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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782018/novel-method-of-plasmid-dna-delivery-to-mouse-bladder-urothelium-by-electroporation
#1
Chuan Yu, Ofir Stefanson, Yueli Liu, Zhu A Wang
Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) are extremely valuable in revealing novel biological insights into the initiation and progression mechanisms of human diseases such as cancer. Transgenic and conditional knockout mice have been frequently used for gene overexpression or ablation in specific tissues or cell types in vivo. However, generating germline mouse models can be time-consuming and costly. Recent advancements in gene editing technologies and the feasibility of delivering DNA plasmids by viral infection have enabled rapid generation of non-germline autochthonous mouse cancer models for several organs...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724418/acr-appropriateness-criteria-%C3%A2-pretreatment-staging-of-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#2
Christian B van der Pol, V Anik Sahni, Steven C Eberhardt, Aytekin Oto, Oguz Akin, Lauren F Alexander, Brian C Allen, Fergus V Coakley, Adam T Froemming, Pat F Fulgham, Keyanoosh Hosseinzadeh, Jodi K Maranchie, Rekha N Mody, Nicola Schieda, David M Schuster, Aradhana M Venkatesan, Carolyn L Wang, Mark E Lockhart
Muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) has a tendency toward urothelial multifocality and is at risk for local and distant spread, most commonly to the lymph nodes, bone, lung, liver, and peritoneum. Pretreatment staging of MIBC should include imaging of the urothelial upper tract for synchronous lesions; imaging of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis for metastases; and MRI pelvis for local staging. CT abdomen and pelvis without and with contrast (CT urogram) is recommended to assess the urothelium and abdominopelvic organs...
May 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599449/implications-of-tert-promoter-mutations-and-telomerase-activity-in-urothelial-carcinogenesis
#3
REVIEW
Cagatay Günes, Felix Wezel, Jennifer Southgate, Christian Bolenz
Telomerase activity imparts eukaryotic cells with unlimited proliferation capacity, one of the cancer hallmarks. Over 90% of human urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) tumours are positive for telomerase activity. Telomerase activation can occur through several mechanisms. Mutations in the core promoter region of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT) cause telomerase reactivation in 60-80% of UCBs, whereas the prevalence of these mutations is lower in urothelial cancers of other origins...
March 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599345/significance-of-perioperative-chemotherapy-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-upper-and-lower-urinary-tract
#4
Tomoyuki Makino, Kouji Izumi, Ariunbold Natsagdorj, Hiroaki Iwamoto, Suguru Kadomoto, Renato Naito, Yoshifumi Kadono, Atsushi Mizokami
BACKGROUND/AIM: To evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the urinary tract (UT) urothelium, and investigate the utility of perioperative chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients diagnosed with SCC in renal pelvis, ureter and bladder at the Kanazawa University between 2007 and 2017 were included in this retrospective study. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) rates according to cancer stage and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) were determined...
April 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576423/iatrogenic-pathology-of-the-urinary-bladder
#5
REVIEW
Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Rodolfo Montironi, Maria R Raspollini, Liang Cheng, George J Netto
Intravesical immunotherapy, chemotherapy, and neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy are among the most frequent therapeutic procedures to treat malignancies of the urinary bladder. These treatment modalities produce reactive morphologic changes in the urothelium that can mimic urothelial carcinoma in situ, urothelial dysplasia or true invasive urothelial neoplasia. Mitomycin C used after transurethral resection of bladder tumor to reduce recurrences, BCG intravesical immunotherapy to treat high risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer and urothelial carcinoma in situ, and platinum-based systemic chemotherapy to improve post-cystectomy disease-specific survival some of the causes of therapy related atypia in urinary bladder...
