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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920976/resting-state-theta-band-connectivity-and-graph-analysis-in-generalized-social-anxiety-disorder
#1
Mengqi Xing, Reza Tadayonnejad, Annmarie MacNamara, Olusola Ajilore, Julia DiGangi, K Luan Phan, Alex Leow, Heide Klumpp
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting-state studies show generalized social anxiety disorder (gSAD) is associated with disturbances in networks involved in emotion regulation, emotion processing, and perceptual functions, suggesting a network framework is integral to elucidating the pathophysiology of gSAD. However, fMRI does not measure the fast dynamic interconnections of functional networks. Therefore, we examined whole-brain functional connectomics with electroencephalogram (EEG) during resting-state...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920737/facets-of-the-fundamental-content-dimensions-agency-with-competence-and-assertiveness-communion-with-warmth-and-morality
#2
Andrea E Abele, Nicole Hauke, Kim Peters, Eva Louvet, Aleksandra Szymkow, Yanping Duan
Agency (A) and communion (C) are fundamental content dimensions. We propose a facet-model that differentiates A into assertiveness (AA) and competence (AC) and C into warmth (CW) and morality (CM). We tested the model in a cross-cultural study by comparing data from Asia, Australia, Europe, and the USA (overall N = 1.808). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported our model. Both the two-factor model and the four-factor model showed good fit indices across countries. Participants answered additional measures intended to demonstrate the fruitfulness of distinguishing the facets...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920428/mitigating-herding-in-hierarchical-crowdsourcing-networks
#3
Han Yu, Chunyan Miao, Cyril Leung, Yiqiang Chen, Simon Fauvel, Victor R Lesser, Qiang Yang
Hierarchical crowdsourcing networks (HCNs) provide a useful mechanism for social mobilization. However, spontaneous evolution of the complex resource allocation dynamics can lead to undesirable herding behaviours in which a small group of reputable workers are overloaded while leaving other workers idle. Existing herding control mechanisms designed for typical crowdsourcing systems are not effective in HCNs. In order to bridge this gap, we investigate the herding dynamics in HCNs and propose a Lyapunov optimization based decision support approach - the Reputation-aware Task Sub-delegation approach with dynamic worker effort Pricing (RTS-P) - with objective functions aiming to achieve superlinear time-averaged collective productivity in an HCN...
December 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919479/how-to-refer-to-people-with-disease-in-research-outputs-the-disconnection-between-academic-practise-and-that-preferred-by-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#4
David Baker, Ananthi Anandhakrishnan, Katie A Tuite-Dalton, Hazel Lockart-Jones, Rodden M Middleton, David V Ford, Christina Crowe, Gavin Giovannoni
BACKGROUND: Increasingly, Government and Charity funders require public engagement in research. Invariably these research outputs describe the condition of someone with the disease of interest. We therefore sought to identify the preferred descriptor of someone with a disease, such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and to determine what descriptors are currently used by academics. METHODS: Several surveys were undertaken: one from the Research Network of the MS Society (MSSRN), a major MS Charity within the United Kingdom, who are involved in reviewing grant applications, priority setting and research governance (n=146), and surveys from both the United Kingdom MS register (MSR; n=1713) and the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) registry (n=518)...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919383/social-capital-and-transaction-cost-on-co-creating-it-value-towards-inter-organizational-emr-exchange
#5
Hsin Hsin Chang, Chung-Jye Hung, Ching Ying Huang, Kit Hong Wong, Yi Ju Tsai
This study adopts social capital theory and transaction cost theory to explore the feasibility of an inter-organizational cross-hospital electronic medical records (EMR) exchange system, and the factors that affect its adoption. The concept of value co-creation is also used to assess such a system, and its influence on the performance of participating medical institutes. This research collected 330 valid paper-based questionnaires from the medical staff of various institutes. The results showed that social interaction ties and shared vision positively affected medical institutes' willingness to adopt the EMR exchange system, while asset specificity and uncertainty increased the related transaction costs...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917963/mobile-pastoralists-in-central-and-west-africa-between-conflict-mobile-telephony-and-im-mobility
#6
M De Bruijn, A Amadou, E Lewa Doksala, B Sangaré
The livelihoods of the Fulani mobile pastoralists in the Sahel, West and Central Africa are characterised by mobility (related to the needs of their animals), extensive social networks, and a focus on social ties as the basis of status and influence ('wealth in people'). The Sahel environment in which many Fulani nomads live has become embroiled in jihadism, conflict, and violence; at the same time, this region has experienced an increase in opportunities to connect through the wireless mobile communication system...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917487/teachers-and-coaches-in-adolescent-social-networks-are-associated-with-healthier-self-concept-and-decreased-substance-use
#7
Rebecca N Dudovitz, Paul J Chung, Mitchell D Wong
BACKGROUND: Poor academic (eg, "I am a bad student") and behavioral (eg, "I am a troublemaker") self-concepts are strongly linked to adolescent substance use. Social networks likely influence self-concept. However, little is understood about the role teachers and athletic coaches play in shaping both academic and behavioral self-concepts. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional surveys of 929 9th-12th grade low-income minority adolescents in Los Angeles assessing self-concept, social networks, and 30-day use of alcohol, marijuana and other drugs...
