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Sensory evaluation

Rodrigo López-Leal, Paula Diaz, Felipe A Court
Sensory neurons from dorsal root ganglion efficiently regenerate after peripheral nerve injuries. These neurons are widely used as a model system to study degenerative mechanisms of the soma and axons, as well as regenerative axonal growth in the peripheral nervous system. This chapter describes techniques associated to the study of axonal degeneration and regeneration using explant cultures of dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons in vitro in the presence or absence of Schwann cells. Schwann cells are extremely important due to their involvement in tissue clearance during axonal degeneration as well as their known pro-regenerative effect during regeneration in the peripheral nervous system...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Stefan Elmer, Joëlle Albrecht, Seyed Abolfazl Valizadeh, Clément François, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Word learning constitutes a human faculty which is dependent upon two anatomically distinct processing streams projecting from posterior superior temporal (pST) and inferior parietal (IP) brain regions toward the prefrontal cortex (dorsal stream) and the temporal pole (ventral stream). The ventral stream is involved in mapping sensory and phonological information onto lexical-semantic representations, whereas the dorsal stream contributes to sound-to-motor mapping, articulation, complex sequencing in the verbal domain, and to how verbal information is encoded, stored, and rehearsed from memory...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Adrian Galiana-Simal, Victoria Muñoz-Martinez, Paloma Calero-Bueno, Maria Vela-Romero, Luis Beato-Fernandez
Autism spectrum disorder diagnosis is currently based on clinical observations and behavioral evaluations exclusively, without any biological determination. Molecular biomarkers are usually obtained from biological fluids, such as blood or urine, generally through invasive and uncomfortable procedures. Patients with autism are characterized by sensory reactivity and behavioral difficulties which make sample collection problematic. Saliva has emerged as a feasible alternative to obtain relevant biological information and is especially indicated in the case of children with autism due to its painless and noninvasive sampling characteristics...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Ekaterina M Savelieva, Vladimir E Oslovsky, Dmitry S Karlov, Nikolay N Kurochkin, Irina A Getman, Sergey N Lomin, Georgy V Sidorov, Sergey N Mikhailov, Dmitry I Osolodkin, Georgy A Romanov
Biological effects of hormones in both plants and animals are based on high-affinity interaction with cognate receptors resulting in their activation. The signal of cytokinins, classical plant hormones, is perceived in Arabidopsis by three homologous membrane receptors: AHK2, AHK3, and CRE1/AHK4. To study the cytokinin-receptor interaction, we used 25 derivatives of potent cytokinin N6 -benzyladenine (BA) with substituents in the purine heterocycle and/or in the side chain. The study was focused primarily on individual cytokinin receptors from Arabidopsis...
March 12, 2018: Phytochemistry
Ryan B Scott, Jason Samaha, Ron Chrisley, Zoltan Dienes
While theories of consciousness differ substantially, the 'conscious access hypothesis', which aligns consciousness with the global accessibility of information across cortical regions, is present in many of the prevailing frameworks. This account holds that consciousness is necessary to integrate information arising from independent functions such as the specialist processing required by different senses. We directly tested this account by evaluating the potential for associative learning between novel pairs of subliminal stimuli presented in different sensory modalities...
March 12, 2018: Cognition
S Kharchoufi, J Gomez, C Lasanta, R Castro, F Sainz, M Hamdi
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the beneficial health effects of certain fruits, such as pomegranate, and their by-products, like vinegar. Vinegars contain antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols, which can scavenge free radicals in the body. In this study, the antioxidant properties (ABTS and DPPH scavenging capacities) and global polyphenolic composition of a new functional product, namely a pomegranate vinegar produced in the laboratory from the Gabsi variety, were evaluated and compared with those of commercial wine vinegars (Sherry and Rioja red wine Spanish vinegars)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Draženka Komes, Arijana Bušić, Ana Belščak-Cvitanović, Mladen Brnčić, Tomislav Bosiljkov, Aleksandra Vojvodić, Filip Dujmić
Regardless of its highly valuable nutritive composition, goat's milk is less preferred by consumers due to its specific sensory characteristics that are very often regarded as undesirable. On the other hand, traditional medicinal plants from Lamiaceae family, due to their rich bioactive composition, especially polyphenols, and desirable aroma profile, can be used to enhance and improve bioactive and sensory properties of food. In the present study nutritively valuable beverages were produced by enrichment of goat's milk with medicinal plant extracts derived from the Lamiaceae family and stabilized by homogenization with high intensity ultrasound treatment...
