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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331901/an-ultrasensitive-detection-of-mirna-155-in-breast-cancer-via-direct-hybridization-assay-using-two-dimensional-molybdenum-disulfide-field-effect-transistor-biosensor
#1
Samira Mansouri Majd, Abdollah Salimi, Foad Ghasemi
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), critical biomarkers of acute and chronic diseases, play key regulatory roles in many biological processes. As a result, robust assay platforms to enable an accurate and efficient detection of low-level miRNAs in complex biological samples are of great significance. In this work, a label-free and direct hybridization assay using molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) field-effect transistor (FET) biosensor has been developed for ultrasensitive detection of miRNA-155 as a breast cancer biomarker in human serum and cell-line samples...
January 6, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331646/progress-in-the-management-of-advanced-thoracic-malignancies-in-2017
#2
REVIEW
Roberto Ferrara, Laura Mezquita, Benjamin Besse
The treatment paradigm of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) underwent a major revolution during the course of 2017. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) brought remarkable improvements in response and overall survival (OS) both in unselected pretreated patients and in untreated patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50%. Furthermore, compelling preliminary results were reported for new combinations of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 agents with chemotherapy or anti-CTLA4 inhibitors. The success of the ICIs appeared to extend to patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), mesothelioma or thymic tumors...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331492/prognostic-value-of-the-expression-of-dna-repair-related-biomarkers-mediated-by-alcohol-in-gastric-cancer-patients
#3
Yiyin Zhang, Hongyang Wu, Feng Yang, Jie Ning, Min Li, Chenchen Zhao, Shuping Zhong, Kangsheng Gu, Hua Wang
Alcohol consumption likely induces gastric carcinogenesis through deregulation of RNA polymerase (Pol) III genes and oxidative damage. Transcription factor IIB-related factor 1 (BRF1) overexpression alleviates RNA Pol III transcription inhibition through breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) involvement in cancer is induced by alcohol-mediated oxidative damage. BRCA1/2 and MPO play key roles in DNA repair. BRCA1 and BRCA2 exert different roles in homologous recombination repair...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331430/disposable-inkjet-printed-electrochemical-platform-for-detection-of-clinically-relevant-her-2-breast-cancer-biomarker
#4
Susanita Carvajal, Samantha N Fera, Abby L Jones, Thaisa A Baldo, Islam M Mosa, James F Rusling, Colleen E Krause
Rapidly fabricated, disposable sensor platforms hold tremendous promise for point-of-care detection. Here, we present an inexpensive (< $0.25) fully inkjet printed electrochemical sensor with integrated counter, reference, and working electrodes that is easily scalable for commercial fabrication. The electrochemical sensor platform featured an inkjet printed gold working 8-electrode array (WEA) and counter electrode (CE), along with an inkjet -printed silver electrode that was chlorinated with bleach to produce a Ag/AgCl quasi-reference electrode (RE)...
January 4, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331262/can-interrogation-of-tumour-characteristics-lead-us-to-safely-omit-adjuvant-radiotherapy-in-patients-with-early-breast-cancer
#5
I S Bhattacharya, A M Kirby, J M Bliss, C E Coles
Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery has been an important component of the standard of care for early breast cancer. Improvements in breast cancer care have resulted in a substantial reduction in local relapse rates over recent decades. Although the proportional benefits of adjuvant radiotherapy are similar for different prognostic risk groups of patients, the absolute benefits depend on the risk of relapse and therefore vary considerably between prognostic groups. Radiotherapy is not without risk and for some patients at very low risk of relapse the risks of radiotherapy may outweigh the benefit, leading to potential overtreatment...