January 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914633/what-can-big-data-offer-the-pharmacovigilance-of-orphan-drugs
#8
John Price
The pharmacovigilance of drugs for orphan diseases presents problems related to the small patient population. Obtaining high-quality information on individual reports of suspected adverse reactions is of particular importance for the pharmacovigilance of orphan drugs. The possibility of mining "big data" to detect suspected adverse reactions is being explored in pharmacovigilance generally but may have limited application to orphan drugs. Sources of big data such as social media may be infrequently used as communication channels by patients with rare disease or their caregivers or by health care providers; any adverse reactions identified are likely to reflect what is already known about the safety of the drug from the network of support that grows up around these patients...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913372/an-ehealth-project-on-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-comprehensive-evaluation-of-a-promotional-campaign
#9
Donatella Panatto, Alexander Domnich, Roberto Gasparini, Paolo Bonanni, Giancarlo Icardi, Daniela Amicizia, Lucia Arata, Stefano Carozzo, Alessio Signori, Angela Bechini, Sara Boccalini
BACKGROUND: The recently launched Pneumo Rischio eHealth project, which consists of an app, a website, and social networking activity, is aimed at increasing public awareness of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). The launch of this project was prompted by the inadequate awareness of IPD among both laypeople and health care workers, the heavy socioeconomic burden of IPD, and the far from optimal vaccination coverage in Italy, despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of our study were to analyze trends in Pneumo Rischio usage before and after a promotional campaign, to characterize its end users, and to assess its user-rated quality...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913345/facial-age-estimation-with-age-difference
#10
Zhenzhen Hu, Yonggang Wen, Jianfeng Wang, Meng Wang, Richang Hong, Shuicheng Yan
Age estimation based on the human face remains a significant problem in computer vision and pattern recognition. In order to estimate an accurate age or age group of a facial image, most of the existing algorithms require a huge face data set attached with age labels. This imposes a constraint on the utilization of the immensely unlabeled or weakly labeled training data, e.g. the huge amount of human photos in the social networks. These images may provide no age label, but it is easily to derive the age difference for an image pair of the same person...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913157/further-evidence-of-alerted-default-network-connectivity-and-association-with-theory-of-mind-ability-in-schizophrenia
#11
Omar Mothersill, Noreen Tangney, Derek W Morris, Hazel McCarthy, Thomas Frodl, Michael Gill, Aiden Corvin, Gary Donohoe
BACKGROUND: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has repeatedly shown evidence of altered functional connectivity of large-scale networks in schizophrenia. The relationship between these connectivity changes and behaviour (e.g. symptoms, neuropsychological performance) remains unclear. METHODS: Functional connectivity in 27 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and 25 age and gender matched healthy controls was examined using rs-fMRI...
November 29, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912247/molecular-evolution-in-insect-societies-an-eco-evo-devo-synthesis
#12
Amy L Toth, Sandra M Rehan
The evolution of eusociality is a perennial issue in evolutionary biology, and genomic advances have fueled steadily growing interest in the genetic changes underlying social evolution. Along with a recent flurry of research on comparative and evolutionary genomics in different eusocial insect groups (bees, ants, wasps, and termites), several mechanistic explanations have emerged to describe the molecular evolution of eusociality from solitary behavior. These include solitary physiological ground plans, genetic toolkits of deeply conserved genes, evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes, cis regulation, and the structure of gene networks, epigenetics, and novel genes...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910724/attentional-networks-and-visuospatial-working-memory-capacity-in-social-anxiety
#13
Jun Moriya
Social anxiety is associated with attentional bias and working memory for emotional stimuli; however, the ways in which social anxiety affects cognitive functions involving non-emotional stimuli remains unclear. The present study focused on the role of attentional networks (i.e. alerting, orienting, and executive control networks) and visuospatial working memory capacity (WMC) for non-emotional stimuli in the context of social anxiety. One hundred and seventeen undergraduates completed questionnaires on social anxiety...