March 14, 2018: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562816/family-history-of-cancer-as-surrogate-predictor-for-immunotherapy-with-anti-pd1-pd-l1-agents-preliminary-report-of-the-fami-l1-study
#6
Alessio Cortellini, Melissa Bersanelli, Sebastiano Buti, Elisabetta Gambale, Francesco Atzori, Federica Zoratto, Alessandro Parisi, Davide Brocco, Annagrazia Pireddu, Katia Cannita, Daniela Iacono, Maria R Migliorino, Teresa Gamucci, Michele De Tursi, Tina Sidoni, Maria Tiseo, Maria Michiara, Anselmo Papa, Gesuino Angius, Silverio Tomao, Maria C Fargnoli, Clara Natoli, Corrado Ficorella
AIM: Tumors related to hereditary susceptibility seem to have an immunosensitive phenotype. MATERIALS & METHODS: We conducted a multicenter retrospective study, to investigate if family history of cancer, multiple neoplasms and early onset of cancer could be related to clinical outcomes of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. Activity and efficacy data of 211 advanced cancer patients (kidney, non-small-cell lung cancer, melanoma, urothelium, colorectal and HeN), treated at seven Italian centers with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 agents, were analyzed...
March 22, 2018: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541396/three-dimensional-organoid-culture-reveals-involvement-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-proliferation-of-bladder-cancer-cells
#7
Takahiro Yoshida, Nikolai A Sopko, Max Kates, Xiaopu Liu, Gregory Joice, David J McConkey, Trinity J Bivalacqua
There has been increasing awareness of the importance of three-dimensional culture of cancer cells. Tumor cells growing as multicellular spheroids in three-dimensional culture, alternatively called organoids, are widely believed to more closely mimic solid tumors in situ . Previous studies concluded that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is required for regeneration of the normal urothelium after injury and that β-catenin is upregulated in human bladder cancers, but no clear evidence has been advanced to support the idea that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is directly involved in deregulated proliferation and the other malignant characteristics of bladder cancer cells...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518027/expression-of-phospho-elk1-and-its-prognostic-significance-in-urothelial-carcinoma-of-the-upper-urinary-tract
#8
Satoshi Inoue, Hiroki Ide, Kazutoshi Fujita, Taichi Mizushima, Guiyang Jiang, Takashi Kawahara, Seiji Yamaguchi, Hiroaki Fushimi, Norio Nonomura, Hiroshi Miyamoto
Using preclinical models, we have recently found that ELK1, a transcriptional factor that activates downstream targets, including c-fos proto-oncogene, induces bladder cancer outgrowth. Here, we immunohistochemically determined the expression status of phospho-ELK1, an activated form of ELK1, in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUTUC). Overall, phospho-ELK1 was positive in 47 (47.5%; 37 weak (1+) and 10 moderate (2+)) of 99 UUTUCs, which was significantly ( P = 0.002) higher than in benign urothelium (21 (25...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517839/pcmt1-is-an-unfavorable-predictor-and-functions-as-an-oncogene-in-bladder-cancer
#9
Liming Dong, Yanpei Li, Dongwei Xue, Yili Liu
The role of protein l-isoaspartate (d-aspartate) O-methyltransferase (PCMT1) in human cancer was generally cognized. The clinical significance and biological function of PCMT1 in bladder cancer is still unknown. PCMT1 mRNA and protein expression levels in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines were detected by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, or western blot. The correlation between PCMT1 expression and clinicopathological factors was analyzed through immunohistochemistry in 108 bladder cancer patients. Loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies were conducted to explore the biological function of PCMT1 in bladder cancer cell lines in regulating cell proliferation, migration, and invasion...
April 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508172/epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-function-in-the-human-urothelium
#10
C Wasén, M Ekstrand, M Levin, D Giglio
PURPOSE: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr)-targeted therapy may be used in subgroups of patients with urinary bladder cancer. Here we assessed the role of EGFr in urothelial proliferation and migration in a two- and three-dimensional cell culture system. METHODS: UROtsa cells derived from normal urothelium and malignant T24 cells were cultured in a Type I collagen gel. Proliferation and migration of urothelial cells, in the absence and presence of the EGFr inhibitor cetuximab, were assessed with a proliferation test (ATCC) and with the Axioplan 2 imaging microscope with a motorized stage (Carl Zeiss), respectively...
