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Glucagon like peptide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098405/shielding-engineered-islets-with-mesenchymal-stem-cells-enhance-survival-under-hypoxia
#1
Bhawna Chandravanshi, Ramesh Ramchandra Bhonde
In the present study we focused on the improvisation of islet survival in hypoxia.The Islet like cell aggregates (ICAs) derived from wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ MSC) were cultured with and without WJ MSC for 48h in hypoxia and normoxia and tested for their direct trophic effect on β cell survival. The WJ MSCs themselves secreted insulin upon glucose challenge and expressed the pancreatic markers at both transcription and translational level (C-peptide, Insulin,Glucagon and Glut 2). Direct contact of MSCs with ICAs facilitated highest viability under hypoxia as evidenced by fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(MTT) assay...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098360/morroniside-a-secoiridoid-glycoside-from-cornus-officinalis-attenuates-neuropathic-pain-by-activation-of-spinal-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptors
#2
Meng Xu, Hai-Yun Wu, Hao Liu, Nian Gong, Yi-Rui Wang, Yong-Xiang Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Iridoid glycosides with intact double bond scaffold of cyclopentapyran were reversible and orthosteric agonists of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors and possess antinociception and neuroprotection. Morroniside, derived from the medicinal herb Cornus officinalis, is an atypical secoiridoid replaced by a six-membered cyclic inner ether fragment. This study investigated whether morroniside was an orthosteric GLP-1 receptor agonist and had antihypersensitivity activities in neuropathy...
January 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098139/appetite-responses-to-high-fat-meals-or-diets-of-varying-fatty-acid-composition-a-comprehensive-review
#3
REVIEW
S Kaviani, J A Cooper
Dietary fatty acids (FA) act as signaling molecules with diverse effects on physiologic function. The aim of this article is to review and summarize the clinical human studies in the literature on how dietary FA composition in meals and diets affects hunger and satiety signaling in the body. Studies examining FA saturation (monounsaturated (MUFA), saturated or polyunsaturated (PUFA) FAs) or FA chain length from high-fat meals/diets were included. Measures of appetite included visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaires, appetite hormones (Cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), gastric insulinotropic polypeptide gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), ghrelin, leptin, insulin) and/or energy intake (EI) data...
January 18, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097390/a-role-of-plc-pkc-dependent-pathway-in-glp-1-stimulated-insulin-secretion
#4
REVIEW
Makoto Shigeto, Chae Young Cha, Patrik Rorsman, Kohei Kaku
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an endogenous glucose-lowering hormone and GLP-1 receptor agonists are currently being used as antidiabetic drugs clinically. The canonical signalling pathway (including cAMP, Epac2, protein kinase A (PKA) and KATP channels) is almost universally accepted as the main mechanism of GLP-1-stimulated insulin secretion. This belief is based on in vitro studies that used nanomolar (1-100 nM) concentrations of GLP-1. Recently, it was found that the physiological concentrations (1-10 pM) of GLP-1 also stimulate insulin secretion from isolated islets, induce membrane depolarization and increase of intracellular [Ca(2+)] in isolated β cells/pancreatic islets...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096522/control-of-food-intake-by-gastrointestinal-peptides-mechanisms-of-action-and-possible-modulation-in-the-treatment-of-obesity
#5
REVIEW
Philip Prinz, Andreas Stengel
This review focuses on the control of appetite by food intake-regulatory peptides secreted from the gastrointestinal tract, namely cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1, peptide YY, ghrelin, and the recently discovered nesfatin-1 via the gut-brain axis. Additionally, we describe the impact of external factors such as intake of different nutrients or stress on the secretion of gastrointestinal peptides. Finally, we highlight possible conservative-physical activity and pharmacotherapy-treatment strategies for obesity as well as surgical techniques such as deep brain stimulation and bariatric surgery also altering these peptidergic pathways...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095318/interoceptive-modulation-of-neuroendocrine-emotional-and-hypophagic-responses-to-stress
#6
REVIEW
James W Maniscalco, Linda Rinaman
Periods of caloric deficit substantially attenuate many centrally mediated responses to acute stress, including neural drive to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, anxiety-like behavior, and stress-induced suppression of food intake (i.e., stress hypophagia). It is posited that this stress response plasticity supports food foraging and promotes intake during periods of negative energy balance, even in the face of other internal or external threats, thereby increasing the likelihood that energy stores are repleted...
January 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094469/immunohistochemical-assessment-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-glp-1r-expression-in-the-pancreas-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#7
Rikke Kaae Kirk, Charles Pyke, Matthias G von Herrath, Jane Preuss Hasselby, Lars Pedersen, Pia Gottrup Mortensen, Lotte Bjerre Knudsen, Ken Coppieters
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone which stimulates insulin release and inhibits glucagon secretion from the pancreas in a glucose-dependent manner. Incretin-based therapies, consisting of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, are used for the treatment of T2D. Immunohistochemical studies for GLP-1R expression have previously been hampered by the use of unspecific polyclonal antibodies. This study used a new monoclonal antibody to assess GLP-1R expression in pancreatic tissue from 23 patients with T2D, including 7 with a DPP-4 inhibitor and 1 with a GLP-1R agonist treatment history...