December 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Ludmila N Bakhireva, Jean Lowe, Laura M Garrison, Sandra Cano, Yuridia Leyva, Fares Qeadan, Julia M Stephen
INTRODUCTION: Earlier identification of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to identify neurobehavioral (NB) outcomes associated with PAE in infants. METHODS: This manuscript evaluates NB outcomes at 6.33±1.12 months of age in 93 infants (39 PAE and 54 No-PAE) recruited prospectively into the ENRICH cohort. PAE was assessed by prospective repeated TLFB interviews and a panel of ethanol biomarkers. NB outcomes were evaluated by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ-R), and Infant Sensory Profile (ISP)...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Jong Min Kim, Seung Beom Woo, Zeeihn Lee, Sung Jae Heo, Donghwi Park
RATIONALE: Verbal auditory agnosia is the selective inability to recognize verbal sounds. Patients with this disorder lose the ability to understand language, write from dictation, and repeat words with reserved ability to identify nonverbal sounds. However, to the best of our knowledge, there was no report about verbal auditory agnosia in adult patient with traumatic brain injury. PATIENT CONCERNS: He was able to clearly distinguish between language and nonverbal sounds, and he did not have any difficulty in identifying the environmental sounds...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Hannah Crocker Cunningham, Kristi M Cammack, Kristin E Hales, Harvey C Freetly, Amanda K Lindholm-Perry
Feed costs account for over 70% of the annual expenditures in cow/calf production. During the production year the cow uses nutrients to support conceptus growth, milk production, work (grazing and locomotion), and maintenance requirements. The majority of the nutrients are used to support maintenance. Substrate cycling has been identified as one of the major contributors toward energy expenditure associated with maintenance in mature cows. The objective of this study was to determine whether beef cows that differ in the efficiency of weight gain differ in the relative abundance of transcripts for metabolic regulation in adipose tissue...
2018: PloS One
Kieran N Kilcawley, Hope Faulkner, Holly J Clarke, Maurice G O'Sullivan, Joseph P Kerry
There has been a surge in interest in relation to differentiating dairy products derived from pasture versus confined systems. The impact of different forage types on the sensory properties of milk and cheese is complex due to the wide range of on farm and production factors that are potentially involved. The main effect of pasture diet on the sensory properties of bovine milk and cheese is increased yellow intensity correlated to β-carotene content, which is a possible biomarker for pasture derived dairy products...
March 13, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Andreas Venhorst, Dominic P Micklewright, Timothy D Noakes
INTRODUCTION: A three-dimensional framework of centrally regulated and goal-directed exercise behaviour emphasised the integration of distinct sensory-discriminatory, affective-motivational and cognitive-evaluative dimensions that underpin perceived fatigability. This study aimed to capture the complex interdependencies and temporal dynamics in these processes, their interrelations with observed pacing behaviour, performance and biochemical variables as well as their performance level- and competition outcome-dependent variances...
March 12, 2018: Sports Medicine
Runak Ghobadi, Rasoul Mohammadi, Javaher Chabavizade, Masoud Sami
Background: Ganoderma lucidum from Ganodermataceae family is a kind of mushroom known to have various therapeutic properties such as lowering high blood sugar and high blood pressure, boosting the immune system as well as its antibacterial and antioxidant effects. Materials and Methods: this study investigated the oxidative stability, microbial and sensory properties of sausage at three different treatments; (i) 1% w/w Ganoderma lucidum powder (GLP) without nitrite as a food preservative (P), (ii) 0...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
Logan T Dowdle, Truman R Brown, Mark S George, Colleen A Hanlon
BACKGROUND: In the 20 years since our group established the feasibility of performing interleaved TMS/fMRI, no studies have reported direct comparisons of active prefrontal stimulation with a matched sham. Thus, for all studies there is concern about what is truly the TMS effect on cortical neurons. OBJECTIVE: After developing a sham control for use within the MRI scanner, we used fMRI to test the hypothesis of greater regional BOLD responses for active versus control stimulation...
