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Glucagon like peptide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777704/dietary-mung-bean-protein-reduces-high-fat-diet-induced-weight-gain-by-modulating-host-bile-acid-metabolism-in-a-gut-microbiota-dependent-manner
#1
Akiho Nakatani, Xuan Li, Junki Miyamoto, Miki Igarashi, Hitoshi Watanabe, Asuka Sutou, Keita Watanabe, Takayasu Motoyama, Nobuhiko Tachibana, Mitsutaka Kohno, Hiroshi Inoue, Ikuo Kimura
The 8-globulin-rich mung bean protein (MPI) suppresses hepatic lipogenesis in rodent models and reduces fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels in obese adults. However, its effects on mitigating high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and the mechanism underlying these effects remain to be elucidated. Herein, we examined the metabolic phenotype, intestinal bile acid (BA) pool, and gut microbiota of conventionally raised (CONV-R) male C57BL/6 mice and germ-free (GF) mice that were randomized to receive either regular HFD or HFD containing mung bean protein isolate (MPI) instead of the dairy protein present in regular HFD...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777703/bacterial-metabolite-s-equol-modulates-glucagon-like-peptide-1-secretion-from-enteroendocrine-l-cell-line-glutag-cells-via-actin-polymerization
#2
Kazuki Harada, Shoko Sada, Hidekazu Sakaguchi, Mai Takizawa, Rika Ishida, Takashi Tsuboi
S-equol is one of gut bacterial metabolites produced from soybean isoflavone daizein. While S-equol is known to promote glucose-induced insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells, whether S-equol affects glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion from enteroendoceine L cells remains unclear. Here we assessed the effect of S-equol on GLP-1 secretion from mouse enteroendocrine L cell line GLUTag cells. GLUTag cells expressed GPR30 and estrogen receptors, which are putative S-equol receptors. Application of S-equol induced an increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels via GPR30...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777582/comparative-study-of-liraglutide-and-insulin-glargine-on-glycemic-control-and-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-db-db-mice
#3
Yanli Li, Jia Zheng, Yunfeng Shen, Wangen Li, Meimei Liu, Jun Wang, Surong Zhu, Meihua Wu
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to compare the effects of liraglutide, a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, and insulin glargine, a long-acting insulin analog, on glycemic control and pancreatic β-cell function in db/db mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS Eight-week-old male db/db mice (n=40) were divided into five groups: the vehicle-treated group (VG) (n=8); the insulin glargine-treated group (GG) (dose, 450 mg/kg) (n=8), the low-dose liraglutide-treated group (LLG) (dose, 75 μg/kg) (n=8), the mid-dose liraglutide-treated group (MLG) (150 μg/kg) (n=8), and the high-dose liraglutide-treated group (HLG) (300 μg/kg) (n=8), treated with subcutaneous injection once daily, from 8-14 weeks-of-age...
May 19, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776968/liraglutide-modulates-appetite-and-body-weight-via-glp-1r-expressing-glutamatergic-neurons
#4
Jessica M Adams, Hongjuan Pei, Darleen A Sandoval, Randy J Seeley, Rui B Chang, Stephen D Liberles, David P Olson
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are FDA-approved weight loss drugs. Despite their widespread use, the sites of action through which GLP-1R agonists (GLP1RAs) impact appetite and body weight are still not fully understood. Here, we determined whether GLP-1Rs in either GABAergic or glutamatergic neurons are necessary for the acute and chronic effects of the GLP1RA liraglutide on food intake, visceral illness, body weight and neural network activation. We found that mice lacking GLP-1Rs in vGAT -expressing GABAergic neurons responded identically to controls in all parameters measured, whereas deletion of GLP-1Rs in vGlut2 -expressing glutamatergic neurons eliminated liraglutide-induced weight loss and visceral illness and severely attenuated its effects on feeding...
