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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936513/probing-the-structural-dynamics-of-the-crispr-cas9-rna-guided-dna-cleavage-system-by-coarse-grained-modeling
#1
Wenjun Zheng
In the adaptive immune systems of many bacteria and archaea, the Cas9 endonuclease forms a complex with specific guide/scaffold RNA to identify and cleave complementary target sequences in foreign DNA. This DNA targeting machinery has been exploited in numerous applications of genome editing and transcription control. However, the molecular mechanism of the Cas9 system is still obscure. Recently, high-resolution structures have been solved for Cas9 in different structural forms (e.g., unbound forms, RNA-bound binary complexes, and RNA-DNA-bound tertiary complexes, corresponding to an inactive state, a pre-target-bound state, and a cleavage-competent or product state), which offered key structural insights to the Cas9 mechanism...
December 9, 2016: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936423/optimising-the-community-based-approach-to-healthcare-improvement-comparative-case-studies-of-the-clinical-community-model-in-practice
#2
Emma-Louise Aveling, Graham Martin, Georgia Herbert, Natalie Armstrong
Community-based approaches to healthcare improvement are receiving increasing attention. Such approaches could offer an infrastructure for efficient knowledge-sharing and a potent means of influencing behaviours, but their potential is yet to be optimised. After briefly reviewing challenges to community-based approaches, we describe in detail the clinical community model. Through exploring clinical communities in practice, we seek to identify practical lessons for optimising this community-based approach to healthcare improvement...
November 22, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936422/social-network-types-among-older-korean-adults-associations-with-subjective-health
#3
Sung Yun Sohn, Won-Tak Joo, Woo Jung Kim, Se Joo Kim, Yoosik Youm, Hyeon Chang Kim, Yeong-Ran Park, Eun Lee
With population aging now a global phenomenon, the health of older adults is becoming an increasingly important issue. Because the Korean population is aging at an unprecedented rate, preparing for public health problems associated with old age is particularly salient in this country. As the physical and mental health of older adults is related to their social relationships, investigating the social networks of older adults and their relationship to health status is important for establishing public health policies...
December 1, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936411/a-network-analysis-of-dsm-5-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-and-correlates-in-u-s-military-veterans
#4
Cherie Armour, Eiko I Fried, Marie K Deserno, Jack Tsai, Robert H Pietrzak
OBJECTIVE: Recent developments in psychometrics enable the application of network models to analyze psychological disorders, such as PTSD. Instead of understanding symptoms as indicators of an underlying common cause, this approach suggests symptoms co-occur in syndromes due to causal interactions. The current study has two goals: (1) examine the network structure among the 20 DSM-5 PTSD symptoms, and (2) incorporate clinically relevant variables to the network to investigate whether PTSD symptoms exhibit differential relationships with suicidal ideation, depression, anxiety, physical functioning/quality of life (QoL), mental functioning/QoL, age, and sex...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936376/peer-network-counseling-as-brief-treatment-for-urban-adolescent-heavy-cannabis-users
#5
Michael J Mason, Roy Sabo, Nikola M Zaharakis
OBJECTIVE: A small body of evidence supports targeting adolescents who are heavy users of cannabis with brief interventions, yet more research is needed to confirm the effectiveness of these studies. We conducted a secondary analysis of our Peer Network Counseling (PNC) study (Mason et al., 2015), focusing on 46 adolescents of the sample of 119 who reported heavy cannabis use at baseline. METHOD: Urban adolescents (91% African American) presenting for primary health care were randomized to intervention or control conditions and followed for 6 months...
January 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936374/testing-a-matching-hypothesis-for-emerging-adults-in-project-match-during-treatment-and-one-year-outcomes
#6
Jordan P Davis, Brandon G Bergman, Douglas C Smith, John F Kelly
OBJECTIVE: Compared with older adults, emerging adults (18-29 years old) entering treatment typically have less severe alcohol use consequences. Also, their unique clinical presentations (e.g., modest initial abstinence motivation) and developmental contexts (e.g., drinking-rich social networks) may make a straightforward implementation of treatments developed for adults less effective. Yet, this has seldom been examined empirically. This study was a secondary analysis of Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity) data examining (a) overall differences between emerging adults and older adults (≥30 years old) on outcomes during treatment and at 1-year follow-up, and (b) whether emerging adults had poorer outcomes on any of the three Project MATCH treatments in particular...
January 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936372/strategic-self-presentation-or-authentic-communication-predicting-adolescents-alcohol-references-on-social-media
#7
Femke Geusens, Kathleen Beullens
OBJECTIVE: The current study is one of the first to examine how self-reported alcohol consumption, friends' perceived alcohol consumption, and the perceived number of friends sharing alcohol references on social networking sites (SNS) is associated with adolescents' sharing of alcohol references on SNS. METHOD: A cross-sectional paper-and-pencil survey was administered among 3,172 adolescents (n = 3,133 used for analyses, mean age = 17.16 years, SD = 0.93; 50.7% male)...
