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Glucagon like peptide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351476/human-endoc-%C3%AE-h1-%C3%AE-cells-form-pseudoislets-with-improved-glucose-sensitivity-and-enhanced-glp-1-signaling-in-the-presence-of-islet-derived-endothelial-cells
#1
Michael G Spelios, Lauren A Afinowicz, Regine C Tipon, Eitan M Akirav
Three-dimensional (3D) pseudoislets (PIs) can be used for the study of insulin-producing β-cells in free-floating islet-like structures similar to that of primary islets. Previously, we demonstrated the ability of islet-derived endothelial cells (iECs) to induce PIs using murine insulinomas, where PI formation enhanced insulin production and glucose responsiveness. In this report, we examined the ability of iECs to spontaneously induce the formation of free-floating 3D PIs using the EndoC-βH1 human β-cell line murine MS1 iEC line...
January 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351421/increased-insulin-clearance-in-mice-with-double-deletion-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-receptors
#2
Andrea Tura, Roberto Bizzotto, Yuichiro Yamada, Yutaka Seino, Giovanni Pacini, Bo Ahren
To establish whether incretin hormones affect insulin clearance, the aim of this study was to assess insulin clearance in mice with genetic deletion of receptors for both glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), so called double incretin receptor knockout mice (DIRKO). DIRKO (n=31) and wild-type (WT) C57BL6J mice (n=45) were intravenously injected with D-glucose (0.35 g/kg). Blood was sampled for 50 minutes and assayed for glucose, insulin and C-peptide. Data were modeled to calculate insulin clearance; C-peptide kinetics was established after human C-peptide injection...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350569/practice-pearl-liraglutide-and-cardiovascular-and-renal-events-in-type-2-diabetes
#3
Robert Guthrie
Review of: Marso S, Daniels G, Brown-Frandsen K, et al. Liraglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 2016; 375: 311-322. Mann J, Orsted D, Brown-Frandsen K, et al. Liraglutide and Renal Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med 2017; 377: 839-848. This comprehensive research project, LEADER, led to two reports, one focusing on the effect of liraglutide on cardiovascular events, and the second one reporting on the renal effects on the same study population. The study group included 9340 patients with type 2 diabetes...
January 19, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349894/assessment-of-the-potential-of-temporin-peptides-from-the-frog-rana-temporaria-ranidae-as-anti-diabetic-agents
#4
Vishal Musale, Bruno Casciaro, Maria Luisa Mangoni, Yasser H A Abdel-Wahab, Peter R Flatt, J Michael Conlon
Temporin A (FLPLIGRVLSGIL-NH2 ), temporin F (FLPLIGKVLSGIL-NH2 ), and temporin G (FFPVIGRILNGIL-NH2 ), first identified in skin secretions of the frog Rana temporaria, produced concentration-dependent stimulation of insulin release from BRIN-BD11 rat clonal β-cells at concentrations ≥1 nM, without cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 3 μM. Temporin A was the most effective. The mechanism of insulinotropic action did not involve an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. Temporins B, C, E, H, and K were either inactive or only weakly active...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348573/exendin-4-encapsulated-dissolving-microneedle-arrays-for-efficient-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#5
Shayan Fakhraei Lahiji, Yoojung Jang, Inyoung Huh, Huisuk Yang, Mingyu Jang, Hyungil Jung
Dissolving microneedles (DMNs) are microscopic needles capable of delivering encapsulated compounds and releasing them into the skin in a minimally invasive manner. Most studies indicate that encapsulating therapeutics in DMNs is an efficacious approach; however, the importance of evaluating the activity of encapsulated compounds, during the fabrication process, has not been examined in detail. Conducting an analysis of thermal, chemical, and physical stress factors, including temperature, pH, and the interaction of the polymer and therapeutics mixture during preparation, is essential for retaining the activity of encapsulated therapeutics during and after fabrication...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345505/the-pharmacological-management-of-metabolic-syndrome
#6
Julie Rask Larsen, Lorena Dima, Christoph U Correll, Peter Manu
Introduction The metabolic syndrome includes a constellation of several well-established risk factors, which need to be aggressively treated in order to prevent overt type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While recent guidelines for the treatment of individual components of the metabolic syndrome focus on cardiovascular benefits as resulted from clinical trials, specific recent recommendations on the pharmacological management of metabolic syndrome are lacking. The objective of present paper was to review the therapeutic options for metabolic syndrome and its components, the available evidence related to their cardiovascular benefits, and to evaluate the extent to which they should influence the guidelines for clinical practice...