May 18, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776493/mechanisms-in-bariatric-surgery-gut-hormones-diabetes-resolution-and-weight-loss
#5
Jens Juul Holst, Sten Madsbad, Kirstine N Bojsen-Møller, Maria Saur Svane, Nils Bruun Jørgensen, Carsten Dirksen, Christoffer Martinussen
Gastric bypass surgery leads to profound changes in the secretion of gut hormones with effects on metabolism, appetite, and food intake. Here, we discuss their contributions to the improvement in glucose tolerance and the weight loss that results from the operations. We find that the improved glucose tolerance is due the following events: a negative energy balance and resulting weight loss, which improve first hepatic and later peripheral insulin sensitivity, in combination with increased postprandial insulin secretion elicited particularly by exaggerated glucagon-like peptide-1 responses...
May 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776414/glp-i-secretion-in-healthy-and-diabetic-wistar-rats-in-response-to-aqueous-extract-of-momordica-charantia
#6
Gulzar Ahmad Bhat, Haseeb A Khan, Abdullah S Alhomida, Poonam Sharma, Rambir Singh, Bilal Ahmad Paray
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is one of the major global health disorders increasing at an alarming rate in both developed and developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia (AEMC) on fasting blood glucose (FBG), tissue glycogen, glycosylated haemoglobin, plasma concentrations of insulin and GLP-1 hormone (glucagon-like peptide 1) in healthy and diabetic wistar rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (both normal and diabetic) were treated with AEMC by gavaging (300 mg/kg body wt/day for 28 days)...
May 18, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776406/the-effect-of-dpp-4-inhibition-to-improve-functional-outcome-after-stroke-is-mediated-by-the-sdf-1%C3%AE-cxcr4-pathway
#7
Fausto Chiazza, Harald Tammen, Hiranya Pintana, Grazyna Lietzau, Massimo Collino, Thomas Nyström, Thomas Klein, Vladimer Darsalia, Cesare Patrone
BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) are approved drugs for the treatment of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. These effects are mainly mediated by inhibiting endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) cleavage. Interestingly, gliptins can also improve stroke outcome in rodents independently from GLP1. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) is a DPP-4 substrate and CXCR4 agonist promoting beneficial effects in injured brains...
May 19, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773934/iglarlixi-a-new-once-daily-fixed-ratio-combination-of-basal-insulin-glargine-and-lixisenatide-for-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes
#8
Debbie Hinnen, Jodi Strong
Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes require treatment intensification to maintain glycemic control. Clinician reluctance, patient injection fears, hypoglycemia, weight gain, or other objections may lead to clinical inertia, whereby therapy is not intensified and patients live with uncontrolled hyperglycemia and increased risk for complications. Initiation of injectable therapy with a glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonist and/or basal insulin is a recommended option for patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on one or more oral agents...
May 2018: Diabetes Spectrum: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772784/capsaicin-in-metabolic-syndrome
#9
REVIEW
Sunil K Panchal, Edward Bliss, Lindsay Brown
Capsaicin, the major active constituent of chilli, is an agonist on transient receptor potential vanilloid channel 1 (TRPV1). TRPV1 is present on many metabolically active tissues, making it a potentially relevant target for metabolic interventions. Insulin resistance and obesity, being the major components of metabolic syndrome, increase the risk for the development of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In vitro and pre-clinical studies have established the effectiveness of low-dose dietary capsaicin in attenuating metabolic disorders...
