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Cardiovascular medicine

Francesco Paciullo, Marco Proietti, Vanessa Bianconi, Alessandro Nobili, Matteo Pirro, Pier Mannuccio Mannucci, Gregory Y H Lip, Graziana Lupattelli
BACKGROUND: Among rate-control or rhythm-control strategies, there is conflicting evidence as to which is the best management approach for non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) in elderly patients. DESIGN: We performed an ancillary analysis from the 'Registro Politerapie SIMI' study, enrolling elderly inpatients from internal medicine and geriatric wards. METHODS: We considered patients enrolled from 2008 to 2014 with an AF diagnosis at admission, treated with a rate-control-only or rhythm-control-only strategy...
March 21, 2018: Drugs & Aging
Gaurav Nepal, Eans T Tuladhar, Keshav Acharya, Aseem Bhattarai, Vijay K Sharma, Mithileshwor Raut, Binod K Yadav
Introduction Cardiovascular diseases are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, atherosclerosis being the principal underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases. Early detection of dyslipidemia and long-term prevention of atherosclerosis by controlling risk factors should begin in young age. The purpose of this study was to assess dyslipidemia and associated cardiovascular risk factors among university students of Nepal. Methods A sample of 280 students aged 17-24 years, were selected randomly from Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University...
January 20, 2018: Curēus
Jane E Wilcox, Ray E Hershberger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe recent advancements in cardiovascular genetics made possible by leveraging next-generation sequencing (NGS), and to provide a framework for practical applications of genetic testing for hypertrophic (HCM), dilated (DCM), and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathies (ARVC). RECENT FINDINGS: The availability of NGS has made possible extensive reference databases. These, combined with recent initiatives to compile previously siloed commercial and research cardiomyopathy data sets, provide a more powerful and precise approach to cardiovascular genetic medicine...
March 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Linda Shore-Lesserson, Robert A Baker, Victor Ferraris, Philip E Greilich, David Fitzgerald, Philip Roman, John Hammon
Despite more than a half century of "safe" cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), the evidence base surrounding the conduct of anticoagulation for CPB has not been organized into a succinct guideline. For this and other reasons, there is enormous practice variability relating to the use and dosing of heparin, monitoring heparin anticoagulation, reversal of anticoagulation, and the use of alternative anticoagulants. To address this and other gaps, the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS), the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists (SCA), and the American Society of Extracorporeal Technology (AmSECT) developed an Evidence Based Workgroup...
March 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Gaëlle Cheisson, Sophie Jacqueminet, Emmanuel Cosson, Carole Ichai, Anne-Marie Leguerrier, Bogdan Nicolescu-Catargi, Alexandre Ouattara, Igor Tauveron, Paul Valensi, Dan Benhamou
In diabetic patients undergoing surgery, we recommend assessing glycaemic control preoperatively by assessing glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and recent capillary blood sugar (glucose) levels, and to adjust any treatments accordingly before surgery, paying particular attention to specific complications of diabetes. Gastroparesis creates a risk of stasis and aspiration of gastric content at induction of anaesthesia requiring the use of a rapid sequence induction technique. Cardiac involvement can be divided into several types...
March 17, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
Bradley A Perkins, C Thomas Caskey, Pamila Brar, Eric Dec, David S Karow, Andrew M Kahn, Ying-Chen Claire Hou, Naisha Shah, Debbie Boeldt, Erin Coughlin, Gabby Hands, Victor Lavrenko, James Yu, Andrea Procko, Julia Appis, Anders M Dale, Lining Guo, Thomas J Jönsson, Bryan M Wittmann, Istvan Bartha, Smriti Ramakrishnan, Axel Bernal, James B Brewer, Suzanne Brewerton, William H Biggs, Yaron Turpaz, J Craig Venter
Reducing premature mortality associated with age-related chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, is an urgent priority. We report early results using genomics in combination with advanced imaging and other clinical testing to proactively screen for age-related chronic disease risk among adults. We enrolled active, symptom-free adults in a study of screening for age-related chronic diseases associated with premature mortality. In addition to personal and family medical history and other clinical testing, we obtained whole-genome sequencing (WGS), noncontrast whole-body MRI, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), global metabolomics, a new blood test for prediabetes (Quantose IR), echocardiography (ECHO), ECG, and cardiac rhythm monitoring to identify age-related chronic disease risks...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ravi Gupta, Thomas J Bollyky, Matthew Cohen, Joseph S Ross, Aaron S Kesselheim
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether off-patent prescription drugs at risk of sudden price increases or shortages in the United States are available from independent manufacturers approved in other well regulated settings around the world. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Off-patent drugs in the USA and approved by the Food and Drug Administration, up to 10 April 2017. STUDY COHORT: Novel tablet or capsule prescription drugs approved by the FDA since 1939 that were no longer protected by patents or other market exclusivity and had up to three generic versions...
