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biomarkers cancer

Michael Platten, David A Reardon
Strategies to empower the immune system to successfully attack cancers, including vaccination approaches, adaptive T cell therapies, and immune checkpoint modulators, have recently achieved remarkable success across a spectrum of cancer indications. Nonetheless, with rare exception, only a minority of patients with a given type of cancer respond to an immunotherapeutic when administered as single-agent therapy. Although under extensive laboratory and clinical investigation, the role of these approaches for glioma patients remains to be determined...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Aloma L D'Souza, John R Chevillet, Pejman Ghanouni, Xinrui Yan, Muneesh Tewari, Sanjiv S Gambhir
We have previously shown that low frequency ultrasound can release biomarkers from cells into the murine circulation enabling an amplification and localization of the released biomarker that could be used as a blood-based method to detect cancer earlier and monitor therapy. In this study, we further demonstrate that this technique could be used for characterization of tumors and/or identification of cellular masses of unknown origin due to the release of multiple protein and nucleic acid biomarkers in cells in culture, mice and patients...
2018: PloS One
Clémence Granier, Alain Gey, Charles Dariane, Arnaud Mejean, Marc-Olivier Timsit, Charlotte Blanc, Virginie Verkarre, Camélia Radulescu, Elisabeth Fabre, Yann Vano, Stéphane Oudard, Cécile Badoual, Éric Tartour
T cells harboring multiple co-inhibitory molecules lose their anti-tumoral functionality. PD-1 is a clinically approved target in cancer therapy, but its expression alone does not mean dysfunctionality. The expression of Tim-3 on numerous cell types (T cell, Treg, dendritic cell, myeloid cells) favors tumor escape to immune cells. Within many tumors, PD-1/Tim-3 coexpressing CD8-T cells lose their ability to secrete cytokines (IFNγ, IL-2, TNFα) and their intratumoral infiltration correlates with a bad prognosis...
March 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Deepali Jain, Sinchita Roy-Chowdhuri
CONTEXT: - There has been a paradigm shift in the understanding of molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer. A number of oncogenic drivers have been identified in non-small cell lung carcinoma, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR) mutation and anaplastic lymphoma kinase ( ALK) gene rearrangement. Because of the clinical presentation at an advanced stage of disease in non-small cell lung carcinoma patients, the use of minimally invasive techniques is preferred to obtain a tumor sample for diagnosis...
March 16, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Li Zhang, Jiasheng Chen, Chunming Gao, Chuanmiao Liu, Kuihua Xu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The early diagnosis of HCC is greatly helpful to achieve long-term disease-free survival. However, HCC is usually difficult to be diagnosed at an early stage. The aim of this study was to create the prediction model to diagnose HCC based on gene expression programming (GEP). GEP is an evolutionary algorithm and a domain-independent problem-solving technique. Clinical data show that six serum biomarkers, including gamma-glutamyl transferase, C-reaction protein, carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha-fetoprotein, carbohydrate antigen 153, and carbohydrate antigen 199, are related to HCC characteristics...
March 16, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Oliver M Pearce
Aberrant glycan epitopes are a classic hallmark of malignant transformation, yet their full clinical potential in cancer diagnostics and therapeutics is yet to be realized. This is partly because our understanding of how these epitopes are regulated remains poorly understood. In this review cancer glycan epitopes for the major glycan classes are summarized with a focus on their biosynthesis, structure, and role in cancer progression. Their application as cancer biomarkers, in particular the more recent work on cancer glycoforms, and the advantages these offer over the glycan or protein alone are discussed...