January 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936324/influence-of-thermal-treatments-on-evolution-of-conductive-paths-in-carbon-nanotubes-al2o3-hybrids-reinforced-epoxy-composites
#8
Benhui Fan, Delong He, Yu Liu, Jinbo Bai
The conductive path formed by carbon nanotube (CNT) in polymer matrix is one of the most attractive topics for developing multifunctional nanocomposites. In this study we studied the evolution of conductive paths and interactions in the interfacial regions in epoxy based composites reinforced by urchin-like hybrid of CNTs and alumina microparticles (μAl2O3). A homogeneous dispersion of CNTs in the epoxy matrix was achieved thanks to the core-shell structures of CNTs-μAl2O3 hybrids, resulting in interpenetrated epoxy's cross-linking network which strongly bonded with CNTs...
December 9, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936291/pleiotropy-constraint-and-modularity-in-the-evolution-of-life-histories-insights-from-genomic-analyses
#9
Kimberly A Hughes, Jeff Leips
Multicellular organisms display an enormous range of life history (LH) strategies and present an evolutionary conundrum; despite strong natural selection, LH traits are characterized by high levels of genetic variation. To understand the evolution of life histories and maintenance of this variation, the specific phenotypic effects of segregating alleles and the genetic networks in which they act need to be elucidated. In particular, the extent to which LH evolution is constrained by the pleiotropy of alleles contributing to LH variation is generally unknown...
December 9, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936259/-reconstructing-a-scholarly-network-from-the-bonneval-hospital-collections-relationships-and-misconceptions-derived-from-historical-archives
#10
Emmanuel Delille
The French psychiatric hospital Henri Ey in Bonneval (Eure-et-Loir, Central France) is known in the history of psychiatry for a series of conferences, which brought together several key figures in the mental health field in the 1940s. The conference sessions have been published in two major volumes: Le Problème de la psychogenèse des névroses et des psychoses (The Problem of the Psychogenesis of Neuroses and Psychoses, 1950), and L'Inconscient (The Unconscious, 1966). The proceedings consist of theoretical essays and minutes of the intellectual discussions between French psychiatrists, neurologists, psychologists, psychoanalysts and philosophers...
2016: Santé Mentale Au Québec
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936257/-institutions-without-history-an-investigation-into-the-archives-of-a-private-psychiatric-hospital-france-1930-1950
#11
Hervé Guillemain
Objectives Discovered by following the story of a Parisian patient, l'Hôpital psychiatrique de Saint-Rémy opened in 1937 in the east of France. It is a special institution that was created for profit and in an emergency context during the 1930s.Methods Due to the absence of administrative records, the history of this institution can be written only by using the archives of the Parisian administration and patient records. The story of this special institution allows several issues in the historiography of psychiatry: the funding of mental health, the patient transfers, the revival of the criticism against the psychiatric hospital...
2016: Santé Mentale Au Québec
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936189/impact-of-attending-physicians-comments-on-residents-workloads-in-the-emergency-department-results-from-two-j-o-pan-randomized-controlled-trials
#12
Akira Kuriyama, Noriyuki Umakoshi, Jun Fujinaga, Toshie Kaihara, Seigo Urushidani, Naoki Kuninaga, Motohiro Ichikawa, Shinichiro Ienaga, Akira Sasaki, Tetsunori Ikegami
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether peppy comments from attending physicians increased the workload of residents working in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: We conducted two parallel-group, assessor-blinded, randomized trials at the ED in a tertiary care hospital in western Japan. Twenty-five residents who examined either ambulatory (J(^o^)PAN-1 Trial) or transferred patients (J(^o^)PAN-2 Trial) in the ED on weekdays. Participants were randomly assigned to groups that either received a peppy message such as "Hope you have a quiet day!" (intervention group) or did not (control group) from the attending physicians...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936164/transcriptome-and-metabolome-analyses-in-exogenous-fabp4-and-fabp5-treated-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#13
Tokunori Yamamoto, Masato Furuhashi, Takeshi Sugaya, Tsuyoshi Oikawa, Megumi Matsumoto, Yasuhito Funahashi, Yoshihisa Matsukawa, Momokazu Gotoh, Tetsuji Miura
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC), which exist near adipocytes in adipose tissue, have been used as a potential tool of regenerative medicine. Lipid chaperones, fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) and 5 (FABP5), are abundantly expressed in adipocytes. FABP4 has recently been shown to be secreted from adipocytes during lipolysis in a non-classical pathway and may act as an adipokine. Here, we investigated the role of exogenous FABP4 and FABP5 in transcriptional and metabolic regulation in ADSC. FABP4 and FABP5 were little expressed in ADSC...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936158/modulation-of-re-initiation-of-measles-virus-transcription-at-intergenic-regions-by-pxd-to-ntail-binding-strength
#14
Louis-Marie Bloyet, Joanna Brunel, Marion Dosnon, Véronique Hamon, Jenny Erales, Antoine Gruet, Carine Lazert, Christophe Bignon, Philippe Roche, Sonia Longhi, Denis Gerlier
