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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452445/suppressive-role-of-tissue-factor-pathway-inhibitor-%C3%AE-in-platelet-dependent-fibrin-formation-under-flow-is-restricted-to-low-procoagulant-strength
#1
Stella Thomassen, Tom G Mastenbroek, Frauke Swieringa, Kristien Winckers, Marion A H Feijge, Roy Schrijver, Judith M E M Cosemans, Susan A Maroney, Alan E Mast, Tilman M Hackeng, Johan W M Heemskerk
Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-alpha (TFPI-α) is a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor, which suppresses coagulation by inhibiting the tissue factor (TF)/factor VIIa complex as well as factor Xa. In static plasma-phospholipid systems, TFPI-α thus suppresses both factor Xa and thrombin generation. In this article, we used a microfluidics approach to investigate how TFPI-α regulates fibrin clot formation in platelet thrombi at low wall shear rate. We therefore hypothesized that the anticoagulant effect of TFPI-α in plasma is a function of the local procoagulant strength-defined as the magnitude of thrombin generation under flow, due to local activities of TF/factor VIIa and factor Xa...
February 16, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451779/real-time-intrinsic-fluorescence-visualisation-and-sizing-of-proteins-and-protein-complexes-in-microfluidic-devices
#2
Pavan Kumar Challa, Quentin Peter, Maya A Wright, Yuewen Zhang, Kadi-Liis Saar, Jacqueline A Carozza, Justin L P Benesch, Tuomas P J Knowles
Optical detection has become a convenient and scalable approach to read out information from microfluidic systems. For the study of many key biomolecules, however, including peptides and proteins, which have low fluorescence emission efficiencies at visible wavelengths, this approach typically requires labelling of the species of interest with extrinsic fluorophores to enhance the optical signal obtained -- a process which can be time-consuming, requires purification steps, and has the propensity to perturb the behaviour of the systems under study due to interactions between the labels and the analyte molecules...
February 16, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451404/optimizing-nbe-pk-pd-assays-using-the-gyrolab-affinity-software-conveniently-within-the-bioanalyst-s-existing-workflow
#3
Maria Myzithras, Tammy Bigwarfe, Erica Waltz, Hua Li, Jennifer Ahlberg, Irina Rybina, Sarah Low, Cynthia Hess Kenny, John Miglietta, Rachel Kroe-Barrett
AIM: The fully automated microfluidics-based Gyrolab is a popular instrument for the bioanalysis of protein therapeutics; requiring minimal sample and reagent volumes. Gyros offers affinity software for determining binding affinity in solution using a high-throughput method and miniaturized reactions. RESULTS: Using this affinity software, multiple CTGF-targeting reagents were characterized on the Gyrolab after <100% target coverage was seen in a cynomolgus pharmacokinetic/PD study dosed with anti-CTGF antibodies...
February 16, 2018: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451128/signal-amplifying-nanoparticle-hydrogel-hybrid-microarray-biosensor-for-metal-enhanced-fluorescence-detection-of-organophosphorus-compounds
#4
Minsu Kim, Kangwon Lee, Ji Eon Kwon, Won Gun Koh
In this study, we developed an enzyme-based miniaturized fluorescence biosensor to detect paraoxon, one of the most well-known neurotoxic organophosphorus compounds (OPs). The biosensor was fabricated with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel microarrays that entrapped acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and quantum dots (QDs) as fluorescence reporters. Metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) was utilized to amplify the fluorescence signal, which was achieved by decorating QDs on the surface of silica-coated silver nanoparticles (Ag@Silica)...
February 16, 2018: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450440/injection-molded-lab-on-a-disc-platform-for-screening-of-genetically-modified-e-coli-using-liquid-liquid-extraction-and-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering
#5
Lidia Morelli, Laura Serioli, Francesca Alessandra Centorbi, Christian Bille Jendresen, Marco Matteucci, Oleksii Ilchenko, Danilo Demarchi, Alex Toftgaard Nielsen, Kinga Zór, Anja Boisen
We present the development of an automated centrifugal microfluidic platform with integrated sample pre-treatment (filtration and liquid-liquid extraction) and detection (SERS-based sensing). The platform consists of eight calibration and four assay modules, fabricated with polypropylene using injection molding and bonded with ultrasonic welding. The platform was used for detection of a secondary bacterial metabolite (p-coumaric acid) from bacterial supernatant. The obtained extraction efficiency was comparable to values obtained in batch experiments and the SERS-based sensing showed a good correlation with HPLC analysis...
