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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227552/microfluidics-assisted-tirf-imaging-to-study-single-actin-filament-dynamics
#1
Shashank Shekhar
Dynamic assembly of actin filaments is essential for many cellular processes. The rates of assembly and disassembly of actin filaments are intricately controlled by regulatory proteins that interact with the ends and the sides of filaments and with actin monomers. TIRF-based single-filament imaging techniques have proven instrumental in uncovering mechanisms of actin regulation. In this unit, novel single-filament approaches using microfluidics-assisted TIRF imaging are described. These methods can be used to grow anchored actin filaments aligned in a flow, thus making the analysis much easier as compared to open flow cell approaches...
December 11, 2017: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227492/impact-of-complex-surfaces-on-biomicrorheological-measurements-using-optical-tweezers
#2
Shu Zhang, Lachlan J Gibson, Alexander B Stilgoe, Timo A Nieminen, Halina Rubinsztein-Dunlop
The characterisation of physical properties in biologically relevant processes and the development of novel microfluidic devices for this purpose are experiencing a great resurgence at present. In many of measurements of this type where a probe in a fluid is used, the strong influence of the boundaries of the volume used is a serious problem. In these geometries the proximity of a probe to a wall can severely influence the measurement. However, although much knowledge has been gained about flat walls, to date, the effect of non-planar surfaces at microscopic scale on rotational motion of micro-objects has not been studied...
December 11, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227278/an-automated-method-for-dynamic-red-blood-cell-aggregate-detection-in-microfluidic-flow
#3
Rym Mehri, Erfan Niazi, Catherine Mavriplis, Marianne Fenech
Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation is a unique phenomenon that occurs when red blood cells are subjected to low shear rates. Little is known about the sizes, shapes and behaviour of aggregates flowing in healthy humans. However, excessive aggregation has been shown to be an indication of pathological conditions. Therefore, characterizing RBC aggregates is important to medical research. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable technique based on image processing to assess and characterize human RBC aggregation subjected to controlled and measurable shear rates in a two-fluid flow microfluidic shearing system...
December 11, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227109/fast-and-environmentally-friendly-microfluidic-technique-for-the-fabrication-of-polymer-microspheres
#4
Yanlin Zhang, Robert W Cattrall, Spas D Kolev
This paper reports on a novel microfluidic technique for the fabrication of microspheres of synthetic polymers including poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP), poly(lactic acid) (PLA), and polystyrene (PS). The polymers are dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and the method is based on the diminished solubility of THF in a 20% (w/v) NaCl solution which allows the formation of droplets of the polymer solution. These polymer solution droplets are generated in a microfluidic system and their desolvation is accomplished within seconds by allowing the droplets to rise by buoyancy through a NaCl solution with a concentration lower than 15%...
December 11, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226470/photo-crosslinkable-unnatural-amino-acids-enable-facile-synthesis-of-thermoresponsive-nano-to-microgels-of-intrinsically-disordered-polypeptides
#5
Simone A Costa, Joseph R Simon, Miriam Amiram, Lei Tang, Stefan Zauscher, Eric M Brustad, Farren J Isaacs, Ashutosh Chilkoti
Hydrogel particles are versatile materials that provide exquisite, tunable control over the sequestration and delivery of materials in pharmaceutics, tissue engineering, and photonics. The favorable properties of hydrogel particles depend largely on their size, and particles ranging from nanometers to micrometers are used in different applications. Previous studies have only successfully fabricated these particles in one specific size regime and required a variety of materials and fabrication methods. A simple yet powerful system is developed to easily tune the size of polypeptide-based, thermoresponsive hydrogel particles, from the nano- to microscale, using a single starting material...
December 11, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226295/-bleaching-glycerol-in-a-microfluidic-fuel-cell-to-produce-high-power-density-at-minimal-cost
#6
Cauê A Martins, Omar A Ibrahim, Pei Pei, Erik Kjeang
Glycerol/bleach flow-through microfluidic fuel cells are presented. Carbon paper-modified Pt/C nanoparticles were used as the anode and cathode. Glycerol oxidation in alkaline medium was tested against hypochlorite reduction in alkaline and acidic media. The mixed media system displayed a power density of 315 mW cm-2 and an open circuit voltage of 1.9-2.0 V.
