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Cardiovascular medicine

Agnieszka Ewa Laudy
Non-antibiotic medicinal products consist of drugs with diverse activity against bacteria. Many non-antibiotics demonstrate direct anti-bacterial activity against Gram-positive cocci. The activity observed against Gram-negative rods is much lower and non-antibiotics primarily from the following groups: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cardiovascular and antidepressant medicinal products demonstrate this activity. It has been shown that the low activity of some non-antibiotics or the absence of activity against Gram-negative rods is related, among other things, to the extrusion of these compounds from bacterial cells by multi-drug resistance efflux pumps...
June 30, 2018: Polish Journal of Microbiology
C Kill, S Betz, E Bösl
Loss of consciousness is a frequent cause for an emergency call to the emergency medical services (EMS). It can be associated with life-threatening conditions. A distinction must be made between transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) and syncope, which is of cardiovascular origin by definition. Initial assessment in prehospital emergency care should follow the ABCDE algorithm including a 12-lead ECG. The presence of important risk factors such as occurrence in supine position, physical stress, palpitations, history of heart diseases, and any abnormalities in the ECG warrants hospital admission...
July 16, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Kepei Zhang, Shigao Zhou, Chunyan Wang, Hanchen Xu, Li Zhang
Objective: Acupuncture, as one of the complementary and alternative medicines, represents an efficient therapeutic option for obesity control. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the effectiveness of acupuncture in obesity and also summarized the available studies on exploring the mechanisms. Design: We searched six databases from the inception to April 2017 without language restriction. Eligible studies consisted of acupuncture with comparative controls ((1) sham acupuncture, (2) no treatment, (3) diet and exercise, and (4) conventional medicine)...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Kenji Fujita, Rebekah J Moles, Timothy F Chen
OBJECTIVE: All healthcare systems require valid ways to evaluate service delivery. The objective of this study was to identify existing content validated quality indicators (QIs) for responsible use of medicines (RUM) and classify them using multiple frameworks to identify gaps in current quality measurements. DESIGN: Systematic review without meta-analysis. SETTING: All care settings. SEARCH STRATEGY: CINAHL, Embase, Global Health, International Pharmaceutical Abstract, MEDLINE, PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched up to April 2018...
July 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Sandip T Auti, Yogesh A Kulkarni
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder to date, with no cure or preventive therapy. Histopathological hallmarks of AD include deposition of β-amyloid plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles in brain. Despite extensive research, only five approved drugs are available for the management of AD. Hence, there is a need to look for alternative therapies and new drugs. Use of natural products in medicine has gained popularity in recent years and several natural compounds with neuroprotective effects have been studied in detail...
July 16, 2018: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
Li Lu, Xiaodong Sun, Yating Qin, Xiaomei Guo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are considered to be the predominant cause of death in the world. Chinese herb medicines (CHMs) have been widely used for the treatment of CVDs in Asian countries for thousands of years. One reason of high efficacy of CHMs in treating CVDs is attributed to their inhibition in atherosclerosis (AS) development, a critical contributor to CVDs occurrence. Cumulative studies have demonstrated that CHMs alleviate atherogenesis via mediating pathophysiologic events involved in AS. However, there is deficiency in the summaries regarding antiatherogenic signal pathways regulated by CHMs...
2018: BioMed Research International
Vladimir Vigont, Evgeny Nekrasov, Alexey Shalygin, Konstantin Gusev, Sergey Klushnikov, Sergey Illarioshkin, Maria Lagarkova, Sergey L Kiselev, Elena Kaznacheyeva
Neurodegenerative pathologies are among the most serious and socially significant problems of modern medicine, along with cardiovascular and oncological diseases. Several attempts have been made to prevent neuronal death using novel drugs targeted to the cell calcium signaling machinery, but the lack of adequate models for screening markedly impairs the development of relevant drugs. A potential breakthrough in this field is offered by the models of hereditary neurodegenerative pathologies based on endogenous expression of mutant proteins in neurons differentiated from patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Ching-Yi Tsai, Kuang-Yu Dai, Chi Fang, Jacqueline C C Wu, Samuel H H Chan
Despite great advances in contemporary medicine, brain death still remains enigmatic and its cellular and molecular mechanisms unsettled. This review summarizes recent findings that substantiate the notion that PTEN/FLJ10540/PI3K/Akt cascade, the classical tumorigenic signaling pathway, is actively engaged in experimental brain stem death. These results were based on a clinically relevant animal model that employs the pesticide mevinphos as the experimental insult in Sprague-Dawley rats to mimic brain stem death in patients died of organophosphate poisoning...