April 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402855/vinflunine-in-advanced-transitional-cell-cancer-of-the-urothelial-tract-a-potential-option-for-maintenance-therapy-a-case-series
#11
Raffaella Palumbo, Luca Licata, Federico Sottotetti, Barbara Tagliaferri, Emma Pozzi, Cristina Teragni, Erica Quaquarini, Antonio Bernardo
INTRODUCTION: Vinflunine is a microtubule inhibitor approved in Europe as second-line treatment of advanced transitional cell cancer of the urothelium (TCCU). The inability to continue with a first-line platinum-based regimen beyond 6 cycles suggested investigating the use of vinflunine as switch maintenance therapy in patients with response or stable disease after first-line therapy. METHODS: Patients with advanced TCCU and documented disease control after 3-6 cycles of first-line platinum-based chemotherapy received vinflunine maintenance therapy within 6 weeks of the last cycle...
2018: Oncology Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349669/positive-correlation-between-matrix-metalloproteinases-and-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-its-association-with-clinical-outcome-in-bladder-cancer-patients
#12
R Singh, A Mandhani, V Agrawal, Minal Garg
Involvement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the pathogenesis of urothelial carcinoma elects them to be sensitive marker for clinical and prognostic implications. MMPs regulate tumor growth and invasion by inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which is characterized by the complex reprogramming of epithelial cells and ultimately bring about major changes in the structural organization of bladder urothelium. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the clinical relevance of MMPs in two distinct types of bladder cancer disease...
January 18, 2018: Cancer Microenvironment: Official Journal of the International Cancer Microenvironment Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323757/differentiation-associated-urothelial-cytochrome-p450-oxidoreductase-predicates-the-xenobiotic-metabolizing-activity-of-luminal-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancers
#13
Simon C Baker, Volker M Arlt, Radek Indra, Madeleine Joel, Marie Stiborová, Ian Eardley, Niaz Ahmad, Wolfgang Otto, Maximilian Burger, Peter Rubenwolf, David H Phillips, Jennifer Southgate
Extra-hepatic metabolism of xenobiotics by epithelial tissues has evolved as a self-defence mechanism but has potential to contribute to the local activation of carcinogens. Bladder epithelium (urothelium) is bathed in excreted urinary toxicants and pro-carcinogens. This study reveals how differentiation affects cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity and the role of NADPH:P450 oxidoreductase (POR). CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 transcripts were inducible in normal human urothelial (NHU) cells maintained in both undifferentiated and functional barrier-forming differentiated states in vitro...
May 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323081/primary-signet-cell-adenocarcinoma-of-bladder
#14
Prateek Kinra, S P Rashmi, Aftab Alam, Harkirat Singh, S C Dash
Primary signet cell cancer of the urinary bladder is a relatively rare entity. Since there is no mucinous epithelium in the bladder, It is proposed that the tumor arises from metaplastic urothelium. Two thirds of the tumours are mucin secreting, in most of which the site of the deposition is either extracellular or intracellular displacing the nucleus to a peripheral crescent, giving the cells a signet ring appearance. The tumours are most often infiltrative and diffusely involving the majority of the bladder akin to its name sake in stomach...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322793/mir-1-3p-inhibits-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-by-regulating-bdnf-trkb-signaling-pathway-in-bladder-cancer
#15
L Gao, P Yan, F F Guo, H J Liu, Z F Zhao
Recent studies have confirmed the existence of BDNF and tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) in normal and cancerous urothelium. However, the corresponding mechanisms and upstream signal pathways of BDNF/TrkB have not been fully discovered. This study aimed to investigate the effects of miR-1-3p on bladder cancer (BC) by regulating BDNF-TrkB signal pathway. The expression of miR-1-3p and BDNF in BC tissues and cell lines were detected by Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) microarray analysis, RT-qPCR and western blot...
