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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335448/a-community-multi-omics-approach-towards-the-assessment-of-surface-water-quality-in-an-urban-river-system
#1
David J Beale, Avinash V Karpe, Warish Ahmed, Stephen Cook, Paul D Morrison, Christopher Staley, Michael J Sadowsky, Enzo A Palombo
A multi-omics approach was applied to an urban river system (the Brisbane River (BR), Queensland, Australia) in order to investigate surface water quality and characterize the bacterial population with respect to water contaminants. To do this, bacterial metagenomic amplicon-sequencing using Illumina next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the V5-V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and untargeted community metabolomics using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were utilized. The multi-omics data, in combination with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) counts, trace metal concentrations (by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)) and in-situ water quality measurements collected from various locations along the BR were then used to assess the health of the river ecosystem...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335307/zinc-oxide-nanorods-decorated-graphene-nanoplatelets-a-promising-antimicrobial-agent-against-the-cariogenic-bacterium-streptococcus-mutans
#2
Elena Zanni, Chandrakanth Reddy Chandraiahgari, Giovanni De Bellis, Maria Rita Montereali, Giovanna Armiento, Paolo Ballirano, Antonella Polimeni, Maria Sabrina Sarto, Daniela Uccelletti
Nanomaterials are revolutionizing the field of medicine to improve the quality of life due to the myriad of applications stemming from their unique properties, including the antimicrobial activity against pathogens. In this study, the antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties of a novel nanomaterial composed by zinc oxide nanorods-decorated graphene nanoplatelets (ZNGs) are investigated. ZNGs were produced by hydrothermal method and characterized through field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques...
September 29, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335189/synergistic-antibacterial-effects-of-nanoparticles-encapsulated-with-scutellaria-baicalensis-and-pure-chlorhexidine-on-oral-bacterial-biofilms
#3
Ken Cham-Fai Leung, Chaminda Jayampath Seneviratne, Xuan Li, Ping Chung Leung, Clara Bik San Lau, Chi-Hin Wong, Ka Yan Pang, Chun Wai Wong, Elaine Wat, Lijian Jin
Scutellariabaicalensis (SB) is a traditional Chinese medicine for treating infectious and inflammatory diseases. Our recent study shows potent antibacterial effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated chlorhexidine (Nano-CHX). Herein, we explored the synergistic effects of the nanoparticle-encapsulated SB (Nano-SB) and Nano-CHX on oral bacterial biofilms. Loading efficiency of Nano-SB was determined by thermogravimetric analysis, and its releasing profile was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatographyusing baicalin (a flavonoid compound of SB) as the marker...
April 7, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334551/using-micro-patterned-surfaces-to-inhibit-settlement-and-biofilm-formation-by-bacillus-subtilis
#4
Siyuan Chang, Xiaodong Chen, Shuo Jiang, Jinchun Chen, Lin Shi
Biofilm is a biological complex caused by bacteria settlement to the substrates, their subsequent reproduction and secretion. This phenomena reduce heat transfer efficiency and cause significant losses in treated sewage heat recovering systems. This paper describes a physical approach to inhibit the bacteria settlement and biofilm formation by Bacillus subtilis, which is the dominant genera in the treated sewage. Here, the micro-patterned surfaces with different characteristics (stripe and cube) and dimensions (1 μm to 100 μm) were fabricated as surfaces of interest...
March 23, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334216/deletion-of-mazf-increases-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-formation-in-an-ica-dependent-manner
#5
Fuminori Kato, Yusuke Yabuno, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi, Motoyuki Sugai, Masayori Inouye
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are composed of a toxin that inhibits an essential cellular process (e.g., DNA replication, transcription, membrane integrity) and its cognate antitoxin that neutralizes the effect of the toxin. Staphylococcus aureus harbors two types of chromosomally encoded TA systems, namely mazEFsa encoding a UACAU-specific mRNA interferase and two paralogous genes of yefM-yoeBsa encoding a ribosome-dependent endoribonuclease system. However, little is known about the physiological role of MazEFsa and YefM-YoeBsa in S...
March 8, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334141/distribution-of-antimicrobial-resistance-determinants-virulence-associated-factors-and-crispr-loci-in-isolates-of-enterococcus-faecalis-from-various-settings-and-genetic-lineages
#6
Iwona Gawryszewska, Katarzyna Malinowska, Alicja Kuch, Dorota Chrobak-Chmiel, Lucja Laniewska-Trokenheim, Waleria Hryniewicz, Ewa Sadowy
Enterococcus faecalis represents an important factor of hospital-associated infections (HAIs). The knowledge on its evolution from a commensal to an opportunistic pathogen is still limited, thus we performed a study to characterize distribution of factors that may contribute to this adaptation. Using a collection obtained from various settings (hospitalized patients, community carriers, animals, fresh food, sewage, water) we investigated differences in antimicrobial susceptibility, distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes, virulence-associated determinants and phenotypes, and CRISPR loci in the context of the clonal relatedness of isolates...
