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urothelium cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327458/nfatc1-expression-as-a-prognosticator-in-urothelial-carcinoma-of-the-upper-urinary-tract
#1
Takashi Kawahara, Satoshi Inoue, Kazutoshi Fujita, Taichi Mizushima, Hiroki Ide, Seiji Yamaguchi, Hiroaki Fushimi, Norio Nonomura, Hiroshi Miyamoto
We recently found that NFATc1, a member of the NFAT family and a key regulator of the immune response, could induce bladder carcinogenesis and cancer progression. In this study, we immunohistochemically stained for NFATc1 in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUTUC) specimens and paired nonneoplastic urothelial tissues. NFATc1 was positive in 51 [52%; 40 (40%) weak (1+), 9 (9%) moderate (2+), and 2 (2%) strong (3+)] of 99 UUTUCs, which was significantly higher than in benign urothelium [30 (36%) of 83; 28 (34%) weak and 2 (2%) moderate] (0 vs 1+/2+/3+, P=...
March 16, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257819/in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-permeability-studies-of-paclitaxel-and-doxorubicin-from-drug-eluting-biodegradable-ureteral-stents
#2
Alexandre A Barros, Carlos Oliveira, Rui L Reis, Estevão Lima, Ana Rita C Duarte
A drug-eluting biodegradable ureteral stent (BUS) has been developed as a new approach for the treatment of urothelial tumors of upper urinary tract cancer. In a previous work, this system has proven to be a good carrier for anticancer drugs as a potential effective and sustainable intravesical drug delivery (IDD) system. BUS has revealed to reduce in 75% the viability of human urothelial cancer cells (T24) after 72 h of contact and demonstrated minimal cytotoxic effect on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) which were used as a control...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248032/-the-risk-of-bladder-cancer-in-patients-with-prostatic-hyperplasia-and-strategies-to-manage-this-combination
#3
Yu G Alyaev, A M Pshikhachev, A N Perekalina
The combination of bladder cancer with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) occurs in 5-27% of cases. The link between these diseases has not yet been closely investigated. The main role in the pathogenesis of bladder cancer combined with BPH is played by the residual urine and prolonged exposure of urothelium to the urine carcinogens. The choice of surgical treatment modality for the combination of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer and BPH is still a matter of debate. There is no consensus on the safety and appropriateness of simultaneous transurethral resection of the bladder and prostate in these patients...
November 2016: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240746/epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-promotes-sox2-and-nanog-expression-in-bladder-cancer
#4
Toshiro Migita, Ayano Ueda, Tomokazu Ohishi, Megumi Hatano, Hiroyuki Seimiya, Shin-Ichiro Horiguchi, Fumitaka Koga, Futoshi Shibasaki
Bladder cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the urothelium and is classified into non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Stemness markers such as SOX2 and NANOG are frequently overexpressed in various aggressive cancers, including MIBC; epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been proposed as a potential trigger of stemness in cancers. To determine whether cancer stemness is acquired via EMT in bladder cancer, we studied the effect of EMT on the expression of SOX2 and NANOG in bladder cancer cell lines...
February 27, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237713/poly-l-glutamic-acid-drug-delivery-system-for-the-intravesical-therapy-of-bladder-cancer-using-wga-as-targeting-moiety
#5
C Apfelthaler, M Anzengruber, F Gabor, M Wirth
In the management of bladder cancer, surgical resection of the tumour is usually followed by intravesical instillation of immunomodulatives and/or chemotherapeutics. The purpose of this local intravesical therapy is to eliminate residual malignant cells after surgical intervention. The main limitation of a localised adjuvant therapy is the insufficient concentration of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in malignant cells due to the unique structure of the human urothelium making it an exclusively hard to overcome barrier in the human body...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228618/preventive-effect-of-intravesical-ozone-supplementation-on-n-methyl-n-nitrosourea-induced-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-in-male-rats
#6
Kerem Teke, Tayyar A Ozkan, Oguz O Cebeci, Hasan Yilmaz, Muhammed E Keles, Levend Ozkan, Meltem O Dillioglugil, Demir K Yildiz, Ozdal Dillioglugil
Although non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is widely seen in men, most laboratory studies of new intravesical therapies to prevent NMIBC have been conducted on female animals. In addition, ozone (O3) has been shown to be a beneficial agent as an intravesical application in the treatment of various disorders. In the current study, we evaluated the immunohistopathological oxidative-antioxidative effects of intravesical O3 treatment on n-methyl-n-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced NMIBC. Male Wistar-Albino rats (n=51) were divided into four groups: sham (n=6), O3 only (n=15), MNU only (n=15), and MNU+O3 (n=15)...