March 13, 2018: Glycobiology
Han-Xi Ding, Zhi Lv, Yuan Yuan, Qian Xu
Background: CircRNAs, a type of non-coding RNAs with special loop structure, of which the aberrant expression is closely related to tumor growth, proliferation, metastasis and recurrence. It remains unclear whether they have the potential to be biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of cancers. The study aims to clarify the relationship of circRNAs expression with cancers diagnosis and prognosis. Materials and Methods: Sensitivity, specificity, area under curve (AUC) and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) were calculated to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy; Hazard ratio (HR) of overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS) and recurrence free survival (RFS) were calculated to evaluate the association between circRNAs expression and survival of cancer patients...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Daniela Cecconi, Luca Dalle Carbonare, Antonio Mori, Samuele Cheri, Michela Deiana, Jessica Brandi, Vincenzo Degaetano, Valentina Masiero, Giulio Innamorati, Monica Mottes, Giovanni Malerba, Maria Teresa Valenti
Melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer; an early detection of the primary tumor may improve its prognosis. Despite many genes have been shown to be involved in melanoma, the full framework of melanoma transformation has not been completely explored. The characterization of pathways involved in tumor restraint in in vitro models may help to identify oncotarget genes. We therefore aimed to probe novel oncotargets through an integrated approach involving proteomic, gene expression and bioinformatic analysis We investigated molecular modulations in melanoma cells treated with ascorbic acid, which is known to inhibit cancer growth at high concentrations...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Yuan Chen, Kai Leonie Schnitzler, Yunxia Ma, Miljana Nenkov, Bernhard Theis, Iver Petersen
Exploitation of autophagy might potentially improve therapeutic strategy. Here, we analyzed the protein expression of autophagy-associated genes including LC3A, LC3B, Beclin-1, p62, and Atg5 in 88-131 primary lung tumors by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue-microarrays (TMAs). Additionally, the DNA methylation pattern of LC3A was investigated by bisulfite sequencing (BS) and methylation-specific-PCR (MSP). It turned out that the higher expression of LC3A protein was associated with adenocarcinoma compared to squamous cell carcinoma of lung ( p = 0...
2018: Disease Markers
Haiyan Gao, Mei Yang, Xiaolan Zhang
The present study aimed to investigate potential recurrence-risk biomarkers based on significant pathways for Luminal A breast cancer through gene expression profile analysis. Initially, the gene expression profiles of Luminal A breast cancer patients were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using a Limma package and the hierarchical clustering analysis was conducted for the DEGs. In addition, the functional pathways were screened using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses and rank ratio calculation...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Haitao Luo, Caixia Liang
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for ~80% of all types of lung cancer, which has the highest morbidity and mortality of all types of cancer worldwide. It is important to identify novel biomarkers and the molecular mechanism of NSCLC to improve current treatments of NSCLC. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of miR-148b expression on the proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and radiosensitivity of NSCLC cells. It was demonstrated that miR-148b expression was significantly decreased in NSCLC tissues and cell lines...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Zhong Ni, Xiting Wang, Tianchen Zhang, Linlin Li, Jianxue Li
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is the subtype of lung cancer with the highest degree of malignancy and the lowest degree of differentiation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of SCLC using bioinformatics analysis, and to provide new ideas for the early diagnosis and targeted therapy of SCLC. Microarray data were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in SCLC were compared with the normal lung samples and identified. Gene Ontology (GO) function and pathway analysis of DEGs was performed through the DAVID database...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Katie M O'Brien, Dale P Sandler, Min Shi, Quaker E Harmon, Jack A Taylor, Clarice R Weinberg
Genetic factors likely influence individuals' concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], a biomarker of vitamin D exposure previously linked to reduced risk of several chronic diseases. We conducted a genome-wide association study of serum 25(OH)D (assessed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) and 386,449 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our sample consisted of 1,829 participants randomly selected from the Sister Study, a cohort of women who had a sister with breast cancer but had never had breast cancer themselves...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Zsofia Miskolczi, Michael P Smith, Emily J Rowling, Jennifer Ferguson, Jorge Barriuso, Claudia Wellbrock
Despite the general focus on an invasive and de-differentiated phenotype as main driver of cancer metastasis, in melanoma patients many metastatic lesions display a high degree of pigmentation, indicative for a differentiated phenotype. Indeed, studies in mice and fish show that melanoma cells switch to a differentiated phenotype at secondary sites, possibly because in melanoma differentiation is closely linked to proliferation through the lineage-specific transcriptional master regulator MITF. Importantly, while a lot of effort has gone into identifying factors that induce the de-differentiated/invasive phenotype, it is not well understood how the switch to the differentiated/proliferative phenotype is controlled...