March 19, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
M Urpi-Sarda, E Almanza-Aguilera, R Llorach, R Vázquez-Fresno, R Estruch, D Corella, J V Sorli, F Carmona, A Sanchez-Pla, J Salas-Salvadó, C Andres-Lacueva
AIM: To characterize the urinary metabolomic fingerprint and multi-metabolite signature associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), and to classify the population into metabotypes related to T2D. METHODS: A metabolomics analysis using the1 H-NMR-based, non-targeted metabolomic approach was conducted to determine the urinary metabolomic fingerprint of T2D compared with non-T2D participants in the PREDIMED trial. The discriminant metabolite fingerprint was subjected to logistic regression analysis and ROC analyses to establish and to assess the multi-metabolite signature of T2D prevalence, respectively...
February 20, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism
Nathan S Bryan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To reveal the mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO) production in humans and how lifestyle, drug therapy, and hygienic practices can decrease NO production. Furthermore, to show how functional nitric oxide nutrition can overcome these limitations to restore endogenous NO production and combat cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Research over the past decade has revealed that inorganic nitrate and nitrite found naturally in green leafy vegetables and other vegetables such as beets can provide the human body with a source of bioactive nitric oxide...
March 17, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Geoff Hackett, Mike Kirby, Kevan Wylie, Adrian Heald, Nick Ossei-Gerning, David Edwards, Asif Muneer
BACKGROUND: This is an update of the 2008 British Society for Sexual Medicine (BSSM) guidelines. AIM: To provide up-to-date guidance for U.K. (and international) health care professionals managing male sexual dysfunction. METHODS: Source information was obtained from peer-reviewed articles, meetings, and presentations. A search of Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Reviews was performed, covering the search terms "hypogonadism," "eugonadal or hypogonadism or hypogonadal or gonadal," and "low or lower testosterone," starting from 2009 with a cut-off date of September 2017...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Jonathan P Cranford, Thomas J O'Hara, Christopher T Villongco, Omar M Hafez, Robert C Blake, Joseph Loscalzo, Jean-Luc Fattebert, David F Richards, Xiaohua Zhang, James N Glosli, Andrew D McCulloch, David E Krummen, Felice C Lightstone, Sergio E Wong
Patient-specific models of the ventricular myocardium, combined with the computational power to run rapid simulations, are approaching the level where they could be used for personalized cardiovascular medicine. A major remaining challenge is determining model parameters from available patient data, especially for models of the Purkinje-myocardial junctions (PMJs): the sites of initial ventricular electrical activation. There are no non-invasive methods for localizing PMJs in patients, and the relationship between the standard clinical ECG and PMJ model parameters is underexplored...
March 16, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
Sule Ozbilgin, Derya Aslan Yurtlu, Beyza Küçükoztaş, Gonca Kamacı, Sezen Korkut, Bülent Serhan Yurtlu, M Ensari Güneli, Volkan Hancı, Ali Günerli
Previous studies have shown that cyclodextrin group medicines bind to various drugs. The hypothesis of our study is to determine whether sugammadex could bind to digoxin and delay the cardiovascular toxicity of that drug. Twenty-eight sedated Wistar rats were infused with digoxin at 3 mg/h (0.25 mg/ml). Five minutes after the start of infusion, animals were treated with a bolus of either 16 mg/kg (Sgdx16), 100 mg/kg (Sgdx100), or 1000 mg/kg (Sgdx1000) sugammadex. The control group infusion did not contain sugammadex...
March 16, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Matthew J Gurka, Stephanie L Filipp, Mark D DeBoer
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes remain significant public health concerns. Targeting of prevention efforts by geographical location has been suggested by the Institute of Medicine to coincide with the presence of area-based risk. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a stronger risk factor than is obesity for the prediction of future CVD and diabetes, yet its prevalence has not previously been described geographically. Our objective is to determine geographical variation in the prevalence of obesity, MetS, and diabetes among US adults...