January 18, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344656/liraglutide-suppresses-proliferation-and-induces-adipogenic-differentiation-of-3t3-l1-cells-via-the-hippo-yap-signaling-pathway
#7
Yongmei Li, Jianying Du, Endong Zhu, Juanjuan Zhang, Jie Han, Wei Zhao, Bei Sun, Derun Tian
Liraglutide, as a glucagon-like peptide‑1 analogue, is used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Previous findings have demonstrated the effects of liraglutide on adipogenesis; however, the underlying mechanism involved in this process remains to be elucidated. In the present study, to certify the effect of liraglutide on adipogenesis and explore the possible underlying mechanism involved in this process, preadipocyte 3T3‑L1 cells were cultured in adipocyte‑inducing medium and treated with liraglutide...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344336/treating-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-review-of-efficacy-and-safety
#8
REVIEW
Elizabeth P Mills, K Paige D Brown, Jennifer D Smith, Phillip W Vang, Katie Trotta
Objective: To review current literature for the efficacy and safety of treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Data sources: A PubMed literature search from January 1990 to June 2017 was conducted using the search terms nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes mellitus, type 2, therapy, treatment, treat, therapeutics, nonalcoholic fatty liver, nonalcoholic hepatosteatosis, NASH, NAFLD, metformin, and statin...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344329/major-adverse-cardiovascular-event-reduction-with-glp-1-and-sglt2-agents-evidence-and-clinical-potential
#9
REVIEW
Michael E Røder
Treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes is directed against treating symptoms of hyperglycemia, minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia, and the risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications. The majority of patients with type 2 diabetes die from cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease. Future therapies should therefore focus on reducing cardiovascular morbidity in this high-risk population. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2-i) are two drug classes with proven antihyperglycemic effect in type 2 diabetes...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341824/intestinal-lymph-as-a-readout-of-meal-induced-glp-1-release-in-an-unrestrained-rat-model
#10
Nino Jejelava, Sharon Kaufman, Jean-Philippe Krieger, Marcella Martins Terra, Wolfgang Langhans, Myrtha Arnold
Intestinal lymph supposedly provides a readout for the secretion of intestinal peptides. We here assessed how mesenteric lymph duct (MLD) lymph levels of glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), insulin, and metabolites (Glucose, triglycerides [TG]) evolve after isocaloric high and low fat diet (HFD, LFD) meals, and how they compare to hepatic portal vein (HPV) plasma levels. Moreover, we examined the effects of intraperitoneally (IP) administered GLP-1 (1 or 10 nmol/kg) on these parameters. At 20 min after the HFD meal onset, GLP-1 levels were higher in MLD lymph than in HPV plasma...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341461/effect-of-immediate-and-prolonged-glp-1-receptor-agonist-administration-on-uric-acid-and-its-kidney-clearance-post-hoc-analyses-of-four-clinical-trials
#11
Lennart Tonneijck, Marcel H A Muskiet, Mark M Smits, Petter Bjornstad, Mark H H Kramer, Michaela Diamant, Ewout J Hoorn, Jaap A Joles, Daniël H van Raalte
AIMS: To determine effects of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonists (RA) on uric acid (UA)-levels and kidney UA-clearance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Post-hoc analyses of four controlled clinical trials, which assessed actions of GLP-1RA-administration on kidney physiology. Immediate effects of GLP-1RA exenatide-infusion versus placebo was determined in 9 healthy overweight males (Study-A) and in 52 overweight T2DM-patients (Study-B). Effects were also examined of 12-week long-acting GLP-1RA liraglutide versus placebo in 36 overweight T2DM-patients (Study-C) and of 8-week short-acting GLP-1RA lixisenatide versus once-daily titrated insulin-glulisine in 35 overweight T2DM-patients (Study-D)...
