guerin, Repoila Francis, Jacek Bardowski, Stéphane Aymerich, Elena Bidnenko
In eukaryotes, RNA species originating from pervasive transcription are regulators of various cellular processes, from the expression of individual genes to the control of cellular development and oncogenesis. In prokaryotes, the function of pervasive transcription and its output on cell physiology is still unknown. Most bacteria possess termination factor Rho, which represses pervasive, mostly antisense, transcription. Here, we investigate the biological significance of Rho-controlled transcription in the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis...
July 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723923/on-the-mechanism-of-candida-tropicalis-biofilm-reduction-by-the-combined-action-of-naturally-occurring-anthraquinones-and-blue-light
#11
Juliana Marioni, Roger Bresolí-Obach, Montserrat Agut, Laura R Comini, José L Cabrera, María G Paraje, Santi Nonell, Susana C Núñez Montoya
The photoprocesses involved in the photo-induced Candida tropicalis biofilm reduction by two natural anthraquinones (AQs), rubiadin (1) and rubiadin-1-methyl ether (2), were examined. Production of singlet oxygen (1O2) and of superoxide radical anion (O2•-) was studied. Although it was not possible to detect the triplet state absorption of any AQs in biofilms, observation of 1O2 phosphorescence incubated with deuterated Phosphate Buffer Solution, indicated that this species is actually formed in biofilms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722830/ralfuranones-contribute-to-mushroom-type-biofilm-formation-by-ralstonia-solanacearum-strain-oe1-1
#12
Yuka Mori, Yuki Hosoi, Shiho Ishikawa, Kazusa Hayashi, Yu Asai, Hideyuki Ohnishi, Mika Shimatani, Kanako Inoue, Kenichi Ikeda, Hitoshi Nakayashiki, Yasuyo Nishimura, Kouhei Ohnishi, Akinori Kiba, Kenji Kai, Yasufumi Hikichi
After invasion into intercellular spaces of tomato plants, the soil-borne plant pathogenic Ralstonia solanacearum strain OE1-1 forms mushroom-shaped biofilms (mushroom-type biofilms, mBFs) on tomato cells, leading to its virulence. The strain OE1-1 produces aryl-furanone secondary metabolites, ralfuranones (A, B, J, K and L), dependent on the quorum sensing (QS) system with methyl 3-hydroxymyristate (3-OH MAME) synthesized by PhcB as a QS signal. Ralfuranones are associated with the feedback loop of the QS system...
July 19, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721848/evaluation-of-biofilm-specific-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-in-farabi-hospital
#13
Mahmood Saffari, Shabnam Karami, Farzaneh Firoozeh, Mojtaba Sehat
BACKGROUND: Biofilm produced from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the cause of infection induced by contact lenses, trauma and post-surgery infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate biofilm formation and the presence of the genes ndvB and tssC1 in ocular infection isolates of P. aeruginosa. METHODS: A total of 92 P. aeruginosa strains were collected from patients with ocular infection referred to Farabi Hospital between March 2014 and July 2015. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns were evaluated by the agar disc-diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721620/methane-biofiltration-in-the-presence-of-ethanol-vapor-under-steady-and-transient-state-conditions-an-experimental-study
#14
Milad Ferdowsi, Antonio Avalos Ramirez, Joseph Peter Jones, Michèle Heitz
Methane (CH4) removal in the presence of ethanol vapors was performed by a stone-based bed and a hybrid packing biofilter in parallel. In the absence of ethanol, a methane removal efficiency of 55 ± 1% was obtained for both biofilters under similar CH4 inlet load (IL) of 13 ± 0.5 gCH4 m(-3) h(-1) and an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 6 min. The results proved the key role of the bottom section in both biofilters for simultaneous removal of CH4 and ethanol. Ethanol vapor was completely eliminated in the bottom sections for an ethanol IL variation between 1 and 11 gethanol m(-3) h(-1)...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721617/effect-of-membrane-property-and-feed-water-organic-matter-quality-on-long-term-performance-of-the-gravity-driven-membrane-filtration-process
#15
Dongwhi Lee, Yuri Lee, Shin Sik Choi, Sang-Ho Lee, Kyoung-Woong Kim, Yunho Lee