March 13, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Brian M Salata, Madeline R Sterling, Ashley N Beecy, Ajayram V Ullal, Erica C Jones, Evelyn M Horn, Parag Goyal
Given high rates of heart failure (HF) hospitalizations and widespread adoption of the hospitalist model, patients with HF are often cared for on General Medicine (GM) services. Differences in discharge processes and 30-day readmission rates between patients on GM and those on Cardiology during the contemporary hospitalist era are unknown. The present study compared discharge processes and 30-day readmission rates of patients with HF admitted on GM services and those on Cardiology services. We retrospectively studied 926 patients discharged home after HF hospitalization...
February 7, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Maria Luz Fernandez, Minu Sara Thomas, Bruno S Lemos, Diana M DiMarco, Amanda Missimer, Melissa Melough, Ock K Chun, Ana Gabriela Murillo, Hana Alyousef, Isabel Medina-Vera
BACKGROUND: Telomerase Activator 65 (TA-65), a compound extracted from Astragalus membranaceus has been used in Chinese traditional medicine for extending life span. Scarce information exists on the effects of TA-65 on parameters of metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: We recruited 40 patients with MetS to determine the effects of TA-65 on dyslipidemias, hypertension, and oxidative stress in this at-risk population. The study was a double-blind, randomized crossover design in which patients were allocated to consume either 16 mg daily of a TA-65 supplement or a placebo for 12 weeks...
March 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Frantisek Nehaj, Juraj Sokol, Michal Mokan, Veronika Jankovicova, Frantisek Kovar, Marianna Kubaskova, Stanislav Mizera, Marian Mokan
The patient database at the First Department of Internal Medicine in Martin, the Central Slovak Institute for Cardiac and Vascular Diseases in Banska Bystrica, and the National Slovak Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases in Bratislava was searched to identify patients with benign tumors of the heart seen during the 5-year period between 2011 and 2016. Forty-one patients with primary cardiac myxomas were identified and their medical records were reviewed for details pertaining to presenting symptoms, staging modalities, treatment approaches, and outcomes...
2018: BioMed Research International
Alain N'guessan Yao, Mamadou Kamagaté, Augustin Kouao Amonkan, Philippe Chabert, Fidèle Kpahé, Camille Koffi, Mathieu N'goran Kouamé, Cyril Auger, Séraphin Kati-Coulibaly, Valérie Schini-Kerth, Henri Die-Kakou
BACKGROUND: Phyllanthus amarus (Schum & Thonn), a plant belonging to the family of Euphorbiaceae is used in Ivorian traditional medicine to treat cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension. However, although this plant has been described as a diuretic agent, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism action of diuretic effects of an ethanolic fraction of Phyllanthus amarus (EFPA) in rats. METHODS: Effects of EFPA on urinary excretion were carried out for doses ranging from 5 to 80 mg/kg given by intraperitoneal injection (i...
March 15, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Eleonore V Grant, Adam H Skolnick, Joshua Chodosh, Michael H Perskin, Nicole M Orr, Caroline Blaum, John A Dodson
More than 13 million persons in the United States aged 65 and older have cardiovascular disease (CVD), and this population is expected to increase exponentially over the next several decades. In the absence of clinical studies that would inform how best to manage this population, there is an urgent need for collaborative, thoughtful approaches to their care. Although cardiologists are traditionally regarded as leaders in the care of older adults with CVD, these individuals have multiple comorbidities, physiological differences, and distinct goals of care than younger patients that require a specialized geriatric lens...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Jihye Seo, Cheol Hyun Kim, Hongmin Chu, Yeonju Moon, Sangkwan Lee
BACKGROUND: Migraine is a common disease of primary headache, which it causes many kinds of secondary diseases or symptoms. The treatment drugs have sometimes shown side effects such as overuse headache, stroke, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the demand for complementary and alternative interventions for migraine has increased. Herbal medicines are a representative intervention to treat migraine traditionally. Among these herbal medicines, Banhabaekchulchunma-tang (BBT) and Chongsanggeontong-tang (CGT) have been most commonly used for migraine treatment in traditional clinical practice...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Nicanor I Moldovan
Biofabrication of tissue analogues is aspiring to become a disruptive technology capable to solve standing biomedical problems, from generation of improved tissue models for drug testing to alleviation of the shortage of organs for transplantation. Arguably, the most powerful tool of this revolution is bioprinting, understood as the assembling of cells with biomaterials in three-dimensional structures. It is less appreciated, however, that bioprinting is not a uniform methodology, but comprises a variety of approaches...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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