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Glucagon like peptide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168078/the-effect-of-hypergastrinemia-following-sleeve-gastrectomy-and-pantoprazole-on-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-beta-cell-mass-in-goto-kakizaki-rats
#1
E Grong, C Nord, I B Arbo, M Eriksson, B E Kulseng, U Ahlgren, R Mårvik
PURPOSE: Metabolic surgery alters the secretion of gastrointestinal hormones that influence glycemic control. Elevated gastrin has been suggested to benefit patients with type 2 diabetes and has been reported following sleeve gastrectomy in rats. The present study compares the effect of hypergastrinemia following sleeve gastrectomy with proton-pump inhibitor therapy on glycemic control and beta-cell mass in lean, diabetic animals. METHODS: Thirty-three diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats were randomized into pantoprazole + sham operation (GK-PPI), sleeve gastrectomy (GK-SG) and vehicle + sham operation (GK-V)...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167470/glucagon-like-peptide-1-mimetics-optimal-for-asian-type-2-diabetes-patients-with-and-without-overweight-obesity-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#2
Fang Zhang, Lizhi Tang, Yuwei Zhang, Qingguo Lü, Nanwei Tong
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are desirable for diabetes, especially in patients with overweight/obesity. We aimed to determine whether GLP-1RAs exhibit different glucose-lowering efficacies between Asian type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients with and without overweight/obesity. Randomized controlled trials were searched in EMBASE, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Studies published in English with treatment duration ≥12 weeks and information on HbA1c changes were included. The studies were divided into normal body mass index (BMI) and overweight/obese groups according to baseline BMI...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167062/mechanistic-insights-into-the-detection-of-free-fatty-and-bile-acids-by-ileal-glucagon-like-peptide-1-secreting-cells
#3
Deborah A Goldspink, Van B Lu, Lawrence J Billing, Pierre Larraufie, Gwen Tolhurst, Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reimann
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the electrical properties of ileal Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secreting L-cells using murine organoid cultures and the electrophysiological and intracellular signaling pathways recruited following activation of the Gαq-coupled free fatty acid receptors FFA1 and Gαs-coupled bile acid receptors GPBAR1. METHODS: Experiments were performed using ileal organoids generated from mice transgenically expressing fluorescent reporters (Epac2-camps and GCaMP3) under control of the proglucagon promoter...
November 11, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165354/the-role-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp1-in-type-3-diabetes-glp-1-controls-insulin-resistance-neuroinflammation-and-neurogenesis-in-the-brain
#4
REVIEW
Choon Sang Bae, Juhyun Song
Alzheimer's disease (AD), characterized by the aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein and neuroinflammation, is the most common neurodegenerative disease globally. Previous studies have reported that some AD patients show impaired glucose utilization in brain, leading to cognitive decline. Recently, diabetes-induced dementia has been called "type 3 diabetes", based on features in common with those of type 2 diabetes and the progression of AD. Impaired glucose uptake and insulin resistance in the brain are important issues in type 3 diabetes, because these problems ultimately aggravate memory dysfunction in the brain...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163019/bile-acid-signaling-pathways-from-the-enterohepatic-circulation-to-the-central-nervous-system
#5
REVIEW
Kim L Mertens, Andries Kalsbeek, Maarten R Soeters, Hannah M Eggink
Bile acids are best known as detergents involved in the digestion of lipids. In addition, new data in the last decade have shown that bile acids also function as gut hormones capable of influencing metabolic processes via receptors such as FXR (farnesoid X receptor) and TGR5 (Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5). These effects of bile acids are not restricted to the gastrointestinal tract, but can affect different tissues throughout the organism. It is still unclear whether these effects also involve signaling of bile acids to the central nervous system (CNS)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162361/impaired-beta-cell-sensitivity-to-incretins-in-type-2-diabetes-is-insufficiently-compensated-by-higher-incretin-response
#6
A Tura, J I Bagger, E Ferrannini, J J Holst, F K Knop, T Vilsbøll, A Mari
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The incretin effect is impaired in type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the underlying mechanisms are only partially understood. We investigated the relationships between the time course of the incretin effect and that of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), thereby estimating incretin sensitivity of the beta cell, and its associated factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight patients with T2D and eight matched subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) received 25, 75, and 125 g OGTTs and corresponding isoglycemic glucose infusions (IIGI)...
October 13, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159483/obestatin-can-potentially-differentiate-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-insulin-producing-cells
#7
Rana K El-Asfar, Mohamed M Kamal, Rania S Abd El-Razek, Ebtehal El-Demerdash, Hala O El-Mesallamy
In vitro-generation of β-cells from Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) could provide a potential basis for diabetes mellitus cell therapy. However, the generation of functional insulin-producing cells (IPCs) from WJ-MSCs remains a challenge. Recently, obestatin, a gut hormone, was found to promote β-cell generation from pancreatic precursor cells. Accordingly, we hypothesize that obestatin can induce the differentiation of WJ-MSCs into IPCs. Therefore, the purpose of the current study is to examine the ability of obestatin to generate IPCs in comparison to well-known extrinsic factors that are commonly used in IPCs differentiation protocols from MSCs, namely exendin-4 and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)...