February 22, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163793/uromark-a-urinary-biomarker-assay-for-the-detection-of-bladder-cancer
#7
Andrew Feber, Pawan Dhami, Liqin Dong, Patricia de Winter, Wei Shen Tan, Mónica Martínez-Fernández, Dirk S Paul, Antony Hynes-Allen, Sheida Rezaee, Pratik Gurung, Simon Rodney, Ahmed Mehmood, Felipe Villacampa, Federico de la Rosa, Charles Jameson, Kar Keung Cheng, Maurice P Zeegers, Richard T Bryan, Nicholas D James, Jesus M Paramio, Alex Freeman, Stephan Beck, John D Kelly
BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most common cancers in the western world and ranks as the most expensive to manage, due to the need for cystoscopic examination. BC shows frequent changes in DNA methylation, and several studies have shown the potential utility of urinary biomarkers by detecting epigenetic alterations in voided urine. The aim of this study is to develop a targeted bisulfite next-generation sequencing assay to diagnose BC from urine with high sensitivity and specificity...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149932/aquaporin-3-expression-loss-in-urothelial-carcinoma-association-with-tumor-invasion-depth-but-not-with-grading
#8
Johannes Breyer, Wolfgang Otto, Maximilian Burger, Arndt Hartmann, Peter C Rubenwolf
We have previously provided molecular evidence of expression of aquaporin 3 (AQP3) in normal human urothelium and in UBC of various stages. Whereas former studies demonstrated that loss of AQP3 was associated with invasive and high-grade disease and worse progression-free and cancer-specific survival, this report investigates the expression of AQP3 in associated CIS. Contrary to what we had expected, all CIS specimens were shown to exhibit strong AQP3 expression, suggesting loss of AQP3 in UBC is primarily associated with the ability of tumor cells for invasion but not with grading as sign of dedifferentiation...
January 27, 2017: Bladder Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109014/urothelial-generation-and-regeneration-in-development-injury-and-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Caihong Wang, Whitney Trotter Ross, Indira U Mysorekar
Homeostatic maintenance and repair of the urothelium upon injury are required for a functional bladder in both healthy and disease conditions. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the urothelial regenerative response is key to designing strategies for tissue repair and ultimately treatments for urologic diseases including urinary tract infections, voiding dysfunction, painful bladder syndrome, and bladder cancer. In this article, we review studies on urothelial ontogeny during development and regeneration following various injury modalities...
April 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101348/evans-blue-mediated-white-light-detection-of-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-a-preclinical-feasibility-and-safety-study-using-a-rat-bladder-urothelial-cell-carcinoma-model
#10
Sanne Elsen, Evelyne Lerut, Frank Van Der Aa, Ben Van Cleynenbreugel, Hendrik Van Poppel, Peter De Witte
Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) improves the detection of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). However, white-light (WL) cystoscopy remains the technique routinely used in urological clinics. A more cost-effective but equally performant alternative to PDD may encompass the use of an intense tumoritropic dye in combination with WL cystoscopy. Using a preclinical setting, we investigated the practical aspects of the use of Evans blue (EB) dye for the possible future detection of NMIBC using WL cystoscopy...
December 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081549/microrna-promoter-methylation-a-new-tool-for-accurate-detection-of-urothelial-carcinoma
#11
Nuno André Padrão, Sara Monteiro-Reis, Jorge Torres-Ferreira, Luís Antunes, Luís Leça, Diana Montezuma, João Ramalho-Carvalho, Paula C Dias, Paula Monteiro, Jorge Oliveira, Rui Henrique, Carmen Jerónimo
BACKGROUND: Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the most common cancer affecting the urinary system, worldwide. Lack of accurate early detection tools entails delayed diagnosis, precluding more efficient and timely treatment. In a previous study, we found that miR-129-2 and miR-663a were differentially methylated in UC compared with other genitourinary tract malignancies. Here, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of those microRNAs in urine. METHODS: Promoter methylation levels of miR-129-2 and miR-663a were assessed, using real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR, in UC tissue samples (using normal urothelium as control) and, subsequently, in urine samples from UC and other genitourinary malignancies...