July 3, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Pantelis A Sarafidis, Francesca Mallamaci, Charalampos Loutradis, Robert Ekart, Claudia Torino, Antonios Karpetas, Vasileios Raptis, Athanasios Bikos, Aikaterini Papagianni, Olga Balafa, Konstantinos Siamopoulos, Giovanni Pisani, Massimo Morosetti, Antonio Del Giudice, Fillipo Aucella, Luca Di Lullo, Rocco Tripepi, Giovanni Tripepi, Kitty Jager, Friedo Dekker, Gerard London, Carmine Zoccali
Background: Population-specific consensus documents recommend that the diagnosis of hypertension in haemodialysis patients be based on 48-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring. However, until now there is just one study in the USA on the prevalence of hypertension in haemodialysis patients by 44-h recordings. Since there is a knowledge gap on the problem in European countries, we reassessed the problem in the European Cardiovascular and Renal Medicine working group Registry of the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association...
July 10, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Ilana Dubovi
BACKGROUND: Online computer-based simulations are becoming more widespread in nursing education. Therefore, an understanding of when and how to implement the variety of instructional strategies related to these simulations is fundamental. OBJECTIVES: This study compares the effectiveness of online computer-based simulations designed using two alternative instructional approaches-Productive Failure and Simple-to-Complex sequencing-on learning of clinical reasoning skills...
July 6, 2018: Nurse Education Today
C J Lucas, P Galettis, J Schneider
There is increasing interest in the use of cannabinoids for disease and symptom management, but limited information available regarding their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics to guide prescribers. Cannabis medicines contain a wide variety of chemical compounds, including the cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is psychoactive, and the non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD). Cannabis use is associated with both pathological and behavioural toxicity and accordingly, is contraindicated in the context of significant psychiatric, cardiovascular, renal or hepatic illness...
July 12, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Christian Delles, Emma Carrick, Delyth Graham, Stuart A Nicklin
Hypertension is a complex and multifactorial cardiovascular disorder. With different mechanisms contributing to a different extent to an individual's blood pressure, the discovery of novel pathogenetic principles of hypertension is challenging. However, there is an urgent and unmet clinical need to improve prevention, detection, and therapy of hypertension in order to reduce the global burden associated with hypertension-related cardiovascular diseases. Areas covered: Proteomic techniques have been applied in reductionist experimental models including angiotensin II infusion models in rodents and the spontaneously hypertensive rat in order to unravel mechanisms involved in blood pressure control and end organ damage...
July 12, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
William Virgil Brown
Genetic, metabolic, and lifestyle modifications can cause elevations of lipoproteins that contribute to atherosclerotic lesions over time. In the modern world with life extension from many improvements in medicine and public health, most humans live long enough to develop atherosclerosis with concentrations of blood plasma lipoproteins that are very common. Familial abnormalities are prevalent and provide additional challenges in identifying unhealthy but treatable values of low-density (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL)...