November 20, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158344/effects-of-walking-in-water-on-gut-hormone-concentration-and-appetite-comparison-with-walking-on-land
#8
Shin-Ya Ueda, Hidehiro Nakahara, Eriko Kawai, Tatsuya Usui, Shintaro Tsuji, Tadayoshi Miyamoto
The effects of water exercise on gut hormone levels and appetite currently remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of treadmill walking in water on gut hormone levels and appetite. Thirteen men (mean±S.D. age: 21.6±2.2 years, body mass index: 22.7±2.8 kg/m2, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak): 49.8±7.8 ml/kg per min) participated in the walking in water and on land challenge. During the study period, ratings of subjective feelings of hunger, fullness, satiety, and motivation to eat were reported on a 100-mm visual analogue scale...
November 20, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156855/differences-in-leptin-ghrelin-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-levels-between-religious-fasting-and-normal-fasting
#9
Özge Telci Çaklılı, Banu İşbilen, Gülcan Yavuz, Selcan Tülü, Banu Mesçi, Aytekin Oğuz
Background/aim: Leptin, ghrelin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) affect hunger, satiety feelings, and food intake. We hypothesized that during Ramadan, if the brain knows that the body will be hungry until sunset, there may be differences between leptin, ghrelin, and GLP-1 levels in Ramadan and non-Ramadan fasting. Materials and methods: This study had two phases. In the first phase, the participants were asked to skip the dawn meal of Ramadan (suhur), so that 12 h of fasting could be achieved. Participants ceased food intake at midnight, and at noon blood was drawn...
August 23, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155153/the-glp-1-response-to-glucose-does-not-mediate-beta-and-alpha-cell-dysfunction-in-hispanics-with-abnormal-glucose-metabolism
#10
Elizabeth Adams, Pauline Genter, Emma Keefe, Kevin Sandow, Virginia Gray, Jerome I Rotter, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Eli Ipp
AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) contributes to insulin secretion after meals. Though Hispanics have increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, it is unknown if impaired GLP-1 secretion contributes to this risk. We therefore studied plasma GLP-1 secretion and action in Hispanic adults. METHODS: Hispanic (H; n=31) and non-Hispanic (nH; n=15) participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). All participants were categorized by glucose tolerance into four groups: normal glucose tolerant non-Hispanic (NGT-nH; n = 15), normal glucose tolerant Hispanic (NGT-H; n = 12), impaired glucose tolerant Hispanic (IGT-H; n = 11), or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus, Hispanic (T2D-H; n = 8)...
November 16, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150631/effect-of-long-term-incretin-based-therapies-on-ischemic-heart-diseases-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-network-meta-analysis
#11
Che-Yi Chou, Ying-Tzu Chang, Jia-Lian Yang, Jiun-Yi Wang, Tsui-Er Lee, Ruey-Yun Wang, Chin-Chuan Hung
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) experience many cardiovascular complications. Several studies have demonstrated the cardioprotective effects of incretin-based therapies; however, there are few studies on the effects of long-term incretin-based therapies on cardiovascular events. Therefore, the present study conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of long-term incretin-based therapies on ischaemic diseases. We searched PubMed, CENTRAL, and Clinicaltrial.gov to retrieve randomised control trials reported until December 2016 and enrolled only RCTs with more than a 1-year follow-up...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144968/a-synaptic-basis-for-glp-1-action-in-the-brain
#12
Sandrine Lefort, Matthias H Tschöp, Cristina García-Cáceres
Unraveling the brain control of metabolism may generate opportunities to discover novel precision medicines for obesity and diabetes. In this issue of Neuron, Liu et al. (2017) identify a novel glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor-dependent signaling process that exerts anorexigenic action via the regulation of AMPA receptor subunit composition in the hypothalamus.
