Read by QxMD icon Read

urothelium cancer

Michal Andrzej Matuszewski, Krzysztof Tupikowski, Łukasz Dołowy, Beata Szymańska, Janusz Dembowski, Romuald Zdrojowy
INTRODUCTION: Urothelium is a highly specialized type of epithelium covering the interior of the urinary tract. One of the structures responsible for its unique features are urothelial plaques formed from glycoprotein heteropolymers, the uroplakins. Four types of uroplakins are known - UPIa, UPIb, UPII, UPIII. Herein we review the current status of knowledge about uroplakins and discuss their potential clinical applications. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A PubMed search was conducted to find original and review papers about uroplakins...
2016: Central European Journal of Urology
Andrea Necchi, Guru Sonpavde, Salvatore Lo Vullo, Daniele Giardiello, Aristotelis Bamias, Simon J Crabb, Lauren C Harshman, Joaquim Bellmunt, Ugo De Giorgi, Cora N Sternberg, Linda Cerbone, Sylvain Ladoire, Yu-Ning Wong, Evan Y Yu, Simon Chowdhury, Gunter Niegisch, Sandy Srinivas, Ulka N Vaishampayan, Sumanta K Pal, Neeraj Agarwal, Ajjai Alva, Jack Baniel, Ali-Reza Golshayan, Rafael Morales-Barrera, Daniel W Bowles, Matthew I Milowsky, Christine Theodore, Dominik R Berthold, Gedske Daugaard, Srikala S Sridhar, Thomas Powles, Jonathan E Rosenberg, Matthew D Galsky, Luigi Mariani
BACKGROUND: The available prognostic models for overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) have been derived from clinical trial populations of cisplatin-treated patients. OBJECTIVE: To develop a new model based on real-world patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Individual patient-level data from 29 centers were collected, including metastatic UC and first-line cisplatin- or carboplatin-based chemotherapy administered between January 2006 and January 2011...
October 7, 2016: European Urology
Galina Reshetnikova, Viktoriya S Sidorenko, Terry Whyard, Mark Lukin, Wayne Waltzer, Takeji Takamura-Enye, Victor Romanov
3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), a potential human carcinogen, is present in diesel exhaust. The main metabolite of 3-NBA, 3-aminobenzanthrone, was detected in urine of miners occupationally exposed to diesel emissions. Environmental and occupational factors play an important role in development of bladder cancer (BC), one of the most frequent malignancies. It is expected that exposure of urothelium to 3-NBA and its metabolites may induce BC initiation and/or progression. To test this hypothesis, we studied geno- and cytotoxicity of 3-NBA using an in vitro BC model...
October 5, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Georgios Gakis, Peter C Black, Bernard H Bochner, Stephen A Boorjian, Arnulf Stenzl, George N Thalmann, Wassim Kassouf
CONTEXT: Urothelial carcinoma is considered a pan-urothelial disease. As such, the remnant urothelium in the upper urinary tract and urethra following radical cystectomy (RC) remains at risk for secondary urothelial tumors (SUTs). OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of patients with SUTs after RC. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic search was conducted using PubMed database according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines to identify studies between 1970 and 2016 reporting on malignant diseases of the urothelium after RC for bladder cancer...
October 6, 2016: European Urology
Savino M Di Stasi, Cristian Verri, Francesco Celestino, Francesco De Carlo, Vincenzo Pagliarulo
Bladder cancer is very common and most cases are diagnosed as nonmuscle invasive disease, which is characterized by its propensity to recur and progress. Intravesical therapy is used to delay recurrence and progression, while cystectomy is reserved for patients who are refractory to transurethral resection and intravesical therapy. There is an increasing interest in methods to enhance the delivery of intravesical chemotherapeutic agents to improve efficacy. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that electro-osmosis of mitomycin C (MMC) is more effective in delivering this drug into the urothelium, lamina propria, and superficial muscle layers of the bladder wall than is passive transport...
October 1, 2016: Urologia
Jianqi Yang, Lance T Platt, Biswanath Maity, Katelin E Ahlers, Zili Luo, Zhibo Lin, Bandana Chakravarti, Stella-Rita Ibeawuchi, Ryan W Askeland, Jolanta Bondaruk, Bogdan A Czerniak, Rory A Fisher
Urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is largely caused by exposure to toxic chemicals including those in cigarette smoke (i.e. BBN). An activating SNP in RGS6 is associated with a pronounced reduction in UBC risk, especially among smokers. However, the mechanism underlying this reduction remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that RGS6 is robustly expressed in human urothelium, where urothelial cell carcinoma originates, and is downregulated in human UBC. Utilizing RGS6-/- mice we interrogated a possible role for RGS6 as a tumor suppressor using the BBN-induced bladder carcinogenesis model that closely recapitulates human disease...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
Laura-Maria Krabbe, Solomon L Woldu, Shahrokh F Shariat, Yair Lotan
The high recurrence rates associated with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer requires close surveillance with cystoscopy, an invasive and expensive procedure with risk of missing cancer. Finding an accurate urinary biomarker that can detect recurrent disease would represent a significant advancement in management. Areas covered: This review summarizes the commercially-available urinary biomarkers including cytology, UroVysion, BTA, NMP22, uCyt+, and CxBladder assays. Additionally, we review recent investigational urinary biomarkers that hold promise in bladder cancer surveillance...