December 2, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909793/epidermolysis-bullosa-house-austria-and-epidermolysis-bullosa-clinical-network-example-of-a-centre-of-expertise-implemented-in-a-european-reference-network-to-face-the-burden-of-a-rare-disease
#14
Martin Laimer, Gabriela Pohla-Gubo, Anja Diem, Christine Prodinger, Johann W Bauer, Helmut Hintner
Accurately addressing the diverse and complex issues of rare diseases (RD) in terms of prevention, recognition, diagnosis, treatment, care and research along key RD specificities, such as great heterogeneity, a limited number of patients, scarcity of relevant knowledge and expertise as well as enormous costs for patient care is a challenging task for healthcare providers and authorities that makes a supranational approach particularly feasible. The European Union has acknowledged RD matters by several initiatives, including efforts to implement national centres of expertise and European reference networks as well as a cross-border referral mechanism to foster access to expert services and to boost dissemination of clinical expertise and research activities...
December 1, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908787/fractionating-the-anterior-temporal-lobe-mvpa-reveals-differential-responses-to-input-and-conceptual-modality
#15
Charlotte Murphy, Shirley-Ann Rueschemeyer, David Watson, Theodoros Karapanagiotidis, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies
Words activate cortical regions in accordance with their modality of presentation (i.e., written vs. spoken), yet there is a long-standing debate about whether patterns of activity in any specific brain region capture modality-invariant conceptual information. Deficits in patients with semantic dementia highlight the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) as an amodal store of semantic knowledge but these studies do not permit precise localisation of this function. The current investigation used multiple imaging methods in healthy participants to examine functional dissociations within ATL...
November 28, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908672/forensic-age-estimation-in-anti-piracy-trials-in-seychelles-experiences-and-challenges-faced
#16
S A Gunawardena, U A Liyanage, J B Weeratna, N D N A Mendis, H J M Perera, R W Jayasekara, R Fernando
Forensic age estimation (FAE) was conducted using a multifactorial method on thirteen Somali detainees claiming juvenile status during the anti-piracy trials of the Seychelles Supreme Court in 2014/2015. A multidisciplinary team, comprising of four of the authors covering specialties in forensic medicine, forensic odontology and radiology, conducted the FAE using a five-stage protocol. Each detainee was interviewed with an interpreter and examined for disorders affecting dental/skeletal development and for assessment of genital development through Tanner staging...
November 14, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908591/an-fmri-investigation-of-the-relationship-between-future-imagination-and-cognitive-flexibility
#17
R P Roberts, K Wiebels, R L Sumner, V van Mulukom, C L Grady, D L Schacter, D R Addis
While future imagination is largely considered to be a cognitive process grounded in default mode network activity, studies have shown that future imagination recruits regions in both default mode and frontoparietal control networks. In addition, it has recently been shown that the ability to imagine the future is associated with cognitive flexibility, and that tasks requiring cognitive flexibility result in increased coupling of the default mode network with frontoparietal control and salience networks. In the current study, we investigated the neural correlates underlying the association between cognitive flexibility and future imagination in two ways...
November 28, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908287/is-mid-life-social-participation-associated-with-cognitive-function-at-age-50-results-from-the-british-national-child-development-study-ncds
#18
Ann Bowling, Jitka Pikhartova, Brian Dodgeon
BACKGROUND: Some studies have indicated that social engagement is associated with better cognitive outcomes. This study aimed to investigate associations between life-course social engagement (civic participation) and cognitive status at age 50, adjusting for social networks and support, behavioural, health, social and socio-economic characteristics. METHODS: The vehicle for the study was the National Child Development Study (1958 Birth Cohort Study), which is a general population sample in England, Scotland and Wales (9119: 4497 men and 4622 women) participating in nationally representative, prospective birth cohort surveys...
December 2, 2016: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907996/probabilistic-information-transmission-in-a-network-of-coupled-oscillators-reveals-speed-accuracy-trade-off-in-responding-to-threats
#19
Amanda Chicoli, Derek A Paley
Individuals in a group may obtain information from other group members about the environment, including the location of a food source or the presence of a predator. Here, we model how information spreads in a group using a susceptible-infected-removed epidemic model. We apply this model to a simulated shoal of fish using the motion dynamics of a coupled oscillator model, in order to test the biological hypothesis that polarized or aligned shoaling leads to faster and more accurate escape responses. The contributions of this study are the (i) application of a probabilistic model of epidemics to the study of collective animal behavior; (ii) testing the biological hypothesis that group cohesion improves predator escape; (iii) quantification of the effect of social cues on startle propagation; and (iv) investigation of the variation in response based on network connectivity...
November 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907061/tracking-the-evolution-of-infrastructure-systems-and-mass-responses-using-publically-available-data
#20
Xiangyang Guan, Cynthia Chen, Dan Work
Networks can evolve even on a short-term basis. This phenomenon is well understood by network scientists, but receive little attention in empirical literature involving real-world networks. On one hand, this is due to the deceitfully fixed topology of some networks such as many physical infrastructures, whose evolution is often deemed unlikely to occur in short term; on the other hand, the lack of data prohibits scientists from studying subjects such as social networks that seem likely to evolve on a short-term basis...
2016: PloS One
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