May 17, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770600/how-does-glucagon-like-peptide-1-stimulate-human-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation-a-lesson-from-islet-graft-experiments
#10
Yoshio Fujitani
The incidence of type 2 diabetes increases with age. The age-dependent decline in functional β-cell mass contributes to the increased risk of onset of diabetes, reflecting the central role of pancreatic β cells in glucose homeostasis. Indeed, the replication rate of human and rodent β cells is known to decline sharply with age, and such a characteristic of β cells may explain the increased onset of type 2 diabetes in the older population. The molecular mechanism involved in the age-dependent decline of β-cell proliferation has been extensively studied, mainly using rodents and in vitro culture systems, but its molecular basis is still largely unknown...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768476/treatment-with-specific-soluble-factors-promotes-the-functional-maturation-of-transcription-factor-mediated-pancreatic-transdifferentiated-cells
#11
Hiroaki Motoyama, Akira Kobayashi, Takahide Yokoyama, Akira Shimizu, Hiroshi Sakai, Tsuyoshi Notake, Kentaro Fukushima, Shin-Ichi Miyagawa
Pancreatic lineage-specific transcription factors (TFs) display instructive roles in converting adult cells to endocrine pancreatic cells through a process known as transdifferentiation. However, little is known about potential factors capable of accelerating transdifferentiation following transduction to achieve the functional maturation of transdifferentiated cells. In this study, we demonstrated, using adult liver-derived progenitor cells, that soluble factors utilized in pancreatic differentiation protocols of pluripotent stem cells promote functional maturation of TFs-mediated transdifferentiated cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766634/semaglutide-induces-weight-loss-in-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-regardless-of-baseline-bmi-or-gastrointestinal-adverse-events-in-sustain-1-5-trials
#12
Bo Ahrén, Stephen L Atkin, Guillaume Charpentier, Mark L Warren, John Ph Wilding, Sune Birch, Anders Gaarsdal Holst, Lawrence A Leiter
AIMS: Semaglutide, a new once-weekly glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, demonstrated superior reductions in HbA1c and superior weight loss (by 2.3-6.3 kg) versus different comparators across the SUSTAIN 1-5 trials; the contributing factors to weight loss are not established. This post hoc analysis assessed the effect of baseline body mass index (BMI), and of occurrence of nausea and/or vomiting, on semaglutide-induced weight loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes (drug-naïve or on background treatment) were randomized to subcutaneous semaglutide 0...
May 15, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765207/adherence-to-antihyperglycemic-medications-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-in-type-2-diabetes-clinical-consequences-and-strategies-for-improvement
#13
REVIEW
Francesco Giorgino, Alfred Penfornis, Valeria Pechtner, Raffaella Gentilella, Antonella Corcos
Adherence to antihyperglycemic medications is often suboptimal in patients with type 2 diabetes, and this can contribute to poor glycemic control, increased hospitalization, and the development of diabetic complications. Reported adherence rates to antihyperglycemics vary widely among studies, and this may be related to differences in methodology for measuring adherence, patient populations, and other factors. Poor adherence may occur regardless of the specific regimen used and whether therapy is oral or injectable, and can be especially common in chronic, asymptomatic conditions, such as type 2 diabetes...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763559/long-acting-release-microspheres-containing-novel-glp-1-analog-as-an-antidiabetic-system
#14
Sida Ruan, Yuanyuan Gu, Bo Liu, Huashan Gao, Xiongwei Hu, Haiping Hao, Liang Jin, Ting Cai
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has recently received significant attention as an efficacious way to treat diabetes mellitus. However, the short half-life of the peptide limits its clinical application in diabetes. In our previous study, a novel GLP-1 analog (PGLP-1) with a longer half-life was synthesized and evaluated. Herein, we prepared the PGLP-1-loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co- glycolide) microspheres to achieve long-term effects on blood glucose control. The incorporation of zinc ion into the formulation can effectively decrease the initial burst release, and a uniform drug distribution was obtained, in contrast to native PGLP-1 encapsulated microspheres...
May 15, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760945/liraglutide-and-dulaglutide-therapy-in-addition-to-sglt-2-inhibitor-and-metformin-treatment-in-indian-type-2-diabetics-a-real-world-retrospective-observational-study
#15
S Ghosal, B Sinha
Background: Therapy for Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been transformed by the introduction of newer agents like Glucagon like Peptide Receptor Agonists (GLP-1RA) and Sodium-glucose linked transporter inhibitors (SGLT2i). However with co-initiation of SGLT2i and GLP-1RA in the DURATION 8 trial an improvement in HbA1c was noted but the beneficial effect was not equal to the sum of its parts. In view of this we proceeded to test the hypothesis that sequential addition of GLP-1RA therapy to metformin and SGLT-2i may be more beneficial...