February 28, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074261/perioperative-chemotherapy-in-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma-a-comprehensive-review
#12
REVIEW
Atiqullah Aziz, Jakub Dobruch, Kees Hendricksen, Luis A Kluth, Andrea Necchi, Aidan Noon, Michael Rink, Florian Roghmann, Roland Seiler, Paolo Gontero, Wassim Kassouf, Shahrokh F Shariat, Evanguelos Xylinas
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of neoadjuvant (NAC) and adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) treated with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). METHODS: A comprehensive review of the current literature was performed searching for all studies investigating NAC and AC in UTUC in MEDLINE and https://clinicaltrials.gov , prior to April 2016. The following keywords were used: "ureteral neoplasms," "urothelium," "ureter," "upper tract urothelial," "chemotherapy," "adjuvant," "neoadjuvant" and relevant variants...
January 10, 2017: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960233/iatrogenic-changes-in-the-urinary-tract
#13
REVIEW
Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Gladell P Paner, Rodolfo Montironi, Maria R Raspollini, Liang Cheng
A handful of therapeutic procedures are used to treat malignancies of the urinary tract, most frequently intravesical immunotherapy or chemotherapy, but also neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy. These treatment modalities produce morphological changes in the urothelium that can be mistaken for carcinoma; in particular, these therapies frequently mimic urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS) urothelial dysplasia or true invasive neoplasia. Drugs such as mitomycin C used after transurethral resection of bladder tumour to reduce recurrences, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) intravesical immunotherapy to treat high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer and urothelial CIS and platin-based systemic chemotherapy to improve postcystectomy disease-specific survival are examples of therapy-related atypia seen in the urinary tract...
January 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932416/a-phase-ii-trial-of-dovitinib-in-bcg-unresponsive-urothelial-carcinoma-with-fgfr3-mutations-or-over-expression-hoosier-cancer-research-network-trial-hcrn-12-157
#14
Noah M Hahn, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Ashley E Ross, George J Netto, Alexander S Baras, Jong Chul Park, Carolyn Chapman, Timothy A Masterson, Michael O Koch, Richard Bihrle, Richard S Foster, Thomas A Gardner, Liang Cheng, David R Jones, Kyle McElyea, George E Sandusky, Timothy Breen, Ziyue Liu, Costantine Albany, Marietta L Moore, Rhoda A Loman, Angela Reed, Scott A Turner, Francine B de Abreu, Torrey L Gallagher, Gregory J Tsongalis, Elizabeth R Plimack, Richard E Greenberg, Daniel M Geynisman
PURPOSE: To assess the clinical and pharmacodynamic activity of dovitinib in a treatment resistant, molecularly enriched NMIUC population. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A multi-site pilot phase 2 trial was conducted. Key eligibility criteria included: BCG unresponsive NMIUC (> 2 prior intravesical regimens) with increased phosphorylated FGFR3 (pFGFR3) expression by centrally analyzed immunohistochemistry (IHC+) or FGFR3 mutations (Mut+) assessed in a CLIA-licensed laboratory...
December 8, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913307/urothelium-adherent-ion-triggered-liposome-in-gel-system-as-a-platform-for-intravesical-drug-delivery
#15
Shruti GuhaSarkar, Prachi More, Rinti Banerjee
Instillations of therapeutic agents into the urinary bladder have limited efficacy due to drug washout and inadequate attachment to and penetration into the bladder wall. Instilled nanoparticles alone have low stability and high susceptibility to washout, while gel-based systems are difficult to administer and retain. To overcome disadvantages of current technologies, a biodegradable, in situ-gelling liposome-in-gel (LP-Gel) system was developed for instillation into the bladder, composed of nano-sized, fluidizing liposomes incorporated into a "smart" biopolymeric, urine-triggered hydrogel...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898096/on-a-fox-hunt-functions-of-fox-transcriptional-regulators-in-bladder-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Hironobu Yamashita, Vasty Osei Amponsa, Joshua I Warrick, Zongyu Zheng, Peter E Clark, Jay D Raman, Xue-Ru Wu, Cathy Mendelsohn, David J DeGraff
Genomic and transcriptional studies have identified discrete molecular subtypes of bladder cancer. These observations could be the starting point to identify new treatments. Several members of the forkhead box (FOX) superfamily of transcription factors have been found to be differentially expressed in the different bladder cancer subtypes. In addition, the FOXA protein family are key regulators of embryonic bladder development and patterning. Both experimental and clinical data support a role for FOXA1 and FOXA2 in urothelial carcinoma...