July 12, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Martino Deidda, Antonio Noto, Pier P Bassareo, Christian Cadeddu Dessalvi, Giuseppe Mercuro
Metabolomics, also referred to as metabonomics, is one of the most recent innovative technologies in medicine. It offers a direct functional read-out of phenotypes by the detection, identification, and quantification of a large number of metabolites within a biological sample such as urine and blood. Metabolites (<1500 Da) represent the output of cellular metabolism, accounting for expression and activity of genes, transcripts, and proteins, and offering unique insights into small molecule regulation, which may uncover new biochemical patterns...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Meng You, Wen Fang, Xu Wang, Tiantong Yang
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the associations among the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) core sets relevant to chronic ischemic heart disease (CIHD) using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) model based on the ICF core sets scale in Chinese patients. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 120 patients with CIHD selected from January 2013 to June 2014 at the Fada Institute of Forensic Medicine & Science (Beijing, China)...
July 11, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Kristen Bede, Wai H Wilson Tang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Precision medicine is the concept of disease treatment and prevention using an individual's genomic profile in addition to personal and environmental factors. This review outlines examples of new biomarker strategies that enable the practice of precision cardiovascular medicine. RECENT FINDINGS: Although commonly attributed to identifying causative genetic variants, mono-genetic causes of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are not common and largely focused on lipoprotein analyses...
July 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
F Brahmi, A Vejux, R Sghaier, A Zarrouk, T Nury, W Meddeb, L Rezig, A Namsi, K Sassi, A Yammine, I Badreddine, D Vervandier-Fasseur, K Madani, L Boulekbache-Makhlouf, B Nasser, G Lizard
Cholesterol oxidation products, also named oxysterols, can be formed either by cholesterol auto-oxidation, enzymatically or both. Among these oxysterols, 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) is mainly formed during radical attacks that take place on the carbon 7 of cholesterol. As increased levels of 7KC have been found in the tissues, plasma and/or cerebrospinal fluid of patients with major diseases, especially age related diseases (cardiovascular diseases, eye diseases, neurodegenerative diseases), some cancers, and chronic inflammatory diseases, it is suspected that 7KC, could contribute to their development...
July 11, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Javad Akhtari, Alireza Tafazoli, Hassan Mehrad-Majd, Abdolkarim Mahrooz
RNA interference (RNAi) is a process for regulating the gene expression in which small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) silence target genes. siRNA-based therapy as a new molecular treatment approach, offers therapeutic prospects for many common diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disorders. Nevertheless, the efficacy of siRNA delivery has, so far, remained a challenging issue. This is due to their easy degradation through the circulation system and the difficulties in the intracellular delivery to specific tissues where they silence the target genes...
July 9, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Ademola Adetokunbo Oyagbemi, Temidayo Olutayo Omobowale, Ebunoluwa Racheal Asenuga, John Olusoji Abiola, Adeolu Alex Adedapo, Momoh Audu Yakubu
Arsenic acid is one of the abundant environmental pollutants present in soil, water and the air. Undoubtedly, it has found its way to the food chain in which humans and animals are the final targets thereby causing arrays of disease conditions including cardiovascular and renal dysfunction. Hence, the use of phytochemicals present in medicinal plants has gained global acceptance as chemotherapeutic agents that can prevent, ameliorate, reverse or treat diseases. From our study, arsenic acid intoxication led to significant increase in heart rate (HR), QRS, together with prolonged QT and QTc interval...
July 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Hira Choudhury, Manisha Pandey, Chua Kui Hua, Cheah Shi Mun, Jessmie Koh Jing, Lillian Kong, Liang Yee Ern, Nik Ahmad Ashraf, Soohg Wai Kit, Tan Sin Yee, Mallikarjuna Rao Pichika, Bapi Gorain, Prashant Kesharwani
Herbal medicine, phytomedicine or botanical medicine are synonymous, utilizes plants intended for medicinal purposes. Medicinal use of herbal medicine in the treatment and prevention of diseases including diabetes has a long history compared to conventional medicine. Diabetes is one of the major public health concerns over the world. Diabetes or hyperglycemia is considered to be one of the common public health hazard; optimal control of which is still not possible. Persistent hyperglycemia or uncontrolled diabetes has the potential to cause serious complications such as kidney disease, vision loss, cardiovascular disease, and lower-limb amputations which contributed towards morbidity and mortality in diabetes...
July 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
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