January 17, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340167/subcutaneous-glucagon-infusion-and-continuous-glucose-monitoring-enable-effective-management-of-hypoglycemia-in-a-patient-with-igf-2-producing-hemangiopericytoma
#12
Eric D Buras, Emily Weatherup, Jennifer Wyckoff
Background: Ectopic insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-2 production is a rare complication of an array of epithelial and mesenchymal tumors, and can clinically manifest as life-threatening hypoglycemia. Case presentation: A 49-year-old woman with 13-year history of metastatic hemangiopericytoma, previously treated with multiple rounds of chemotherapy and palliative radiation, presented to the emergency department after a hypoglycemic seizure. On arrival, glucose was 18 mg/dL (1...
2018: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337226/glp-1-signaling-and-alcohol-mediated-behaviors-preclinical-and-clinical-evidence
#13
REVIEW
Elisabet Jerlhag
Alcohol addiction, affecting approximately four percent of the population, contributes significantly to the global burden of diseases and is a substantial cost to the society. The neurochemical mechanisms regulating alcohol mediated behaviors is complex and in more recent years a new physiological role of the gut-brain peptides, traditionally known to regulate appetite and food intake, have been suggested. Indeed, regulators of alcohol-mediated behaviors. One of these gut-brain peptides is the annorexigenic peptide glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), Preclinical studies show that GLP-1 receptor activation, either by GLP-1 or analogues, attenuate the ability of alcohol to activate the mesolimbic dopamine system as well as decrease alcohol consumption and operant self-administration...
January 11, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335487/increased-expression-of-glp-1r-in-proliferating-islets-of-men1-mice-is-detectable-by-68ga-ga-do3a-vs-cys40-exendin-4-pet
#14
Azita Monazzam, Joey Lau, Irina Velikyan, Su-Chen Li, Masoud Razmara, Ulrika Rosenström, Olof Eriksson, Britt Skogseid
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an endocrine tumor syndrome caused by heterozygous mutations in the MEN1 tumor suppressor gene. The MEN1 pancreas of the adolescent gene carrier frequently contain diffusely spread pre-neoplasias and microadenomas, progressing to macroscopic and potentially malignant pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (P-NET), which represents the major death cause in MEN1. The unveiling of the molecular mechanism of P-NET which is not currently understood fully to allow the optimization of diagnostics and treatment...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334278/a-comparative-safety-review-between-glp-1-receptor-agonists-and-sglt2-inhibitors-for-diabetes-treatment
#15
Agostino Consoli, Gloria Formoso, Maria Pompea Antonia Baldassarre, Fabrizio Febo
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) and sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are of particular interest in type 2 diabetes treatment strategies, due to their efficacy in reducing HbA1c with a low risk of hypoglycaemia, to their positive effects on body weight and blood pressure and in light of their effects on cardiovascular risk and on nephroprotection emerged from the most recent cardiovascular outcome trials. Since it is therefore very likely that GLP-1RA and SGLT2i use will become more and more common, it is more and more important to gather and discuss information about their safety profile...
January 15, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331730/exenatide-exerts-cognitive-effects-by-modulating-the-bdnf-trkb-neurotrophic-axis-in-adult-mice
#16
Manuela Bomba, Alberto Granzotto, Vanessa Castelli, Noemi Massetti, Elena Silvestri, Lorella M T Canzoniero, Annamaria Cimini, Stefano L Sensi
Modulation of insulin-dependent signaling is emerging as a valuable therapeutic tool to target neurodegeneration. In the brain, the activation of insulin receptors promotes cell growth, neuronal repair, and protection. Altered brain insulin signaling participates in the cognitive decline seen in Alzheimer's disease patients and the aging brain. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) regulates insulin secretion and, along with GLP-1 analogues, enhances neurotrophic signaling and counteracts cognitive deficits in preclinical models of neurodegeneration...