January 10, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331214/the-stockholm-3-model-for-prostate-cancer-detection-algorithm-update-biomarker-contribution-and-reflex-test-potential
#6
Peter Ström, Tobias Nordström, Henrik Grönberg, Martin Eklund
BACKGROUND: It has been shown that the Stockholm-3 model (S3M) outperforms prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a screening tool for prostate cancer. OBJECTIVE: To update the S3M, to give a detailed account of the value of each predictor in the S3M, and to evaluate the S3M as a reflex test for men with PSA ≥3ng/ml. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: During 2012-2015, the Stockholm-3 study evaluated the S3M relative to PSA as tests for Gleason score ≥7 prostate cancers among men aged 50-69 yr...
January 10, 2018: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331036/prognostic-significance-of-mir-21-and-pdcd4-in-patients-with-stage-ii-esophageal-carcinoma-after-surgical-resection
#7
Jiandong Zhang, Lei Ma, Daimeng Shi, Zhen Zhang, Chuanshan Yao, Xulin Zhao, Quanxiao Xu, Penghao Wen, Limin He
Many studies have shown that randomized clinical trial with long-term follow-up found no improvement in stage II esophageal carcinoma (EC) patients receiving preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy treatment, this limitation underscored the urgent need for novel and reliable biomarkers for prognosis and prediction in stage II EC. miR-21 is frequently over-expressed while programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) is often down-regulated in solid tumors. This study aimed to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of miR-21 and PDCD4 expression and to elucidate any correlation between miR-21 and PDCD4 expression in stage II EC patients...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330943/epigenetic-markers-in-circulating-cell-free-dna-as-prognostic-markers-for-survival-of-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-patients
#8
Rianne J Hendriks, Siebren Dijkstra, Frank P Smit, Johan Vandersmissen, Hendrik Van de Voorde, Peter F A Mulders, Inge M van Oort, Wim Van Criekinge, Jack A Schalken
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive biomarkers to guide personalized treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) are needed. In this study, we analyzed hypermethylation patterns of two genes (GSTP1 and APC) in plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of CRPC patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the cfDNA concentrations and levels of the epigenetic markers and to assess the value of these biomarkers for prognosis. METHODS: In this prospective study, patients were included before starting new treatment after developing CRPC...
January 12, 2018: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330747/recent-advances-in-screening-for-barrett-s-esophagus
#9
REVIEW
Sarmed S Sami, Prasad G Iyer
OPINION STATEMENT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a pressing need for effective strategies to halt the increase in both the incidence and mortality of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Screening for Barrett's esophagus, which is the only known precursor of EAC, remains a ripe area for research, particularly with regard to identifying the target population, screening tools, and management of screen-detected populations. This review aims to explore in depth the rationale for screening for Barrett's esophagus, recent biotechnological advances which may have the potential of making screening feasible, and also highlight the challenges which will have to be overcome in order make screening for BE a realistic prospect...
January 13, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330466/target-engagement-imaging-of-parp-inhibitors-in-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
Brandon Carney, Susanne Kossatz, Benjamin H Lok, Valentina Schneeberger, Kishore K Gangangari, Naga Vara Kishore Pillarsetty, Wolfgang A Weber, Charles M Rudin, John T Poirier, Thomas Reiner
Insufficient chemotherapy response and rapid disease progression remain concerns for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Oncologists rely on serial CT scanning to guide treatment decisions, but this cannot assess in vivo target engagement of therapeutic agents. Biomarker assessments in biopsy material do not assess contemporaneous target expression, intratumoral drug exposure, or drug-target engagement. Here, we report the use of PARP1/2-targeted imaging to measure target engagement of PARP inhibitors in vivo. Using a panel of clinical PARP inhibitors, we show that PARP imaging can quantify target engagement of chemically diverse small molecule inhibitors in vitro and in vivo...