This study investigated the influence of membrane property and feed water organic matter quality on the permeate flux and water quality during gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration. GDM filtration was continuously carried out over 500 days at hydrostatic pressure of 65 mbar in dead-end mode without any back-flushing or membrane cleaning. Three ultrafiltration (UF) membranes (PES-100 kDa, PVDF-120 kDa, and PVDF-100 kDa) and one microfiltration (MF) membrane (PTFE-0.3 μm) were tested for treating lake water with varied organic matter qualities due to algal growth...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721044/stimulated-phase-shift-acoustic-nanodroplets-enhance-vancomycin-efficacy-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilms
#16
Hao Guo, Ziming Wang, Quanyin Du, Pan Li, Zhigang Wang, Aimin Wang
PURPOSE: Bacterial biofilms on the surface of prostheses are becoming a rising concern in managing prosthetic joint infections. The inherent resistant features of biofilms render traditional antimicrobial therapy unproductive and revision surgery outcomes uncertain. This situation has prompted the exploration of novel antimicrobial strategies. The synergy of ultrasound microbubbles and vancomycin has been proposed as an efficient alternative for biofilm eradication. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm effect of stimulated phase-shift acoustic nanodroplets (NDs) combined with vancomycin...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721040/effect-of-ultraviolet-treatment-on-bacterial-attachment-and-osteogenic-activity-to-alkali-treated-titanium-with-nanonetwork-structures
#17
Honghao Zhang, Satoshi Komasa, Chiho Mashimo, Tohru Sekino, Joji Okazaki
PURPOSE: Alkali-treated titanium with nanonetwork structures (TNS) possesses good osteogenic activity; however, the resistance of this material to bacterial contamination remains inadequate. As such, TNS implants are prone to postoperative infection. In this work, we attempted to alter the biological properties of TNS by treatment with short-duration high-intensity ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. METHODS: TNS discs were treated with UV light (wavelength =254 nm, strength =100 mW/cm(2)) for 15 minutes using a UV-irradiation machine...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720975/active-starch-biopolymeric-packaging-film-for-sausages-embedded-with-essential-oil-of-syzygium-aromaticum
#18
Mariane L Ugalde, Aline M de Cezaro, Felipe Vedovatto, Natalia Paroul, Juliana Steffens, Eunice Valduga, Geciane T Backes, Elton Franceschi, Rogério L Cansian
Starch polymer matrices were developed with the incorporation of 1% clove essential oil (EO) (Syzygium aromaticum) aiming for use as active packaging for sausages. At the concentration of 1% EO in the polymer matrix, it showed exponential behavior with respect to oil release over 30 days, with faster release in the beginning and a tendency towards a reduction in release velocity over time. The presence of OE in the biofilm led to significant differences versus the control in terms of aroma and flavor parameters...
June 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720810/biofilm-formation-in-enterococci-genotype-phenotype-correlations-and-inhibition-by-vancomycin
#19
Yomna A Hashem, Heba M Amin, Tamer M Essam, Aymen S Yassin, Ramy K Aziz
Enterococci are nosocomial pathogens that can form biofilms, which contribute to their virulence and antibiotic resistance. Although many genes involved in biofilm formation have been defined, their distribution among enterococci has not been comprehensively studied on a genome scale, and their diagnostic ability to predict biofilm phenotypes is not fully established. Here, we assessed the biofilm-forming ability of 90 enterococcal clinical isolates. Major patterns of virulence gene distribution in enterococcal genomes were identified, and the differentiating virulence genes were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 31 of the clinical isolates...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720732/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-alters-staphylococcus-aureus-sensitivity-to-vancomycin-in-a-biofilm-model-of-cystic-fibrosis-infection
#20
Giulia Orazi, George A O'Toole
The airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have thick mucus, which fosters chronic, polymicrobial infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are two of the most prevalent respiratory pathogens in CF patients. In this study, we tested whether P. aeruginosa influences the susceptibility of S. aureus to frontline antibiotics used to treat CF lung infections. Using our in vitro coculture model, we observed that addition of P. aeruginosa supernatants to S. aureus biofilms grown either on epithelial cells or on plastic significantly decreased the susceptibility of S...
July 18, 2017: MBio
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