October 4, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Vikram L Sundararaghavan, Puneet Sindhwani, Terry D Hinds
Bladder cancer has been linked to numerous toxins which can be concentrated in the bladder after being absorbed into the blood and filtered by the kidneys. Excessive carcinogenic load to the bladder urothelium may result in the development of cancer. However, enzymes within the bladder can metabolize carcinogens into substrates that are safer. Importantly, these proteins, namely the UGT's (uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases), have been shown to possibly prevent bladder cancer. Also, studies have shown that the UGT1 expression is decreased in uroepithelial carcinomas, which may allow for the accumulation of carcinogens in the bladder...
September 27, 2016: Oncotarget
Jovana Golijanin, Ali Amin, Anna Moshnikova, Joseph M Brito, Timothy Y Tran, Ramona-Cosmina Adochite, Gregory O Andreev, Troy Crawford, Donald M Engelman, Oleg A Andreev, Yana K Reshetnyak, Dragan Golijanin
Bladder cancer is the fifth most common in incidence and one of the most expensive cancers to treat. Early detection greatly improves the chances of survival and bladder preservation. The pH low insertion peptide (pHLIP) conjugated with a near-infrared fluorescent dye [indocyanine green (ICG)] targets low extracellular pH, allowing visualization of malignant lesions in human bladder carcinoma ex vivo. Cystectomy specimens obtained after radical surgery were immediately irrigated with nonbuffered saline and instilled with a solution of the ICG pHLIP construct, incubated, and rinsed...
September 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jorge D Ramos, Martin F Casey, Aristotelis Bamias, Ugo De Giorgi, Joaquim Bellmunt, Lauren C Harshman, Sylvain Ladoire, Yu-Ning Wong, Ajjai S Alva, Jonathan E Rosenberg, Matthew D Galsky, Evan Y Yu
BACKGROUND: The Khorana score is a predictive risk model for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with cancer planning to receive chemotherapy. Urothelial carcinoma and variant histologies (UC/VH) were underrepresented in the model. We sought to evaluate whether the Khorana score predicts for VTE in a retrospective multinational data set of patients with metastatic UC/VH. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with metastatic UC/VH who received chemotherapy were eligible...
September 16, 2016: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
Vipulkumar Dadhania, Miao Zhang, Li Zhang, Jolanta Bondaruk, Tadeusz Majewski, Arlene Siefker-Radtke, Charles C Guo, Colin Dinney, David E Cogdell, Shizhen Zhang, Sangkyou Lee, June G Lee, John N Weinstein, Keith Baggerly, David McConkey, Bogdan Czerniak
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that bladder cancer can be divided into two molecular subtypes referred to as luminal and basal with distinct clinical behaviors and sensitivities to chemotherapy. We aimed to validate these subtypes in several clinical cohorts and identify signature immunohistochemical markers that would permit simple and cost-effective classification of the disease in primary care centers. METHODS: We analyzed genomic expression profiles of bladder cancer in three cohorts of fresh frozen tumor samples: MD Anderson (n=132), Lund (n=308), and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) (n=408) to validate the expression signatures of luminal and basal subtypes and relate them to clinical follow-up data...
August 25, 2016: EBioMedicine
Sławomir G Kata, Omar Aboumarzouk
INTRODUCTION: There is observed increase in detection rate of upper urinary tract urothelial cancer worldwide. This is a result of improved imaging as well as implementation of novel technologies of direct visualization of upper urinary tract. Standard techniques still remain insufficient to diagnose flat urothelial lesions. Carcinoma in situ is characterized by flat disordered proliferation of urothelial cells with marked cytologic abnormality, which occur within one cell layer as well as full thickness urothelium and therefore requires a better technology to pick up early and subtle mucosal changes...
2016: Central European Journal of Urology
Theodore G Gabig, Wayne C Waltzer, Terry Whyard, Victor Romanov
The current intravesical treatment of bladder cancer (BC) is limited to a few chemotherapeutics that show imperfect effectiveness and are associated with some serious complications. Thus, there is an urgent need for alternative therapies, especially for patients with high-risk non-muscle invasive (NMIBC). Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), cytolytic protein binds to its receptors: claudin 3 and 4 that are expressed in epithelial cells. This binding is followed by rapid cell death. Claudin 4 is present in several epithelial tissue including bladder urothelium and its expression is elevated in some forms of BC...