March 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334109/comparison-of-biofilm-ecology-supporting-growth-of-individual-naegleria-species-in-a-drinking-water-distribution-system
#7
Geoffrey J Puzon, Jason T Wylie, Tom Walsh, Kalan Braun, Matthew J Morgan
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are common components of microbial communities in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS). FLA are of clinical importance both as pathogens and as reservoirs for bacterial pathogens, so identifying the conditions promoting amoebae colonisation of DWDSs is an important public health concern for water utilities. We used high-throughput amplicon sequencing to compare eukaryotic and bacterial communities associated with DWDS biofilms supporting distinct FLA species (N. fowleri, N. lovaniensis or Vermamoeba sp...
February 21, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334102/predation-by-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-significantly-reduces-viability-and-alters-the-microbial-community-composition-of-activated-sludge-flocs-and-granules
#8
Shugeng Feng, Chuan Hao Tan, Florentin Constancias, Gurjeet S Kohli, Yehuda Cohen, Scott A Rice
We recently isolated and characterized a predatory Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus strain from activated sludge (Ulu Pandan Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore), and this strain, B. bacteriovorus UP was able to prey upon a broad spectrum of bacterial isolates from the activated sludge when grown as planktonic cells or as biofilms. Here, we have tested the effect of Bdellovibrio predation on floccular and granular sludge to determine if the spatial organization, loosely or tightly aggregated communities, was protective from predation...
February 21, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334028/providencia-stuartii-form-biofilms-and-floating-communities-of-cells-that-display-high-resistance-to-environmental-insults
#9
Mariam El Khatib, Que-Tien Tran, Chady Nasrallah, Julie Lopes, Jean-Michel Bolla, Michel Vivaudou, Jean-Marie Pagès, Jacques-Philippe Colletier
Biofilms are organized communities of bacterial cells that are responsible for the majority of human chronic bacterial infections. Providencia stuartii is a Gram-negative biofilm-forming bacterium involved in high incidence of urinary tract infections in catheterized patients. Yet, the structuration of these biofilms, and their resistance to environmental insults remain poorly understood. Here, we report on planktonic cell growth and biofilm formation by P. stuartii, in conditions that mimic its most common pathophysiological habitat in humans, i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333393/laser-generated-shockwaves-enhance-antibacterial-activity-against-biofilms-in-vitro
#10
William Yao, Edward C Kuan, Nathan C Francis, Maie A St John, Warren S Grundfest, Zachary D Taylor
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bacterial biofilm formation within chronic wound beds, which provides an effective barrier against antibiotics, is a known cause of recalcitrant infections and a significant healthcare burden, often requiring repeated surgical debridements. Laser-generated shockwaves (LGS) is a novel, minimally invasive, and nonthermal modality for biofilm mechanical debridement which utilizes compressive stress waves, generated by photonic absorption in thin titanium films to mechanically disrupt the biofilm...
March 23, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333317/characterization-of-a-gene-encoding-a-membrane-protein-that-affects-exopolysaccharide-production-and-intracellular-mg2-concentrations-in-ensifer-meliloti
#11
Justin P Hawkins, Ivan J Oresnik
Exopolysaccharides play an important role in the physiology of a bacterial cell. Ensifer meliloti is capable of producing at least two types of exopolysaccharides (EPS); succinoglycan, and galactoglucan. In E. meliloti exopolysaccharides are best known for their role in mediating interaction with its symbiotic hosts. It was previously shown that high concentrations of Mg 2+ or K + were capable of suppressing the mucoid phenotype associated with galactoglucan production in an expR+ derivative of Rm1021. In an attempt to determine how Mg 2+ regulates galactoglucan production, SRmD363 was mutagenized and screened for mutants which were visibly mucoid at high concentrations of magnesium...
March 16, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333234/horizontal-transfer-of-the-blandm-1-gene-to-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-biofilms
#12
Windy D Tanner, Robyn M Atkinson, Ramesh K Goel, Mark A Toleman, Lowell Scott Benson, Christina A Porucznik, James A VanDerslice
Horizontal gene transfer has contributed to the global spread of the blaNDM-1 gene. Multiple studies have demonstrated plasmid transfer of blaNDM-1 between Gram-negative bacteria, primarily Enterobacteriaceae species, but conjugational transfer of natural blaNDM-1 plasmids from Enterobacteriaceae into Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii has not previously been shown. As P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii are both typically strong biofilm-formers, transfer of natural blaNDM-1 plasmids could potentially occur more readily in this environment...
February 25, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333156/an-in-vitro-bacterial-surface-migration-assay-underneath-sterile-barrier-material-commonly-found-in-a-hospital-setting
#13
J D Shih, L S Y Wood, C L Dambkowski, S Torres, E F Chehab, R Venook, J K Wall
OBJECTIVE: To determine what barrier material used in hospital neonatal intensive care units most effectively blocks bacterial migration. STUDY DESIGN: Bacterial migration distance was compared across simple and complex solid media using Escherichia coli, an early and common neonatal gut colonizer, and Staphylococcus aureus, a common skin bacterium, across polystyrene, medical-grade silicone, hydrocolloid dressing and transparent film dressing as barrier materials on complex solid media...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333044/effects-of-c-n-ratio-on-nitrous-oxide-production-from-nitrification-in-a-laboratory-scale-biological-aerated-filter-reactor
#14
Qiang He, Yinying Zhu, Leilei Fan, Hainan Ai, Xiaoliu Huangfu, Mei Chen
Emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) during biological wastewater treatment is of growing concern. This paper reports findings of the effects of carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio on N2O production rates in a laboratory-scale biological aerated filter (BAF) reactor, focusing on the biofilm during nitrification. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and microelectrode technology were utilized to evaluate the mechanisms associated with N2O production during wastewater treatment using BAF...