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144805/dpp4-inhibitor-sitagliptin-as-a-potential-treatment-option-in-metformin-intolerant-obese-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-pilot-randomized-study
#13
Simona Ferjan, Andrej Janez, Mojca Jensterle
OBJECTIVE: Metformin has an established role in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Some patients cannot tolerate it due to associated gastrointestinal adverse events. The present study evaluated DPP4 inhibitor sitagliptin as a potential treatment option in metformin intolerant PCOS. DESIGN: We conducted a 12-week prospective randomized open-label study with 30 obese metformin intolerant women with PCOS (aged 35.0±7.2 years, BMI 36.9±5.5 kg/m(2))...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142468/glucagon-like-peptide-2-modulates-the-nitrergic-neurotransmission-in-strips-from-the-mouse-gastric-fundus
#14
Rachele Garella, Eglantina Idrizaj, Chiara Traini, Roberta Squecco, Maria Giuliana Vannucchi, Maria Caterina Baccari
AIM: To investigate whether glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) influences the neurally-induced responses in gastric strips from mice, since no data are available. METHODS: For functional experiments, gastric fundal strips were mounted in organ baths containing Krebs-Henseleit solution. Mechanical responses were recorded via force-displacement transducers, which were coupled to a polygraph for continuous recording of isometric tension. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) was applied via two platinum wire rings through which the preparation was threaded...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141871/potential-approaches-to-prevent-hypoglycemia-associated-autonomic-failure
#15
REVIEW
Eric Lontchi-Yimagou, Jee Young You, Michelle Carey, Ilan Gabriely, Harry Shamoon, Meredith Hawkins
Clear health benefits are associated with intensive glucose control in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, maintaining near-normal glycemia remains an elusive goal for many patients, in large part owing to the risk of severe hypoglycemia. In fact, recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia lead to 'hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure' (HAAF), characterized by defective counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycemia. Extensive studies to understand the mechanisms underlying HAAF have revealed multiple potential etiologies, suggesting various approaches to prevent the development of HAAF...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140465/short-chain-arabinoxylans-prepared-from-enzymatically-treated-wheat-grain-exert-prebiotic-effects-during-the-broiler-starter-period
#16
N Yacoubi, L Saulnier, E Bonnin, E Devillard, V Eeckhaut, L Rhayat, R Ducatelle, F Van Immerseel
Carbohydrate-degrading multi-enzyme preparations (MEP) are used to improve broiler performances. Their mode of action is complex and not fully understood. In this study, we compared the effect of water-soluble fractions isolated at the pilot scale from wheat grain incubated with (WE) and without (WC) MEP. The fractions were incorporated in a wheat-based diet (0.1% w/w) to feed Ross PM3 broilers and compared with a non-supplemented control group (NC). The body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) until d 14 were determined...
November 10, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138359/comparative-effects-of-intraduodenal-amino-acid-infusions-on-food-intake-and-gut-hormone-release-in-healthy-males
#17
Robert E Steinert, Sina S Ullrich, Nori Geary, Lori Asarian, Marco Bueter, Michael Horowitz, Christine Feinle-Bisset
In contrast to the many studies of the effects of individual amino acids (AAs) on eating, no studies have compared the effects of different AAs on eating and underlying preabsorptive gastrointestinal mechanisms. To compare the effects of intraduodenal infusions of l-tryptophan (TRP), l-leucine (LEU), l-phenylalanine (PHE) and l-glutamine (GLN) on appetite, gastrointestinal hormone responses (including ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1]), glycemia (glucagon, insulin and glucose) and test meal size in healthy males, we retrospectively analyzed data from four published independent, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of 90-min intraduodenal infusions of the individual AAs...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138180/inhibition-of-vascular-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-2-improves-obesity-induced-endothelial-dysfunction-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#18
Petia Doytcheva, Thomas Bächler, Erika Tarasco, Vincenzo Marzolla, Michael Engeli, Giovanni Pellegrini, Simona Stivala, Lucia Rohrer, Francesco Tona, Giovanni G Camici, Paul M Vanhoutte, Christian M Matter, Thomas A Lutz, Thomas F Lüscher, Elena Osto
BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) reduces obesity-associated comorbidities and cardiovascular mortality. RYGB improves endothelial dysfunction, reducing c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) vascular phosphorylation. JNK activation links obesity with insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Herein, we examined whether JNK1 or JNK2 mediates obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and if pharmacological JNK inhibition can mimic RYGB vascular benefits. METHODS AND RESULTS: After 7 weeks of a high-fat high-cholesterol diet, obese rats underwent RYGB or sham surgery; sham-operated ad libitum-fed rats received, for 8 days, either the control peptide D-TAT or the JNK peptide inhibitor D-JNKi-1 (20 mg/kg per day subcutaneous)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135069/impaired-secretion-of-active-glp-1-in-patients-with-hypertriglyceridaemia-a-novel-lipotoxicity-paradigm
#19
Xiangxiang Wang, Jia Liu, Chaolin Li, Meng Zhao, Lu Liu, Qingbo Guan, Haiqing Zhang, Xu Zhang, Ling Gao, Jiajun Zhao, Yongfeng Song
AIM: Lipotoxicity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of β-cell dysfunction. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone that exerts beneficial effects on the number and function of islet β cells. However, the effect of lipotoxicity on GLP-1 secretion is still unknown. METHODS: Twenty-five patients who were newly diagnosed with diabetes were recruited from 400 subjects based on 75 g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). Patients were divided into diabetes (DM) and DM combined with hypertriglyceridaemia (DM+HTG) groups according to their serum triglyceride (TG) levels...
November 14, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134607/the-cost-effectiveness-of-dulaglutide-1-5mg-versus-exenatide-qw-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-france
#20
Mickael Basson, Dionysios Ntais, Ruba Ayyub, Donna Wright, Julia Lowin, Florence Chartier, Stéphane Roze, Kirsi Norrbacka
INTRODUCTION: Dulaglutide is a novel onceweekly administered glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The objective of this analysis was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of dulaglutide 1.5 mg versus exenatide QW for the management of T2DM in France. METHODS: The QuintilesIMS CORE Diabetes Model was used to estimate the expected lifetime direct medical costs and outcomes of T2DM from the perspective of the French National Health Service...
November 13, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
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