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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734196/on-status-epilepticus-and-pins-a-systematic-content-analysis
#1
Naim Mahroum, Abdulla Watad, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Howard Amital, Kassem Sharif, Samaa Watad, Giulia Adavastro, Giovanna Canepa, Francesco Brigo, Mohammad Adawi
Status epilepticus (SE) can be defined as abnormally prolonged, persistent, or recurrent clinical and/or electrographic epileptic activity and, as such, is a challenging medical emergency requiring an aggressive treatment aimed at promptly terminating the seizures. It imposes a relevant clinical burden, both in terms of comorbidity and mortality. In the era of the Web 2.0, most people search the Web to obtain SE-related information. The current investigation aimed at qualitatively characterizing the pins related to SE: Pinterest, "the world's catalog of ideas", is a visual social networking site that enables users to freely upload visual material, to bookmark, and to share it (repin)...
July 19, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734128/the-experience-of-initiating-injection-drug-use-and-its-social-context-a-qualitative-systematic-review-and-thematic-synthesis
#2
REVIEW
Andy Guise, Danielle Horyniak, Jason Melo, Ryan McNeill, Dan Werb
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Understanding the experience of initiating injection drug use and its social contexts is crucial to inform efforts to prevent transitions into this mode of drug consumption and support harm reduction. We systematically reviewed and synthesized existing qualitative scientific literature to identify the socio-structural contexts for, and experiences of, the initiation of injection drug use. METHODS: We systematically searched six databases (Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL, IBSS, and SSCI), along with a manual search, including of key journals and subject experts...
July 22, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733921/social-support-networks-and-hiv-sti-risk-behaviors-among-latino-immigrants-in-a-new-receiving-environment
#3
Meghan D Althoff, Katherine Theall, Norine Schmidt, John Hembling, Hirut T Gebrekristos, Michelle M Thompson, Stephen Q Muth, Samuel R Friedman, Patricia Kissinger
The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe the quantity and quality of social support networks of Latino immigrants living in a new receiving environment, and (2) determine the role such networks play in their HIV/STI risk behaviors, including substance use. Double incentivized convenience sampling was used to collect egocentric social support network data on 144 Latino immigrants. Latent class analysis was used for data reduction and to identify items best suited to measure quality and quantity of social support...
July 21, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733673/emergence-of-hysteresis-loop-in-social-contagions-on-complex-networks
#4
Zhen Su, Wei Wang, Lixiang Li, Jinghua Xiao, H Eugene Stanley
Understanding the spreading mechanisms of social contagions in complex network systems has attracted much attention in the physics community. Here we propose a generalized threshold model to describe social contagions. Using extensive numerical simulations and theoretical analyses, we find that a hysteresis loop emerges in the system. Specifically, the steady state of the system is sensitive to the initial conditions of the dynamics of the system. In the steady state, the adoption size increases discontinuously with the transmission probability of information about social contagions, and trial size exhibits a non-monotonic pattern, i...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731883/the-effects-on-children-s-anxiety-and-quality-of-life-of-a-psychoeducational-program-for-families-living-with-parental-cancer-and-their-network-a-randomized-controlled-trial-study
#5
May Aasebø Hauken, Mariana Pereira, Mette Senneseth
BACKGROUND: Families living with parental cancer report lack of social support. The Cancer PEPSONE Program (CPP) was developed to bridge the gap between the families and their network. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to study the effect of the CPP on children's anxiety and quality of life (QOL) and examine the association between the CPP's effect on their well parents' received social support, QOL, and psychological distress and the children's anxiety and QOL...
July 20, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731796/bees-without-flowers-before-peak-bloom-diverse-native-bees-find-insect-produced-honeydew-sugars
#6
Joan M Meiners, Terry L Griswold, David J Harris, S K Morgan Ernest
Bee foragers respond to complex visual, olfactory, and extrasensory cues to optimize searches for floral rewards. Their abilities to detect and distinguish floral colors, shapes, volatiles, and ultraviolet signals and even gauge nectar availability from changes in floral humidity or electric fields are well studied. Bee foraging behaviors in the absence of floral cues, however, are rarely considered. We observed 42 species of wild bees visiting inconspicuous, nonflowering shrubs during early spring in a protected Mediterranean habitat...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731639/exploring-family-home-food-environments-household-resources-needed-to-utilise-weekly-deliveries-of-free-fruits-and-vegetables
#7
Sophie A Carty, Louise A Mainvil, John D Coveney
AIM: An adapted ethnographic approach was used to explore household factors that influence family fruit and vegetable consumption when access and cost barriers are removed. 'Structural' barriers, such as food affordability and accessibility, are likely to influence fruit and vegetable consumption in disadvantaged households, but households may require additional resources (human and social) to increase consumption. METHODS: Five low-income and five high-income households with children (N = 39 individuals) were observed in their home environment for three months...