2018: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250796/xiap-overexpression-promotes-bladder-cancer-invasion-in-vitro-and-lung-metastasis-in-vivo-via-enhancing-nucleolin-mediated-rho-gdi%C3%AE-mrna-stability
#16
Yonghui Yu, Honglei Jin, Jiheng Xu, Jiayan Gu, Xin Li, Qipeng Xie, Haishan Huang, Jingxia Li, Zhongxian Tian, Guosong Jiang, Caiyi Chen, Feng He, Xue-Ru Wu, Chuanshu Huang
Our recent studies demonstrate that X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is essential for regulating colorectal cancer invasion. Here, we discovered that RhoGDIβ was a key XIAP downstream effector mediating bladder cancer (BC) invasion in vitro and in vivo. We found that both XIAP and RhoGDIβ expressions were consistently elevated in BCs of N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (BBN)-treated mice in comparison to bladder tissues from vehicle-treated mice and human BCs in comparison to the paired adjacent normal bladder tissues...
December 18, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214354/wide-field-autofluorescence-guided-tur-b-for-the-detection-of-bladder-cancer-a-pilot-study
#17
Maximilian C Kriegmair, P Honeck, M Theuring, C Bolenz, M Ritter
PURPOSE: The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and value of wide-field autofluorescence imaging (AFI) for the detection of bladder cancer during transurethral resection of the bladder (TUR-B). METHODS: For imaging, the D-Light/AF System (Karl Storz GmbH, Tuttlingen, Germany) and a customized band pass filter (≈ 480-780 nm) at the eyepiece of the endoscope were used. The excitation light wavelength was 440 nm. Representative spectral measurements of tissue autofluorescence (AF) were performed using a spectrometer attached behind the AF band pass filter in selected patients...
May 2018: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207636/characterization-of-urinary-extracellular-vesicle-proteins-in-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#18
Christopher R Silvers, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Edward M Messing, George J Netto, Yi-Fen Lee
The mechanisms of bladder cancer progression are unknown, and new treatments and biomarkers are needed. Patient urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs) derive in part from bladder cancer cells and contain a specific protein cargo which may provide information about the disease. We conducted a proteomics study comparing EVs from the muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) cell line TCCSUP to EVs from normal urothelial line SVHUC. GO term analysis showed that TCCSUP EVs are enriched in proteins associated with the cell membrane, extracellular matrix, and inflammation and angiogenesis signaling pathways...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181884/mir-221-222-cluster-expression-improves-clinical-stratification-of-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-tat1-patients-risk-for-short-term-relapse-and-progression
#19
Foteini D Tsikrika, Margaritis Avgeris, Panagiotis K Levis, Theodoros Tokas, Konstantinos Stravodimos, Andreas Scorilas
Clinical heterogeneity of bladder cancer prognosis requires the identification of bladder tumors' molecular profile to improve the prediction value of the established and clinically used markers. In this study, we have analyzed miR-221/222 cluster expression in bladder tumors and its clinical significance for patients' prognosis and disease outcome. The study included 387 tissue specimens. Following extraction, total RNA was polyadenylated at 3'-end and reversed transcribed. SYBR-Green based qPCR assays were performed for the quantification of miR-221/222 expression...
March 2018: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158079/bone-metastases-as-the-only-metastatic-site-in-patients-with-urothelial-carcinoma-focus-on-a-special-patient-population
#20
Andrea Necchi, Gregory R Pond, Sumanta K Pal, Neeraj Agarwal, Daniel W Bowles, Elizabeth R Plimack, Evan Y Yu, Sylvain Ladoire, Jack Baniel, Simon Crabb, Gunter Niegisch, Sandy Srinivas, Dominik R Berthold, Jonathan E Rosenberg, Thomas Powles, Aristotelis Bamias, Lauren C Harshman, Joaquim Bellmunt, Matthew D Galsky
BACKGROUND: Patients with exclusive bone metastatic spread from urothelial carcinoma (UC) throughout their disease course represent a rare subgroup with unique clinical features. These patients deserved special consideration in a retrospective multicenter study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Analyses were made from a pool of 1911 patients with a diagnosis of metastatic UC, from 23 centers. Baseline characteristics, access to treatment, and outcomes were analyzed according to metastatic spread...
November 1, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
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