March 16, 2018: Oncogene
Zhijian Zhao, Mengping Zhang, Xiaolu Duan, Yiwen Chen, Ermao Li, Lianming Luo, Wenqi Wu, Zhenwei Peng, Hui-Juan Qiu, Guohua Zeng
Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is important for the tumorigenesis and progression of several cancers. However, little is known about TRPM7 expression and its clinical significance in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). The expression dynamics of TRPM7 was examined in a clinical cohort of RCC specimens by quantitative PCR (qPCR), immunoblotting and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. A series of in vitro and in vivo assays were performed to elucidate the function of TRPM7 in RCC and the underlying mechanisms...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Sandrine Loubière, Alexandre Drezet, Michèle Beau-Faller, Denis Moro-Sibilot, Sylvie Friard, Marie Wislez, Hélène Blons, Catherine Daniel, Virginie Westeel, Anne Madroszyk, Hervé Léna, Patrick Merle, Julien Mazières, Gérard Zalcman, Roger Lacave, Martine Antoine, Franck Morin, Pascale Missy, Fabrice Barlesi, Pascal Auquier, Jacques Cadranel
ALK rearrangement and EGFR / KRAS mutations constitute the primary biomarkers tested to provide targeted or nontargeted therapies in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Our objective was to assess the cost-effectiveness of biomarker testing for NSCLC.Between 2013 and 2014, 843 treatment-naive patients were prospectively recruited at 19 French hospitals into a longitudinal observational cohort study. Two testing strategies were compared, i.e. with "at least one biomarker status known" and "at least KRAS status known", in addition to "no biomarker testing" as the reference strategy...
March 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Wei Tse Li, Hao Zheng, Vincent Nguyen, Jessica Wang-Rodriguez, Weg M Ongkeko
Though bladder urothelial carcinoma is the most common form of bladder cancer, advances in its diagnosis and treatment have been modest in the past few decades. To evaluate miRNAs as putative disease markers for bladder urothelial carcinoma, this study develops a process to identify dysregulated miRNAs in cancer patients and potentially stratify patients based on the association of their microRNAome phenotype to genomic alterations. Using RNA sequencing data for 409 patients from the Cancer Genome Atlas, we examined miRNA differential expression between cancer and normal tissues and associated differentially expressed miRNAs with patient survival and clinical variables...
March 12, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Feng Peng, Yingzi Liu, Chenjie He, Yi Kong, Qianying Ouyang, Xiaonv Xie, Tong Liu, Zhaoqian Liu, Jingbo Peng
Lung cancer is the common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Platinum-based chemotherapy is the cornerstone of treatment for lung cancer. Platinum sensitivity is a major possibility for effective cancer treatment. In this study, several potential biomarkers were identified for evaluating and predicting the response to platinum-based chemotherapy. LC-MS-based metabolomics was performed on plasma samples from 43 lung cancer patients with different chemotherapy efficacy. By combing multivariate statistical analysis, pathway analysis with correlation analysis, 8 potential biomarkers were significantly associated with platinum chemotherapy response...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
David Vrana, Viktor Hlavac, Veronika Brynychova, Radka Vaclavikova, Cestmir Neoral, Jiri Vrba, Rene Aujesky, Marcel Matzenauer, Bohuslav Melichar, Pavel Soucek
The prognosis of esophageal cancer (EC) is poor, despite considerable effort of both experimental scientists and clinicians. The tri-modality treatment consisting of neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by surgery has remained the gold standard over decades, unfortunately, without significant progress in recent years. Suitable prognostic factors indicating which patients will benefit from this tri-modality treatment are missing. Some patients rapidly progress on the neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, which is thus useless and sometimes even harmful...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Wei Sun, Ju-Dong Luo, Hua Jiang, Dayue Darrel Duan
Tumor cells produce and secrete more nucleic acids, proteins and lipids than normal cells. These molecules are transported in the blood or around the cells in membrane-encapsulated exosomes. Tumor-derived or tumor-associated exosomes (usually 30-100 nm in diameter) contain abundant biological contents resembling those of the parent cells along with signaling messengers for intercellular communication involved in the pathogenesis, development, progression, and metastasis of cancer. As these exosomes can be detected and isolated from various body fluids, they have become attractive new biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
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