Measles virus (MeV) and all Paramyxoviridae members rely on a complex polymerase machinery to ensure viral transcription and replication. Their polymerase associates the phosphoprotein (P) and the L protein that is endowed with all necessary enzymatic activities. To be processive, the polymerase uses as template a nucleocapsid made of genomic RNA entirely wrapped into a continuous oligomer of the nucleoprotein (N). The polymerase enters the nucleocapsid at the 3'end of the genome where are located the promoters for transcription and replication...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936142/gene-co-expression-network-analysis-unraveling-transcriptional-regulation-of-high-altitude-adaptation-of-tibetan-pig
#15
Cunling Jia, Xiaoyan Kong, James E Koltes, Xiao Gou, Shuli Yang, Dawei Yan, Shaoxiong Lu, Zehui Wei
Tibetan pigs have survived at high altitude for millennia and they have a suite of adaptive features to tolerate the hypoxic environment. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of hypoxia-adaptive phenotypes have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we analyzed differentially expressed genes (DEGs), biological pathways and constructed co-expression regulation networks using whole-transcriptome microarrays from lung tissues of Tibetan and Duroc pigs both at high and low altitude...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936116/using-the-amino-acid-network-to-modulate-the-hydrolytic-activity-of-%C3%AE-glycosidases
#16
Fábio K Tamaki, Diorge P Souza, Valquiria P Souza, Cecilia M Ikegami, Chuck S Farah, Sandro R Marana
The active site residues in GH1 β-glycosidases are compartmentalized into 3 functional regions, involved in catalysis or binding of glycone and aglycone motifs from substrate. However, it still remains unclear how residues outside the active site modulate the enzymatic activity. To tackle this question, we solved the crystal structure of the GH1 β-glycosidase from Spodoptera frugiperda (Sfβgly) to systematically map its residue contact network and correlate effects of mutations within and outside the active site...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936098/analysis-of-hiv-diversity-in-hiv-infected-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men-hptn-061
#17
Iris Chen, Gordon Chau, Jing Wang, William Clarke, Mark A Marzinke, Vanessa Cummings, Autumn Breaud, Oliver Laeyendecker, Sheldon D Fields, Sam Griffith, Hyman M Scott, Steven Shoptaw, Carlos Del Rio, Manya Magnus, Sharon Mannheimer, Hong-Van Tieu, Darrell P Wheeler, Kenneth H Mayer, Beryl A Koblin, Susan H Eshleman
BACKGROUND: HIV populations often diversify in response to selective pressures, such as the immune response and antiretroviral drug use. We analyzed HIV diversity in Black men who have sex with men who were enrolled in the HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 study. METHODS: A high resolution melting (HRM) diversity assay was used to measure diversity in six regions of the HIV genome: two in gag, one in pol, and three in env. HIV diversity was analyzed for 146 men who were HIV infected at study enrollment, including three with acute infection and 13 with recent infection (identified using a multi-assay algorithm), and for 21 men who seroconverted during the study...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936097/petmbase-a-database-of-plant-endogenous-target-mimics-etms
#18
Gökhan Karakülah, Kuaybe Yücebilgili Kurtoğlu, Turgay Unver
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small endogenous RNA molecules, which regulate target gene expression at post-transcriptional level. Besides, miRNA activity can be controlled by a newly discovered regulatory mechanism called endogenous target mimicry (eTM). In target mimicry, eTMs bind to the corresponding miRNAs to block the binding of specific transcript leading to increase mRNA expression. Thus, miRNA-eTM-target-mRNA regulation modules involving a wide range of biological processes; an increasing need for a comprehensive eTM database arose...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936088/a-single-granule-level-approach-reveals-ecological-heterogeneity-in-an-upflow-anaerobic-sludge-blanket-reactor
#19
Kyohei Kuroda, Masaru K Nobu, Ran Mei, Takashi Narihiro, Benjamin T W Bocher, Takashi Yamaguchi, Wen-Tso Liu
Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor has served as an effective process to treat industrial wastewater such as purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater. For optimal UASB performance, balanced ecological interactions between syntrophs, methanogens, and fermenters are critical. However, much of the interactions remain unclear because UASB have been studied at a "macro"-level perspective of the reactor ecosystem. In reality, such reactors are composed of a suite of granules, each forming individual micro-ecosystems treating wastewater...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936086/geographical-heterogeneity-of-multiple-sclerosis-prevalence-in-france
#20
Diane Pivot, Marc Debouverie, Michel Grzebyk, David Brassat, Michel Clanet, Pierre Clavelou, Christian Confavreux, Gilles Edan, Emmanuelle Leray, Thibault Moreau, Sandra Vukusic, Guy Hédelin, Francis Guillemin
INTRODUCTION: Geographical variation in the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is controversial. Heterogeneity is important to acknowledge to adapt the provision of care within the healthcare system. We aimed to investigate differences in prevalence of MS in departments in the French territory. METHODS: We estimated MS prevalence on October 31, 2004 in 21 administrative departments in France (22% of the metropolitan departments) by using multiple data sources: the main French health insurance systems, neurologist networks devoted to MS and the Technical Information Agency of Hospitalization...
2016: PloS One
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