January 12, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330429/tissue-and-serum-microrna-profile-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-patients
#11
Augusto Schneider, Berta Victoria, Yury Nunez Lopez, Wiktoria Suchorska, Wojciech Barczak, Agnieszka Sobecka, Wojciech Golusinski, Michal M Masternak, Pawel Golusinski
Head and neck cancer is characterized by malignant tumors arising from the epithelium covering the upper aerodigestive tract, and the majority of these epithelial malignancies are squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the oral cavity (OSCCs). The aim of the current work was to identify miRNAs regulated in OSCC cancerous tissue when compared to a healthy adjacent tissue and to verify the presence of the same miRNAs in the circulation of these patients. For that serum samples and biopsies of healthy and tumor tissues were collected from five patients diagnosed with OSCC of the oral cavity, RNA was extracted from these samples and microRNAs libraries were prepared and sequenced...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330370/a-rna-sequencing-approach-for-the-identification-of-novel-long-non-coding-rna-biomarkers-in-colorectal-cancer
#12
Atsushi Yamada, Pingjian Yu, Wei Lin, Yoshinaga Okugawa, C Richard Boland, Ajay Goel
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in human pathology, however, their role in colorectal carcinogenesis have not been fully elucidated. In the current study, whole-transcriptome analysis was performed in 3 pairs of colorectal cancer (CRC) and matched normal mucosa (NM) by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Followed by confirmation using the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset, we identified 27 up-regulated and 22 down-regulated lncRNAs in CRC. Up-regulation of four lncRNAs, hereby named colorectal cancer associated lncRNA (CRCAL)-1 [AC021218...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330290/dual-inhibition-of-cdk4-and-cdk2-via-targeting-p27-tyrosine-phosphorylation-induces-a-potent-and-durable-response-in-breast-cancer-cells
#13
Priyank Patel, Vladislav Tsiperson, Susan R S Gottesman, Jonathan Somma, Stacy W Blain
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) specific inhibitors, such as Palbociclib, have shown clinical efficacy, but primary or secondary resistance has emerged as a problem. To develop more effective therapeutic approaches, investigation is needed into the mechanisms of resistance or adaption. Here, it is demonstrated that CDK2 compensates for loss of CDK4 activity to rescue Palbociclib-arrested breast cancer cells, suggesting that inhibition of both kinases is required to achieve durable response. In addition, a novel strategy is described to inhibit tyrosine phosphorylation of p27Kip1 (CDKN1B) and simultaneously inhibit both CDK2 and CDK4...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330289/brca1-through-its-e3-ligase-activity-regulates-the-transcription-factor-oct1-and-carbohydrate-metabolism
#14
Karina Vázquez-Arreguín, Jessica Maddox, Jinsuk Kang, Dongju Park, Reuben R Cano, Rachel E Factor, Thomas Ludwig, Dean Tantin
The tumor suppressor BRCA1 regulates the DNA damage response (DDR) and other processes that remain incompletely defined. Among these, BRCA1 heterodimerizes with BARD1 to ubiquitylate targets via its N-terminal E3 ligase activity. Here it is demonstrated that BRCA1 promotes oxidative metabolism by degrading Oct1 (POU2F1), a transcription factor with pro-glycolytic and tumorigenic effects. BRCA1 E3 ubiquitin ligase mutation skews cells towards a glycolytic metabolic profile while elevating Oct1 protein. CRISPR-mediated Oct1 deletion reverts the glycolytic phenotype...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330288/epigenetically-regulated-chromosome-14q32-mirna-cluster-induces-metastasis-and-predicts-poor-prognosis-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-patients
#15
Margarita Gonzalez-Vallinas, Manuel Rodriguez-Paredes, Marco Albrecht, Carsten Sticht, Damian Stichel, Julian Gutekunst, Adriana Pitea, Steffen Sass, Francisco J Sánchez-Rivera, Justo L Bermejo, Jennifer Schmitt, Carolina De La Torre, Arne Warth, Fabian Theis, Nikola Mueller, Norbert Gretz, Thomas Muley, Michael Meister, Darjus F Tschaharganeh, Peter Schirmacher, Franziska Matthäus, Kai Breuhahn