2018: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760346/effect-of-sitagliptin-on-coronary-flow-reserve-assessed-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#16
Keishi Moriwaki, Tetsushiro Takeuchi, Naoki Fujimoto, Toshiki Sawai, Yuichi Sato, Naoto Kumagai, Jun Masuda, Shiro Nakamori, Masaki Ishida, Norikazu Yamada, Mashio Nakamura, Hajime Sakuma, Masaaki Ito, Kaoru Dohi
BACKGROUND: The present study was conducted to assess the cardiovascular effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i) on coronary flow reserve (CFR), left ventricular (LV) function and endothelial function of the peripheral artery by comparison with those of α-glucosidase inhibitors (αGI) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and coronary artery disease (CAD).Methods and Results:We randomly assigned 30 patients with T2DM and CAD to receive either sitagliptin or voglibose, and 28 patients (age 69±9 years, 75% male, hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] 6...
May 12, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759973/enhanced-glucose-control-following-vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy-does-not-require-a-%C3%AE-cell-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor
#17
Jonathan D Douros, Alfor G Lewis, Eric P Smith, JingJing Niu, Megan Capozzi, April Wittmann, Jonathan Campbell, Jenny Tong, Constance Wagner, Parinaz Mahbod, Randy Seeley, David A D'Alessio
Bariatric surgeries, including vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), resolve diabetes in 40-50% of patients. Studies examining the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect have centered on the role of the insulinotropic glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), in great part because of the ∼10-fold rise in its circulating levels after surgery. However, there is currently debate over the role of direct β-cell signaling by GLP-1 to mediate improved glucose tolerance following surgery. In order to assess the importance of β-cell GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) for improving glucose control after VSG, a mouse model of this procedure was developed and combined with a genetically modified mouse line allowing an inducible, β-cell specific Glp1r knockdown ( Glp1r β-cell-ko )...
May 14, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758188/tuft-cells-distribution-and-connections-with-nerves-and-endocrine-cells-in-mouse-intestine
#18
Xiaowen Cheng, Ulrikke Voss, Eva Ekblad
Tuft cells are gastrointestinal (GI) sensory cells recognized by their characteristic shape and their microvilli "tuft". Aims of the present study were to elucidate their regional distribution and spatial connections with satiety associated endocrine cells and nerve fibers throughout the intestinal tract. C57BL/6J mice were used in the experiments. The small intestine was divided into five segments, and the large intestine was kept undivided. The segments were coiled into "Swiss rolls". Numbers and topographic distribution of tuft cells and possible contacts with endocrine cells and nerve fibers were estimated in the different segments, using immunocytochemistry...
May 11, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756388/semaglutide-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Panagiotis Andreadis, Thomas Karagiannis, Konstantinos Malandris, Ioannis Avgerinos, Aris Liakos, Apostolos Manolopoulos, Eleni Bekiari, David R Matthews, Apostolos Tsapas
AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of semaglutide, a recently approved glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) for type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We searched major electronic databases and grey literature sources for randomised controlled trials comparing semaglutide with placebo or other antidiabetic agents. Primary outcome was change from baseline in HbA1c . Secondary endpoints included change from baseline in body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, and incidence of hypoglycaemia, gastrointestinal adverse effects, pancreatitis and diabetic retinopathy...
May 13, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754323/the-effects-of-exenatide-and-metformin-on-endothelial-function-in-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-a-case-control-study
#20
Yanjin Hu, Jia Liu, Guang Wang, Yuan Xu
INTRODUCTION: Exenatide is a new antidiabetic glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist. In addition to its hypoglycemic effect, exenatide may have a potential protective benefit on vascular endothelial function. This study attempted to compare the effects of exenatide and traditional antidiabetic drug metformin treatment on endothelial function in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Ninety overweight patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were recruited; 45 patients received exenatide (Exe) treatment and 45 patients received metformin (Met) treatment for 12 weeks...
May 12, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
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