December 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331643/glucagon-like-peptide-1-signaling-inhibits-allergen-induced-lung-il-33-release-and-reduces-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cell-ilc2-cytokine-production-in-vivo
#17
Shinji Toki, Kasia Goleniewska, Sara Reiss, Jian Zhang, Melissa H Bloodworth, Matthew T Stier, Weisong Zhou, Dawn C Newcomb, Lorraine B Ware, Gregg D Stanwood, Aurelio Galli, Kelli L Boyd, Kevin D Niswender, R Stokes Peebles
BACKGROUND: IL-33 is one of the most consistently associated gene candidates for asthma identified by GWAS. Studies in mice and in human cells have confirmed the importance of IL-33 in inducing type-2 cytokine production from both group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) and Th2 cells. However, there are no pharmacologic agents known to inhibit IL-33 release from airway cells. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of glucagon like peptide receptor-1 GLP-1R signaling on aeroallergen-induced airway IL-33 production and release and on innate type-2 airway inflammation...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330461/comparing-olive-oil-and-c4-dietary-oil-a-prodrug-for-the-gpr119-agonist-2-oleoyl-glycerol-less-energy-intake-of-the-latter-is-needed-to-stimulate-incretin-hormone-secretion-in-overweight-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes
#18
Mette Johannsen Mandøe, Katrine Bagge Hansen, Johanne Agerlin Windeløv, Filip Krag Knop, Jens Frederik Rehfeld, Mette Marie Rosenkilde, Jens Juul Holst, Harald Severin Hansen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: After digestion, dietary triacylglycerol stimulates incretin release in humans, mainly through generation of 2-monoacylglycerol, an agonist for the intestinal G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119). Enhanced incretin release may have beneficial metabolic effects. However, dietary fat may promote weight gain and should therefore be restricted in obesity. We designed C4-dietary oil (1,3-di-butyryl-2-oleoyl glycerol) as a 2-oleoyl glycerol (2-OG)-generating fat type, which would stimulate incretin release to the same extent while providing less calories than equimolar amounts of common triglycerides, e...
January 12, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329748/oral-bifidobacterium-longum-expressing-glp-2-improves-nutrient-assimilation-and-nutritional-homeostasis-in-mice
#19
Qian Zhang, Mengge Liu, Shiyu Li, Zhenrui Xu, Jiajia Wang, Yuzhe Wang, Zhengbin Fei, Wenhua Huang, Hanxiao Sun
Bifidobacterium has been developed for the oral delivery of peptides and has the added beneficial effect on our bodies through its probiotic properties. Here, we utilize Bifidobacterium as a delivery system to orally deliver Glucagon like peptide-2 (GLP-2). We constructed vector derived from pET-31b(+) to construct a Bifidobacterium longum expressing GLP-2. We then determined the bioactivity of recombinant Bifidobacterium in Caco-2 cells. Finally, we quantified newly synthesized ApoB48 and chylomicron production in mice infused with exogenous GLP-2 or Bifidobacterium expressing GLP-2...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329233/dose-dependent-effects-of-randomized-intraduodenal-whey-protein-loads-on-glucose-gut-hormone-and-amino-acid-concentrations-in-healthy-older-and-younger-men
#20
Caroline Giezenaar, Natalie D Luscombe-Marsh, Amy T Hutchison, Scott Standfield, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Michael Horowitz, Ian Chapman, Stijn Soenen
Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the prevention and management of malnutrition in older people. We have reported that healthy older, compared to younger, adults have less suppression of energy intake by whey-protein-effects on appetite-related hormones are unknown. The objective was to determine the effects of intraduodenally administered whey-protein on glucose, gut hormone, and amino acid concentrations, and their relation to subsequent ad libitum energy intake at a buffet meal, in healthy older and younger men...
January 12, 2018: Nutrients
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