April 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730892/a-systematic-review-of-peer-mentoring-interventions-for-people-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Richard Pg Morris, Joanna C Fletcher-Smith, Kathryn A Radford
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review sought evidence concerning the effectiveness of peer mentoring for people with traumatic brain injury. DATA SOURCES: Fourteen electronic databases were searched, including PsycINFO, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library, from inception to September 21 2016. Ten grey literature databases, PROSPERO, two trials registers, reference lists and author citations were also searched. REVIEW METHODS: Studies which employed a model of one-to-one peer mentoring between traumatic brain injury survivors were included...
August 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730877/from-mental-hygiene-to-mental-health-ideology-discourses-and-practices-in-franco-s-spain-1939-75
#9
Enric J Novella, Ricardo Campos
Based on an analysis of the discourses, the ideological appropriation and the practical influence of mental hygiene in Spanish psychiatry during the early years of the Francoist regime, this article examines its decline and subsequent replacement by the new concept of mental health promoted by the World Health Organization and other international bodies from the mid-twentieth century. The old approach, essentially focused on the prophylaxis of insanity within the framework of a set of interventionist policies of social defence, was thus transformed from the beginning of the 1960s into a much more ambitious and comprehensive project which sought to promote the psychosocial balance and performance of individuals in the context of increasingly socialized health-related discourses and networks of care...
July 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730732/shared-atypical-default-mode-and-salience-network-functional-connectivity-between-autism-and-schizophrenia
#10
Heng Chen, Lucina Q Uddin, Xujun Duan, Junjie Zheng, Zhiliang Long, Youxue Zhang, Xiaonan Guo, Yan Zhang, Jingping Zhao, Huafu Chen
Schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are two prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders sharing some similar genetic basis and clinical features. The extent to which they share common neural substrates remains unclear. Resting-state fMRI data were collected from 35 drug-naïve adolescent participants with first-episode schizophrenia (15.6 ± 1.8 years old) and 31 healthy controls (15.4 ± 1.6 years old). Data from 22 participants with ASD (13.1 ± 3.1 years old) and 21 healthy controls (12...
July 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730641/basal-ganglia-and-autism-a-translational-perspective
#11
REVIEW
Krishna Subramanian, Cheryl Brandenburg, Fernanda Orsati, Jean-Jacques Soghomonian, John P Hussman, Gene J Blatt
The basal ganglia are a collection of nuclei below the cortical surface that are involved in both motor and non-motor functions, including higher order cognition, social interactions, speech, and repetitive behaviors. Motor development milestones that are delayed in autism such as gross motor, fine motor and walking can aid in early diagnosis of autism. Neuropathology and neuroimaging findings in autism cases revealed volumetric changes and altered cell density in select basal ganglia nuclei. Interestingly, in autism, both the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are impacted both in their motor and non-motor domains and recently, found to be connected via the pons through a short disynaptic pathway...
July 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730185/social-networks-as-predictors-of-colorectal-cancer-screening-in-african-americans
#12
Ernest Alema-Mensah, Selina A Smith, Mechelle Claridy, Victor Ede, Benjamin Ansa, Daniel S Blumenthal
BACKGROUND: Early detection can reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality by 15%-33%, and screening is widely recommended for average-risk adults beginning at age 50 years. Colorectal cancer mortality rates are higher in African Americans than in whites, while screening rates are somewhat lower. Individual social networks can reduce emotional and/or logistical barriers to health-promoting but distasteful procedures such as CRC screening. The aim of this study was to examine social network interactions, and their impact on CRC screening among African Americans...