January 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091894/mechanisms-of-action-of-surgical-interventions-on-weight-related-diseases-the-potential-role-of-bile-acids
#8
REVIEW
Mohsen Mazidi, Pedro Paulo P de Caravatto, John R Speakman, Ricardo V Cohen
Surgical interventions for weight-related diseases (SWRD) may have substantial and sustainable effect on weight reduction, also leading to a higher remission rate of type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus than any other medical treatment or lifestyle intervention. The resolution of T2D after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) typically occurs too quickly to be accounted for by weight loss alone, suggesting that these operations have a direct impact on glucose homeostasis. The mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects however remain unclear...
January 14, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091829/inhibition-of-dpp-4-activity-and-neuronal-atrophy-with-genistein-attenuates-neurological-deficits-induced-by-transient-global-cerebral-ischemia-and-reperfusion-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#9
Mithun Singh Rajput, Purnima Dey Sarkar, Nilesh Prakash Nirmal
Genistein, an isoflavonoid phytoestrogen, has been known for its potential pharmacological properties especially for neuroprotection and treating diabetes. The present study aims to determine the neuroprotective efficacy of genistein against global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion-induced neuronal injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and explore the underlying mechanisms. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were subjected to transient cerebral ischemia by occluding both common carotid arteries for 30 min followed by 24 h reperfusion to induce neuronal injury...
January 16, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089587/development-of-111-in-labeled-exendin-9-39-derivatives-for-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-imaging-of-insulinoma
#10
Hiroyuki Kimura, Hirokazu Matsuda, Yu Ogawa, Hiroyuki Fujimoto, Kentaro Toyoda, Naotaka Fujita, Kenji Arimitsu, Keita Hamamatsu, Yusuke Yagi, Masahiro Ono, Nobuya Inagaki, Hideo Saji
Insulinoma is a tumor derived from pancreatic β-cells, and the resulting hyperinsulinemia leads to characteristic hypoglycemia. Recent studies have reported the frequent overexpression of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in human insulinomas, suggesting that the binding of a radiolabeled compound to GLP-1R is useful for the imaging of such tumors. Exendin(9-39), a fragment peptide of exendin-3 and -4, binds GLP-1R with high affinity and acts as an antagonist. Accordingly, radiolabeled exendin(9-39) derivatives have also been investigated as insulinoma imaging probes that might be less likely to induce hypoglycemia...
January 3, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088959/-effect-of-exendin-4-on-lipid-deposition-in-skeletal-muscle-of-diet-induced-obese-mice-and-its-underlying-mechanism
#11
H Y Cao, F Xu, Z L Chen, B S Lin, X B Zheng, S H Yuan, H Liang, J P Weng
Objective: To investigate the effect of exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, on reducing lipid deposition and improving insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and the underlying mechanisms in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Methods: Twelve male C57BL/6J mice were challenged with HFD for 12 weeks to induce obesity and then randomly divided into two groups: exendin-4 group (intraperitoneal injection of 24 nmol·kg(-1)·d(-1) exendin-4 for 4 weeks) and HFD group (intraperitoneal injection of normal saline for 4 weeks), with 6 mice in each group...
January 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087908/-berberine-regulates-glycemia-via-local-inhibition-of-intestinal-dipeptidyl-peptidase-%C3%A2
#12
Jiesheng Wang, Guanhai Dai, Weijia Li
Objective: To investigate the effect of berberine on glycemia regulation in rats with diabetes and the related mechanisms. Methods: Diabetic-like rat model was successfully induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in 50 out of 60 male SD rats, which were then randomly divided into 5 groups with 10 rats in each:control group (received vehicle only), positive drug control group (sitagliptin 10 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)), low-dose berberine group (30 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)), moderate-dose berberine group (60 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)), and high-dose berberine group (120 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1))...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086952/glucagon-like-peptide-1-analogues-an-efficient-therapeutic-option-for-the-severe-insulin-resistance-of-lipodystrophic-syndromes-two-case-reports
#13
Joana Oliveira, Eva Lau, Davide Carvalho, Paula Freitas
BACKGROUND: Lipodystrophic syndromes are uncommon medical conditions which are normally associated with metabolic disorders, such as diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver disease. These complications are generally difficult to treat, particularly diabetes, due to severe insulin resistance. We present two case reports of successful treatment of diabetes with glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues in patients with clinical features of lipodystrophic syndromes. CASE PRESENTATION: Two white women aged 49 and 60 years manifested marked central body fat deposition with severe lipoatrophy of their limbs and buttocks and pronounced acanthosis nigricans...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086882/differential-effects-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-on-heart-rate
#14
REVIEW
Martin Lorenz, Francesca Lawson, David Owens, Denis Raccah, Christine Roy-Duval, Anne Lehmann, Riccardo Perfetti, Lawrence Blonde
While glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are known to increase heart rate (HR), it is insufficiently recognized that the extent varies greatly between the various agonists and is affected by the assessment methods employed. Here we review published data from 24-h time-averaged HR monitoring in healthy individuals and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with either short-acting GLP-1 RAs, lixisenatide or exenatide, or long-acting GLP-1 RAs, exenatide LAR, liraglutide, albiglutide, or dulaglutide (N = 1112; active-treatment arms)...