Most lung cancer deaths are related to metastases, which indicates the necessity of detecting and inhibiting tumor cell dissemination. Here, we aimed to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma as prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets. To that end, lymph node metastasis-associated miRNAs were identified in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) lung adenocarcinoma patient cohort (sequencing data; n=449) and subsequently validated by RT-qPCR in an independent clinical cohort (n=108)...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330287/targeted-akt-inhibition-in-prostate-cancer-cells-and-spheroids-reduces-aerobic-glycolysis-and-generation-of-hyperpolarized-1-13c-lactate
#16
Sui Seng Tee, Izabela Suster, Steven Truong, Sangmoo Jeong, Roozbeh Eskandari, Valentina Di Gialleonardo, Julio A Alvarez, Hannah N Aldeborgh, Kayvan Keshari
The PI3K/AKT/mTOR (PAM) signaling pathway is frequently mutated in prostate cancer. Specific AKT inhibitors are now in advanced clinical trials and this study investigates the effect of MK2206, a non-ATP competitive inhibitor, on the cellular metabolism in the context of prostate cancer. A significant reduction in cell motility and aerobic glycolysis was observed in prostate cancer cells with treatment. These changes were not accompanied by a reduction in the ratio of high-energy phosphates or a change in total protein levels of enzymes (e...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330146/demethylation-induced-overexpression-of-shc3-drives-c-raf-independent-activation-of-mek-erk-in-hcc
#17
Yun Liu, Xinran Zhang, Baicai Yang, Hao Zhuang, Hua Guo, Wen Wei, Yuan Li, Ruibing Chen, Yongmei Li, Ning Zhang
Invasion and intrahepatic metastasis are major factors of poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we show that increased Src homolog and collagen homolog 3 (Shc3) expression in malignant HCC cell lines associate with HCC invasion and metastasis. Shc3 was significantly upregulated in tumors of 33 HCC patient samples as compared to adjacent normal tissues. Further analysis of 52 HCC patient samples showed that Shc3 expression correlated with microvascular invasion, cancer staging, and poor prognosis...
January 12, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330105/redox-regulation-of-micrornas-in-cancer
#18
Jiang Lan, Zhao Huang, Jichun Shao, Canhua Huang
Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has long been implicated in tumorigenesis, whereas the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Oxidative stress is a hallmark of cancer that involved in multiple pathophysiological processes, including the aberrant regulation of miRNAs. Compelling evidences have implied complicated interplay between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and miRNAs. Indeed, ROS induces carcinogenesis through either reducing or increasing the miRNA level, leading to the activation of oncogenes or silence of tumor suppressors, respectively...
January 9, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330104/circular-rna-an-emerging-non-coding-rna-as-a-regulator-and-biomarker-in-cancer
#19
Bing Chen, Shenglin Huang
Circular RNA (circRNA) is a type of covalently closed non-coding RNA that may regulate gene expression in eukaryotes. The recent application of high-throughput RNA sequencing and bioinformatics approaches has revealed a large number of circRNAs in human cells. Emerging evidence indicates that many circRNAs have cell-type specific expression and are linked to physiological development and various diseases. Specially, circRNAs can either serve as oncogenic stimuli or tumor suppressors in cancer. circRNAs have also been shown to be enriched and stable in extracellular fluid, indicating the potential of circRNAs as cancer biomarkers...
January 9, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330025/the-role-of-extracellular-and-intracellular-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyl-transferase-in-cancer-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-perspectives-and-challenges
#20
REVIEW
Maria Dalamaga, Gerasimos Socrates Christodoulatos, Christos S Mantzoros
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl-transferase (Nampt) or pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor or visfatin represents a pleiotropic molecule acting as an enzyme, a cytokine and a growth factor. Intracellular Nampt plays an important role in cellular bioenergetics and metabolism, particularly NAD biosynthesis. NAD biosynthesis is critical in DNA repair, oncogenic signal transduction, transcription, genomic integrity and apoptosis. Although its insulin-mimetic function remains a controversial issue, extracellular Nampt presents proliferative, anti-apoptotic, pro-inflammatory, pro-angiogenic and metastatic properties...
January 9, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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