February 16, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449156/stochastic-expression-of-lactate-dehydrogenase-a-induces-escherichia-coli-persister-formation
#6
Naoki Yamamoto, Rino Isshiki, Yuto Kawai, Daiki Tanaka, Tetsushi Sekiguchi, Shinya Matsumoto, Satoshi Tsuneda
Bacterial persisters are phenotypic variants that survive the treatment of lethal doses of growth-targeting antibiotics without mutations. Although the mechanism underlying persister formation has been studied for decades, how the persister phenotype is switched on and protects itself from antibiotics has been elusive. In this study, we focused on the lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhA) that was upregulated in an Escherichia coli persister-enriched population. A survival rate assay using an ldhA-overexpressing strain showed that ldhA expression induced persister formation...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448966/exosomes-taken-up-by-neurons-hijack-the-endosomal-pathway-to-spread-to-interconnected-neurons
#7
Juan Carlos Polanco, Chuanzhou Li, Nela Durisic, Robert Sullivan, Jürgen Götz
In Alzheimer disease and related disorders, the microtubule-associated protein tau aggregates and forms cytoplasmic lesions that impair neuronal physiology at many levels. In addition to affecting the host neuron, tau aggregates also spread to neighboring, recipient cells where the misfolded tau aggregates, in a manner similar to prions, actively corrupt the proper folding of soluble tau, and thereby impair cellular functions. One vehicle for the transmission of tau aggregates are secretory nanovesicles known as exosomes...
February 15, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448769/nanobubbles-in-confined-solution-generation-contact-angle-and-stability
#8
Jiachen Wei, Xianren Zhang, Fan Song, Yingfeng Shao
The formation of gas bubbles presents a frequent challenge to microfluidic operations, for which fluids are geometrically confined to a microscale space. Here, to understand the mechanism of nucleating gas bubbles in microfluidic devices, we investigate the formation and stability of nanobubbles in confined solutions. Our molecular dynamics simulations show that while pinning of the contact line is a prerequisite for the stability of surface nanobubbles in open systems that can exchange gas with surrounding environment, in confined solutions, stable nanobubbles can exist even without pinning...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448587/droplet-based-microfluidic-reactor-for-synthesis-of-size-controlled-cdse-quantum-dots
#9
Cheol Hwan Kwak, Joong Pill Park, Sung Sil Lee, Rethinasabapathy Muruganantham, Soonjo Kwon, Changhyun Roh, Sang-Wook Kim, Yun Suk Huh
CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with a uniform size distribution were synthesized using a droplet-based microfluidic reactor. The droplet-based microfluidic reactor enabled continuous production of CdSe QDs at a temperature of less than 250 °C in an extremely shorter reaction time (less than 30 s) when compared with the batch reactor. The photoluminescence (PL) and ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectra of the CdSe QDs were recorded at different reaction times and the size and optical properties of the QDs were discussed...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448448/high-speed-broadband-elastic-actuator-in-water-using-induced-charge-electro-osmosis-with-a-skew-structure
#10
Hideyuki Sugioka, Naoki Nakano
An artificial cilium using ac electro-osmosis (ACEO) is attractive because of its large potentiality for innovative microfluidic applications. However, the ACEO cilium has not been probed experimentally and has a shortcoming that the working frequency range is very narrow. Thus, we here propose an ACEO elastic actuator having a skew structure that broadens a working frequency range and experimentally demonstrate that the elastic actuator in water can be driven with a high-speed (∼10 Hz) and a wide frequency range (∼0...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447224/directional-freezing-for-the-cryopreservation-of-adherent-mammalian-cells-on-a-substrate
#11
Liat Bahari, Amir Bein, Victor Yashunsky, Ido Braslavsky
Successfully cryopreserving cells adhered to a substrate would facilitate the growth of a vital confluent cell culture after thawing while dramatically shortening the post-thaw culturing time. Herein we propose a controlled slow cooling method combining initial directional freezing followed by gradual cooling down to -80°C for robust preservation of cell monolayers adherent to a substrate. Using computer controlled cryostages we examined the effect of cooling rates and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) concentration on cell survival and established an optimal cryopreservation protocol...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446618/correction-to-all-in-one-centrifugal-microfluidic-device-for-size-selective-circulating-tumor-cell-isolation-with-high-purity
#12
Ada Lee, Juhee Park, Minji Lim, Vijaya Sunkara, Shine Young Kim, Gwang Ha Kim, Mi-Hyun Kim, Yoon-Kyoung Cho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445889/clinical-significance-of-circulating-tumor-cells-from-lung-cancer-patients-using-microfluidic-chip
#13
Chen Qian, Shan Wu, Hongmei Chen, Xiaofen Zhang, Rongrong Jing, Lei Shen, Xudong Wang, Shaoqing Ju, Chunping Jia, Hui Cong
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) exist in the peripheral blood and have an important role in the disease development, tumor metastasis and clinical surveillance, especially in the process of metastasis. However, the technology of detecting CTCs still had a large challenge since they were rare in the peripheral blood. Here, we developed a size-based microfluidic chip, which contained array and filter channel array that could enrich CTCs from blood samples more quickly and conveniently. Combined with clinical specimen, we analyzed CTCs in 200 lung cancer patients by this microfluidic chip...
February 14, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445800/acoustic-separation-in-plastic-microfluidics-for-rapid-detection-of-bacteria-in-blood-using-engineered-bacteriophage
#14
P Dow, K Kotz, S Gruszka, J Holder, J Fiering
A more effective treatment of bacteremia requires a diagnostic platform that is both sensitive, accurate and rapid. Currently, clinical laboratory techniques require growth of bacteria prior to diagnosis, take days to complete, and leave empiric therapy and broad spectrum antibiotics as the only option at the onset of treatment. In order to bypass this growth requirement, we engineered a system that purifies bacteria from blood to improve performance in a bacteriophage-based luminescence assay. To perform the purification, we used acoustophoresis in plastic microfluidic chips, enabling future development into a low cost point-of-care system...