November 29, 2016: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777073/mtorc2-activation-is-regulated-by-the-urokinase-receptor-upar-in-bladder-cancer
#17
Andrew M Hau, Mariah Z Leivo, Andrew S Gilder, Jing-Jing Hu, Steven L Gonias, Donna E Hansel
Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) has been identified as a major regulator of bladder cancer cell migration and invasion. Upstream pathways that mediate mTORC2 activation remain poorly defined. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a GPI-anchored membrane protein and known activator of cell-signaling. We identified increased uPAR expression in 94% of invasive human bladder cancers and in 54-71% of non-invasive bladder cancers, depending on grade. Normal urothelium was uPAR-immunonegative...
January 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729990/uroplakins-and-their-potential-applications-in-urology
#18
REVIEW
Michal Andrzej Matuszewski, Krzysztof Tupikowski, Łukasz Dołowy, Beata Szymańska, Janusz Dembowski, Romuald Zdrojowy
INTRODUCTION: Urothelium is a highly specialized type of epithelium covering the interior of the urinary tract. One of the structures responsible for its unique features are urothelial plaques formed from glycoprotein heteropolymers, the uroplakins. Four types of uroplakins are known - UPIa, UPIb, UPII, UPIII. Herein we review the current status of knowledge about uroplakins and discuss their potential clinical applications. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A PubMed search was conducted to find original and review papers about uroplakins...
2016: Central European Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726966/nomogram-based-prediction-of-overall-survival-in-patients-with-metastatic-urothelial-carcinoma-receiving-first-line-platinum-based-chemotherapy-retrospective-international-study-of-invasive-advanced-cancer-of-the-urothelium-risc
#19
Andrea Necchi, Guru Sonpavde, Salvatore Lo Vullo, Daniele Giardiello, Aristotelis Bamias, Simon J Crabb, Lauren C Harshman, Joaquim Bellmunt, Ugo De Giorgi, Cora N Sternberg, Linda Cerbone, Sylvain Ladoire, Yu-Ning Wong, Evan Y Yu, Simon Chowdhury, Gunter Niegisch, Sandy Srinivas, Ulka N Vaishampayan, Sumanta K Pal, Neeraj Agarwal, Ajjai Alva, Jack Baniel, Ali-Reza Golshayan, Rafael Morales-Barrera, Daniel W Bowles, Matthew I Milowsky, Christine Theodore, Dominik R Berthold, Gedske Daugaard, Srikala S Sridhar, Thomas Powles, Jonathan E Rosenberg, Matthew D Galsky, Luigi Mariani
BACKGROUND: The available prognostic models for overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) have been derived from clinical trial populations of cisplatin-treated patients. OBJECTIVE: To develop a new model based on real-world patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Individual patient-level data from 29 centers were collected, including metastatic UC and first-line cisplatin- or carboplatin-based chemotherapy administered between January 2006 and January 2011...
February 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720671/genotoxic-and-cytotoxic-effects-of-the-environmental-pollutant-3-nitrobenzanthrone-on-bladder-cancer-cells
#20
Galina Reshetnikova, Viktoriya S Sidorenko, Terry Whyard, Mark Lukin, Wayne Waltzer, Takeji Takamura-Enye, Victor Romanov
3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), a potential human carcinogen, is present in diesel exhaust. The main metabolite of 3-NBA, 3-aminobenzanthrone, was detected in urine of miners occupationally exposed to diesel emissions. Environmental and occupational factors play an important role in development of bladder cancer (BC), one of the most frequent malignancies. It is expected that exposure of urothelium to 3-NBA and its metabolites may induce BC initiation and/or progression. To test this hypothesis, we studied geno- and cytotoxicity of 3-NBA using an in vitro BC model...
October 5, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
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