2017: Journal of the Georgia Public Health Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729755/social-cognition-deficits-current-position-and-future-directions-for-neuropsychological-interventions-in-cerebrovascular-disease
#13
REVIEW
Progress Njomboro
Neuropsychological assessments of cognitive dysfunction in cerebrovascular illness commonly target basic cognitive functions involving aspects of memory, attention, language, praxis, and number processing. Here, I highlight the clinical importance of often-neglected social cognition functions. These functions recruit a widely distributed neural network, making them vulnerable in most cerebrovascular diseases. Sociocognitive deficits underlie most of the problematic social conduct observed in patients and are associated with more negative clinical outcomes (compared to nonsocial cognitive deficits)...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729711/an-ecological-and-digital-epidemiology-analysis-on-the-role-of-human-behavior-on-the-2014-chikungunya-outbreak-in-martinique
#14
Benjamin Roche, Béatrice Gaillard, Lucas Léger, Renélise Pélagie-Moutenda, Thomas Sochacki, Bernard Cazelles, Martine Ledrans, Alain Blateau, Didier Fontenille, Manuel Etienne, Frédéric Simard, Marcel Salathé, André Yébakima
Understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of endemic infections is of critical importance for a deeper understanding of pathogen transmission, and for the design of more efficient public health strategies. However, very few studies in this domain have focused on emerging infections, generating a gap of knowledge that hampers epidemiological response planning. Here, we analyze the case of a Chikungunya outbreak that occurred in Martinique in 2014. Using time series estimates from a network of sentinel practitioners covering the entire island, we first analyze the spatio-temporal dynamics and show that the largest city has served as the epicenter of this epidemic...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729328/comparative-safety-of-antiepileptic-drugs-for-neurological-development-in-children-exposed-during-pregnancy-and-breast-feeding-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#15
Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Patricia Rios, Elise Cogo, Sharon E Straus, Yaron Finkelstein, Ryan Kealey, Emily Reynen, Charlene Soobiah, Kednapa Thavorn, Brian Hutton, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Fatemeh Yazdi, Jennifer D'Souza, Heather MacDonald, Andrea C Tricco
OBJECTIVES: Compare the safety of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on neurodevelopment of infants/children exposed in utero or during breast feeding. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review and Bayesian random-effects network meta-analysis (NMA). MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched until 27 April 2017. Screening, data abstraction and quality appraisal were completed in duplicate by independent reviewers. PARTICIPANTS: 29 cohort studies including 5100 infants/children...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729114/altered-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-in-the-latent-period-of-epileptogenesis-in-a-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-model
#16
Hyoin Lee, Seungmoon Jung, Peter Lee, Yong Jeong
The latent period, a seizure-free phase, is the duration between brain injury and the onset of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs) during epileptogenesis. The latent period is thought to involve several progressive pathophysiological events that lead to the evolution of the chronic epilepsy phase. Hence, it is vital to investigate the changes in the latent period during epileptogenesis in order to better understand temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and to achieve early diagnosis and appropriate management of the condition...
July 17, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729065/neural-circuits-for-social-cognition-implications-for-autism
#17
REVIEW
Marta Fernández, Irene Mollinedo-Gajate, Olga Peñagarikano
Social neuroscience, the study of the neurobiological basis of social behavior, has become a major area of current research in behavioral neuroscience and psychiatry, since many psychiatric disorders are characterized by social deficits. Social behavior refers to the behavioral response with regards to socially relevant information, and requires the perception and integration of social cues through a complex cognition processes (i.e. social cognition) that involves attention, memory, motivation and emotion...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728643/sharing-of-alcohol-related-content-on-social-networking-sites-frequency-content-and-correlates
#18
Eilin K Erevik, Torbjørn Torsheim, Øystein Vedaa, Cecilie S Andreassen, Ståle Pallesen
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to explore students' reports of their sharing of alcohol-related content on different social networking sites (i.e., frequency of sharing and connotations of alcohol-related posts), and to identify indicators of such posting. METHOD: Students at the four largest institutions for higher education in Bergen, Norway, were invited to participate in an Internet-based survey. The sample size was 11,236 (a 39.4% response rate). The survey included questions about disclosure of alcohol-related content on social networking sites, alcohol use (using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), personality factors (using the Mini-IPIP), and demographic characteristics...
May 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728529/islamic-influence-on-hiv-risk-and-protection-among-central-asian-male-migrant-workers-in-kazakhstan
#19
Stacey A Shaw, Tara McCrimmon, Gaukhar Mergenova, Alma Sultangaliyeva, Nabila El-Bassel
HIV incidence is increasing in Central Asia, where migrant workers experience risks for acquiring sexually transmitted HIV. As a social and structural factor that may influence perceptions and behavior, we examine how Islam shapes HIV risk and protection. Phenomenological qualitative interviews examine religion and contexts of HIV risk among 48 male Central Asian migrant workers residing in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Men described nonvaginal sex, alcohol use, premarital sex, and extramarital sex as forbidden or frowned upon...
August 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728280/-the-problems-and-challenges-in-the-current-eye-health-management-in-china
#20
H D Zou
The core goal of "Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for National Eye Health (2016 to 2020)" is to obtain eye health. At present, there are still several problems hampering Chinese eye health management system development, including the lack of top policy design, system protection and financial investment, weak support from primary health care institutions, other medical disciplines and social forces, and insufficient digital information. To achieve effective eye health management, it is necessary to address the sustainability of eye health management, the integrity of eye health digital information data and the feasibility of eye health payment...
July 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
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