September 16, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Takashi Kawahara, Satoshi Inoue, Hiroki Ide, Eiji Kashiwagi, Shinji Ohtake, Taichi Mizushima, Peng Li, Yi Li, Yichun Zheng, Hiroji Uemura, George J Netto, Hitoshi Ishiguro, Hiroshi Miyamoto
The expression status of ZKSCAN3, a zinc-finger transcription factor containing KRAB and SCAN domains, as well as its biological significance, in human bladder cancer remains largely unknown. In the current study, we aimed to determine the functional role of ZKSCAN3 in bladder cancer progression. Immunohistochemistry in tissue specimens detected ZKSCAN3 signals in 138 (93.2%) of 148 urothelial neoplasms, which was significantly higher than in non-neoplastic urothelial tissues [76 (84.4%) of 90; P=0.044]. Correspondingly, the levels of ZKSCAN3 gene were significantly elevated in bladder tumors, compared with those in adjacent normal-appearing bladder mucosae (P=0...
July 18, 2016: Oncotarget
M Kemal Ozbilgin, Tuna Onal, Cemil Ozcan, Merve Temel, Caner Aktas, Manuchehr Salehi Gareveran, Elgin Turkoz Uluer, Sevinc Inan, Cengiz Kurtman
OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of cyclooxygenase (COX) expression in the urothelium of the urinary bladder during radiation injury caused by pelvic radiotherapy for cancer therapy. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-four male Swiss Albino mice were separated into 4 groups. The first group was the control group (Group 1) and the second, third, and fourth groups were euthanized after 24 hours (Group 2), 48 hours (Group 3), and 7 days (Group 4), respectively. A single-fractioned 10 Gy of ionizing radiation was applied to all mice's pelvic zone with Co-60...
April 2016: Analytical and Quantitative Cytopathology and Histopathology
Daniel P Nguyen, Padraic O'Malley, Bashir Al Hussein Al Awamlh, Marc-Alain Furrer, Nigel P Mongan, Brian D Robinson, Gerald J Wang, Douglas S Scherr
BACKGROUND: Hormonal factors may play a role in bladder cancer (BCa). We investigated the expression of aromatase and estrogen receptor (ER)β and its association with pathological variables and survival outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: BCa specimens from 40 patients were evaluated. Immunohistochemistry was performed for aromatase and ERβ. Descriptive statistics and univariate analyses assessed the association of these markers with pathologic variables and survival outcomes...
May 27, 2016: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
George Papafotiou, Varvara Paraskevopoulou, Eleni Vasilaki, Zoi Kanaki, Nikolaos Paschalidis, Apostolos Klinakis
The urothelium is a specialized epithelium that lines the urinary tract. It consists of three different cell types, namely, basal, intermediate and superficial cells arranged in relatively distinct cell layers. Normally, quiescent, it regenerates fast upon injury, but the regeneration process is not fully understood. Although several reports have indicated the existence of progenitors, their identity and exact topology, as well as their role in key processes such as tissue regeneration and carcinogenesis have not been clarified...
2016: Nature Communications
Neeraj Agarwal, Garrett M Dancik, Andrew Goodspeed, James C Costello, Charles Owens, Jason E Duex, Dan Theodorescu
In principle, the inhibition of candidate gain-of-function genes defined through genomic analyses of large patient cohorts offers an attractive therapeutic strategy. In this study, we focused on changes in expression of CD24, a well-validated clinical biomarker of poor prognosis and a driver of tumor growth and metastasis, as a benchmark to assess functional relevance. Through this approach, we identified GON4L as a regulator of CD24 from screening a pooled shRNA library of 176 candidate gain-of-function genes...
September 1, 2016: Cancer Research
Ching-Wen Liu, Yu-Tse Wu, Kai-Jen Lin, Tsan-Jung Yu, Yu-Liang Kuo, Li-Ching Chang
This study aimed to examine the efficacy of epirubicin-loaded gelatin hydrogel (EPI-H) in the treatment of superficial urothelium carcinoma. Hydrogel was prepared by Schiff base-crosslinking of gelatin with glutaraldehyde. EPI-H exhibited high entrapment efficiency (59.87% ± 0.51%). EPI-H also increased epirubicin accumulation in AY-27 cells when compared with the effect of aqueous solutions of epirubicin (EPI-AQ); respective epirubicin-positive cell counts were 69.0% ± 7.6% and 38.3% ± 5.8%. EPI-H also exhibited greater cytotoxicity against AY-27 cells than that of EPI-AQ; IC50 values were 13...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Angela Lopedota, Annalisa Cutrignelli, Valentino Laquintana, Nunzio Denora, Rosa Maria Iacobazzi, Mara Perrone, Elisabetta Fanizza, Maria Mastrodonato, Donatella Mentino, Antonio Lopalco, Nicoletta Depalo, Massimo Franco
PURPOSE: Chitosan microparticles containing celecoxib (CB), were developed as chemoprevention of bladder cancer. Furthermore two inclusion complexes of CB with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (C1 and C2) were prepared to improve the solubility of the drug. METHODS: C1 and C2 were obtained by freeze-drying and characterized in the solid state and in solution. Microparticles loaded with CB or C1 or C2 were prepared by spray drying and fully characterized. RESULTS: The yield and encapsulation efficiencies of microparticles depended by both the viscosity and the presence of the inclusion complex in the feed medium nebulised...
September 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"