February 15, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445209/3d-microfluidic-liver-cultures-as-a-physiological-preclinical-tool-for-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#15
A M Ortega-Prieto, J K Skelton, S N Wai, E Large, M Lussignol, G Vizcay-Barrena, D Hughes, R A Fleck, M Thursz, M T Catanese, M Dorner
With more than 240 million people infected, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major health concern. The inability to mimic the complexity of the liver using cell lines and regular primary human hepatocyte (PHH) cultures pose significant limitations for studying host/pathogen interactions. Here, we describe a 3D microfluidic PHH system permissive to HBV infection, which can be maintained for at least 40 days. This system enables the recapitulation of all steps of the HBV life cycle, including the replication of patient-derived HBV and the maintenance of HBV cccDNA...
February 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445159/microfluidic-cell-sorting-by-stiffness-to-examine-heterogenic-responses-of-cancer-cells-to-chemotherapy
#16
Muhymin Islam, Roman Mezencev, Brynn McFarland, Hannah Brink, Betsy Campbell, Bushra Tasadduq, Edmund K Waller, Wilbur Lam, Alexander Alexeev, Todd Sulchek
Cancers consist of a heterogeneous populations of cells that may respond differently to treatment through drug-resistant sub-populations. The scarcity of these resistant sub-populations makes it challenging to understand how to counter their resistance. We report a label-free microfluidic approach to separate cancer cells treated with chemotherapy into sub-populations enriched in chemoresistant and chemosensitive cells based on the differences in cellular stiffness. The sorting approach enabled analysis of the molecular distinctions between resistant and sensitive cells...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445080/modeling-radiation-injury-induced-cell-death-and-countermeasure-drug-responses-in-a-human-gut-on-a-chip
#17
Sasan Jalili-Firoozinezhad, Rachelle Prantil-Baun, Amanda Jiang, Ratnakar Potla, Tadanori Mammoto, James C Weaver, Thomas C Ferrante, Hyun Jung Kim, Joaquim M S Cabral, Oren Levy, Donald E Ingber
Studies on human intestinal injury induced by acute exposure to γ-radiation commonly rely on use of animal models because culture systems do not faithfully mimic human intestinal physiology. Here we used a human Gut-on-a-Chip (Gut Chip) microfluidic device lined by human intestinal epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells to model radiation injury and assess the efficacy of radiation countermeasure drugs in vitro. Exposure of the Gut Chip to γ-radiation resulted in increased generation of reactive oxygen species, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and DNA fragmentation, as well as villus blunting, disruption of tight junctions, and compromise of intestinal barrier integrity...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445038/quantitative-modelling-of-nutrient-limited-growth-of-bacterial-colonies-in-microfluidic-cultivation
#18
Raphael Hornung, Alexander Grünberger, Christoph Westerwalbesloh, Dietrich Kohlheyer, Gerhard Gompper, Jens Elgeti
Nutrient gradients and limitations play a pivotal role in the life of all microbes, both in their natural habitat as well as in artificial, microfluidic systems. Spatial concentration gradients of nutrients in densely packed cell configurations may locally affect the bacterial growth leading to heterogeneous micropopulations. A detailed understanding and quantitative modelling of cellular behaviour under nutrient limitations is thus highly desirable. We use microfluidic cultivations to investigate growth and microbial behaviour of the model organism Corynebacterium glutamicum under well-controlled conditions...
February 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444069/optical-spectral-sweep-comb-liquid-flow-rate-sensor
#19
Changyu Shen, Xiaokang Lian, Vishnu Kavungal, Chuan Zhong, Dejun Liu, Yuliya Semenova, Gerald Farrell, Jacques Albert, John F Donegan
In microfluidic chip applications, the flow rate plays an important role. Here we propose a simple liquid flow rate sensor by using a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) as the sensing element. As the water flows in the vicinity of the TFBG along the fiber axis direction, the TFBG's spectrum changes due to its contact with water. By comparing the time-swept spectra of the TFBG in water to that of the TFBG with water flowing over it, a spectral sweep comb was formed, and the flow rate can be detected by selecting a suitable sweeping frequency...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443042/single-cell-microfluidic-analysis-of-bacillus-subtilis
#20
Matthew T Cabeen, Richard Losick
Microfluidic technology overcomes many of the limitations to traditional analytical methods in microbiology. Unlike bulk-culture methods, it offers single-cell resolution and long observation times spanning hundreds of generations; unlike agarose pad-based microscopy, it has uniform growth conditions that can be tightly controlled. Because the continuous flow of growth medium isolates the cells in a microfluidic device from unpredictable variations in the local chemical environment caused by cell growth and metabolism, authentic changes in gene expression and cell growth in response to specific stimuli can be more confidently observed...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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