March 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332593/injections-through-skin-colonized-with-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-introduce-contamination-despite-standard-antimicrobial-preparation-procedures
#15
Yi Wang, Valery Leng, Viraj Patel, K Scott Phillips
While surgical site preparation has been extensively studied, there is little information about resistance of skin microbiota in the biofilm form to antimicrobial decontamination, and there are no quantitative models to study how biofilm might be transferred into sterile tissue/implant materials during injections for joint spine and tendon, aspiration biopsies and dermal fillers (DF). In this work, we develop two in vitro models to simulate the process of skin preparation and DF injection using pig skin and SimSkin (silicone) materials, respectively...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330815/antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-combined-to-periodontal-treatment-experimental-model
#16
Estéfani L Belinello-Souza, Letícia H Alvarenga, Cintia Lima-Leal, Patrícia Almeida, Carolina Guimarães Leite, Tairine R Lima, Jhosepher Previati-Oliveira, Lucas de Pretto, Anderson Zanardi de Freitas, Adjaci U Fernandes, Rodrigo L Marcos, Renato A Prates
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment for periodontitis. It combines a photosensitizer with a light source to induce reactive oxygen species and kill microbial cells. PpNetNI is a protoporphyrin derivative, and it has a chemical binding site at biofilm and great affinity to microbial cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aPDT as an adjuvant treatment for periodontitis. METHODS: Thirty healthy male rats Wistar (Rattus norvegicus) were used in this study (Approved by UNINOVE Ethical committee AN0029/2015)...
March 18, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330748/control-of-biofilm-forming-clinically-important-bacteria-by-green-synthesized-zno-nanoparticles-and-its-ecotoxicity-on-ceriodaphnia-cornuta
#17
Sekar Vijayakumar, Balasubramanian Malaikozhundan, Sathappan Shanthi, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Nooruddin Thajuddin
Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using the aqueous leaf extracts of Plectranthus barbatus (Plb-ZnO NPs) and characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR. SEM and EDS and UV-visible spectra recorded the absorbance peak of Plb-ZnO NPs at 343 nm. SEM analyses showed the spherical shape of Plb-ZnO NPs with the particle size between 30 and 60 nm. Plb-ZnO NPs exhibited antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against Gram positive Bacillus subtilis at all tested concentrations. In contrast, Plb-ZnO NPs showed antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against Gram negative Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Proteus vulgaris at 100 μg/ml...
March 18, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330484/antibiotic-resistance-and-biofilm-production-among-the-strains-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-pus-wound-swab-samples-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-nepal
#18
Ankit Belbase, Narayan Dutt Pant, Krishus Nepal, Bibhusan Neupane, Rikesh Baidhya, Reena Baidya, Binod Lekhak
BACKGROUND: The increasing drug resistance along with inducible clindamycin resistance, methicillin resistance and biofilm production among the strains of Staphylococcus aureus are present as the serious problems to the successful treatment of the infections caused by S. aureus. So, the main objectives of this study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns along with the rates of inducible clindamycin resistance, methicillin resistance and biofilm production among the strains of S...
March 23, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330321/antimicrobial-antibiofilm-and-microbial-barrier-properties-of-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-cloisite-30b-thin-films
#19
Snigdha Sajeendra Babu, Shiji Mathew, Nandakumar Kalarikkal, Sabu Thomas, Radhakrishnan E K
Development of antibacterial and antibiofilm surfaces is in high demand. In this study, nanocomposite of Poly (ε-caprolactone)/Cloisite 30B was prepared by the solvent casting method. The membranes were characterised by SEM, AFM, and FTIR. Evaluation of water uptake, antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and microbial barrier properties demonstrated a significant antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against MTCC strain of Staphylococcus haemolyticus and strong biofilm positive Staphylococcus epidermidis of clinical origin at low clay concentrations...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330269/identification-of-the-traditional-and-non-traditional-sulfate-reducing-bacteria-associated-with-corroded-ship-hull
#20
Kiana Alasvand Zarasvand, V Ravishankar Rai
Pitting corrosion due to microbial activity is the most severe type of corrosion that occurs in ship hull. Since biogenic sulfide produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is involved in the acceleration of pitting corrosion of marine vessels, so it is important to collect information about SRB community involved in maritime vessel failure. We investigated the SRB community on corroded hull portion of the ship. With the use of common cultural method and 16S rDNA sequencing, ten bacteria with sulfate reduction ability were isolated and identified...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
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