January 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078541/glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-glp-1ra-therapy-adherence-for-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-in-a-medicare-population
#15
Hiep Nguyen, Robert Dufour, Amanda Caldwell-Tarr
INTRODUCTION: Anti-diabetes medication regimen adherence is a clinical challenge in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other comorbidities associated with aging. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) therapies such as exenatide once weekly (QW), exenatide twice daily (BID), and liraglutide once daily (QD) are an increasingly used class of drugs with proven efficacy and tolerability. Real-world evidence on adherence to GLP-1RAs in elderly or disabled patients is limited...
January 11, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077257/real-world-effectiveness-and-safety-of-dapagliflozin-therapy-added-to-a-glp1-receptor-agonist-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#16
J J Gorgojo-Martínez, C Serrano-Moreno, A Sanz-Velasco, G Feo-Ortega, F Almodóvar-Ruiz
BACKGROUND AND AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, dapagliflozin, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and background glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP1-RA) therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a 12-month, real-world observational study, which assessed the effectiveness and safety of dapagliflozin in patients with T2DM and background GLP1-RA therapy. The main outcome measures were changes in A1C and weight at 6 and 12 months from baseline...
November 23, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076808/spatiotemporal-modeling-of-triggering-and-amplifying-pathways-in-glp-1-secreting-intestinal-l-cells
#17
Alessia Tagliavini, Morten Gram Pedersen
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is secreted by intestinal L-cells, and augments glucose-induced insulin secretion, thus playing an important role in glucose control. The stimulus-secretion pathway in L-cells is still incompletely understood and a topic of debate. It is known that GLP-1 secreting cells can sense glucose to promote electrical activity either by the electrogenic sodium-glucose cotransporter SGLT1, or by closure of ATP-sensitive potassium channels after glucose metabolism. Glucose also has an effect on GLP-1 secretion downstream of electrical activity...
January 10, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076485/glp-2-a-poorly-understood-mediator-enrolled-in-various-bariatric-metabolic-surgery-related-pathophysiologic-mechanisms
#18
Everton Cazzo, Martinho Antonio Gestic, Murillo Pimentel Utrini, Felipe David Mendonça Chaim, Bruno Geloneze, José Carlos Pareja, Elinton Adami Chaim, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
Introduction: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a gastrointestinal hormone whose effects are predominantly trophic on the intestinal mucosa. Aim: Critically evaluate the current literature on the influence of bariatric/metabolic surgery on the levels of GLP-2 and its potential clinical implications. Method: s: Narrative review through online research on the databases Medline and Lilacs. There were six prospective human studies, two cross-sectional human studies, and three experimental animal studies selected...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074747/liraglutide-a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-agonist-for-chronic-weight-management
#19
Kendra R Manigault, Maria Miller Thurston
OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy and safety of liraglutide 3.0 mg for weight loss. DATA SOURCE: A literature search was performed using PubMed and MEDLINE from 2000 to 2016. The following key terms were used alone or in combination: glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist, liraglutide, obesity, overweight, and weight loss. Additional supporting literature was identified utilizing the reference lists of the preceding articles. STUDY SELECTION: Analyzed studies were published in English and investigated use of liraglutide and its impact on weight loss...
December 1, 2016: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074537/neuroblastoma-causes-alterations-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-gut-hormones-inflammatory-cytokines-and-bile-acid-composition
#20
Christoph Castellani, Georg Singer, Margarita Kaiser, Thomas Kaiser, Jianfeng Huang, Daniela Sperl, Karl Kashofer, Guenter Fauler, Barbara Guertl-Lackner, Gerald Höfler, Holger Till
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of neuroblastoma (NB) on the intestinal microbiome, metabolism, and inflammatory parameters in a murine model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Athymic Hsd:Fox1nu mice received subperitoneal implantation of human NB cells (MHH-NB11) (tumor group, TG) or culture medium (sham group). Following 10 weeks of tumor growth, all animals were sacrificed to collect total white adipose tissue (WAT). Luminex assays were performed for gut hormone and inflammation marker analysis...
January 11, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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