February 24, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Sonia Bansal, Laurence C Jayet Bray, Barbara L Schwartz, Wilsaan M Joiner
BACKGROUND: Symptoms of psychosis in schizophrenia reflect disturbances in sense of agency-difficulty distinguishing internally from externally generated sensory and perceptual experiences. One theory attributes these anomalies to a disruption in corollary discharge (CD), an internal copy of generated motor commands used to distinguish self-movement-generated sensations from externally generated stimulation. METHODS: We used a transsaccadic shift detection paradigm to examine possible deficits in CD and sense of agency based on the ability to perceive visual changes in 31 schizophrenia patients (SZPs) and 31 healthy control subjects...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
D Zoenen, V Delvenne
INTRODUCTION: The processing of information coming from the elementary sensory systems conditions the development and fulfilment of a child's abilities. A dysfunction in the sensory stimuli processing may generate behavioural patterns that might affect a child's learning capacities as well as his relational sphere. The DSM-5 recognizes the sensory abnormalities as part of the symptomatology of Autism Spectrum Disorders. However, similar features are observed in other neurodevelopmental disorders...
2018: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
Kingsley K Duah, Edward K Essuman, Osca S Olympio, Worlah Akwetey, Vida Gyimah, Jeremiah O Yeboah
Commercial poultry production, although fairly well developed, continues to develop rapidly in Africa and other areas of the world. The local chickens, which may perhaps be harnessed and exploited for poverty alleviation, form part of the many local assets of underprivileged people living in the rural areas. In view of this, the study aims to investigate consumer acceptability of indigenous chicken meats using survey and sensory evaluation. The survey is comprised mainly of interviewing market women and supplying birds to them for sale in order to find answers to questions related to marketability or otherwise of the naked-neck, frizzled naked-neck, and normal-feathered cockerels...
March 8, 2018: Poultry Science
Sherlley Amsellem, Richard Höchenberger, Kathrin Ohla
Odors are inherently ambiguous and therefore susceptible to redundant sensory as well as context information. The identification of an odor object relies largely on visual input. Thus far, it is unclear whether visual and olfactory stimuli are indeed integrated at an early perceptual stage and which role the congruence between the visual and olfactory inputs plays. Previous studies on visual-olfactory interaction used either congruent or incongruent information, leaving it open whether nuances of visual-olfactory congruence shape perception differently...
March 8, 2018: Chemical Senses
Wenjing Wan, Baojun Xu
BACKGROUND: We aimed to develop a beverage using beta-glucan and whey protein isolate (WPI). Furthermore, we evaluated the sensory attributes and changes of the physiochemical properties (pH value, total acidity, total soluble solids, sugar-acid ratio, color, viscosity, turbidity, and browning index) of the beverage during 48-hour storage by comparison with the commercial product and blank sample. RESULTS: The developed beverage had similar sweetness, smoothness, and overall acceptance as those of the commercial and blank samples...
March 12, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Evangelia Tsolaki, Angela Downes, William Speier, W Jeff Elias, Nader Pouratian
Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused UltraSound (MRgFUS) offers an incisionless approach to treat essential tremor (ET). Due to lack of evident internal anatomy on traditional structural imaging, indirect targeting must still be used to localize the lesion. Here, we investigate the potential predictive value of probabilistic tractography guided thalamic targeting by defining how tractography-defined targets, lesion size and location, and clinical outcomes interrelate. MR imaging and clinical outcomes from 12 ET patients that underwent MRgFUS thalamotomy in a pilot study at the University of Virginia were evaluated in this analysis...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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