December 11, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226271/clusters-of-circulating-tumor-cells-a-biophysical-and-technological-perspective
#7
Sam H Au, Jon Edd, Daniel A Haber, Shyamala Maheswaran, Shannon L Stott, Mehmet Toner
The vast majority of cancer associated deaths result from metastasis, yet the behaviors of its most potent cellular driver, circulating tumor cell clusters, are only beginning to be revealed. This review highlights recent advances to our understanding of tumor cell clusters with emphasis on enabling technologies. The importance of intercellular adhesions among cells in clusters have begun to be unraveled with the aid of promising microfluidic strategies for isolating clusters from patient blood. Due to their metastatic potency, the utility of circulating tumor cell clusters for cancer diagnosis, drug screening, precision oncology and as targets of antimetastatic therapeutics are being explored...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225503/advection-and-taylor-aris-dispersion-in-rivulet-flow
#8
F H H Al Mukahal, B R Duffy, S K Wilson
Motivated by the need for a better understanding of the transport of solutes in microfluidic flows with free surfaces, the advection and dispersion of a passive solute in steady unidirectional flow of a thin uniform rivulet on an inclined planar substrate driven by gravity and/or a uniform longitudinal surface shear stress are analysed. Firstly, we describe the short-time advection of both an initially semi-infinite and an initially finite slug of solute of uniform concentration. Secondly, we describe the long-time Taylor-Aris dispersion of an initially finite slug of solute...
November 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225421/flow-through-microfluidic-immunosensors-with-refractive-index-matched-silica-monoliths-as-volumetric-optical-detection-elements
#9
M S Wiederoder, E L Kendall, J-H Han, R G Ulrich, D L DeVoe
A sensitive and rapid absorbance based immunosensor that utilizes ex situ functionalized porous silica monoliths as volumetric optical detection elements is demonstrated in this study. The porous monolith structure facilitates high capture probe density and short diffusion length scales, enabling sensitive and rapid assays. Silica monoliths, synthesized and functionalized with immunocapture probes off-chip before integration into a sealed thermoplastic microfluidic device, serve to capture target antigens during perfusion through the porous structure...
January 2018: Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225236/microfluidic-platform-for-analyzing-the-thermotaxis-of-c-elegans-in-a-linear-temperature-gradient
#10
Sunhee Yoon, Hailing Piao, Tae-Joon Jeon, Sun Min Kim
Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), which shares a considerable amount of characteristics with human genes is one of the important model organisms for the study of behavioral responses. Thermotaxis is a representative behavior response of C. elegans; C. elegans stores the cultivation temperature in thermosensory neurons and moves to the cultivation temperature region in a temperature variation. In this study, we developed a microfluidic system for effective thermotaxis analysis of C. elegans. The microfluidic channel was fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by soft lithography process...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224343/the-molecular-mechanism-of-nanodroplet-stability
#11
Evangelia Zdrali, Yixing Chen, Halil I Okur, David Mark Wilkins, Sylvie Roke
Mixtures of nano- and microscopic oil droplets in water have recently been rediscovered as miniature reaction vessels in microfluidic environments and are important constituents of many environmental systems, food, personal care and medical products. The oil nanodroplet/water interface stabilized by surfactants determines the physicochemical properties of the droplets. Surfactants are thought to stabilize nanodroplets by forming densely packed monolayers that shield the oil phase from the water. This idea has been inferred from droplet stability measurements in combination with molecular structural data obtained from extended planar interfaces...
December 11, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224153/multiplexed-dna-methylation-analysis-of-target-regions-using-microfluidics-fluidigm
#12
Martyna Adamowicz, Klio Maratou, Timothy J Aitman
Whole genome shotgun bisulfite sequencing is a method used to generate genome-wide methylation profiles. There are many available protocols to validate the results of this genome-wide method, but they mostly share the limitation of measuring methylation at a small number of CpG positions in small numbers of samples. We developed a multiplexed DNA methylation analysis protocol, which allows for the simultaneous quantitative measurement of cytosine methylation at single nucleotide resolution in 48 PCR amplicons and 48 samples utilizing the microfluidic system established by Fluidigm...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223037/a-microfabricated-platform-for-the-study-of-chondrogenesis-under-different-compressive-loads
#13
Reza Kowsari-Esfahan, Azadeh Jahanbakhsh, Mohammad Said Saidi, Shahin Bonakdar
Microfluidic devices are beneficial in miniaturizing and multiplexing various cellular assays in a single platform. Chondrogenesis is known to pertain to chemical, topographical, and mechanical cues in the microenvironment. Mechanical cues themselves have numerous parameters such as strain magnitude, frequency, and stimulation time. Effects of different strain magnitudes on the chondrogenic differentiation of adult stem cells have not been explored thoroughly. Here, a new multilayer microdevice is presented for the unidirectional compressive stimulation of cells in a three-dimensional cell culture...
December 5, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222841/evaluation-of-an-ovary-on-a-chip-in-large-mammalian-models-species-specificity-and-influence-of-follicle-isolation-status
#14
J Nagashima, R El Assal, N Songsasen, U Demirci
The ability to grow oocytes from immature ovarian follicles in vitro has significant potential for fertility preservation; yet, it has proved challenging in large mammalian species due to the complex metabolic needs and long-term culture requirements. Currently, follicular incubations are based on a 'static' system with manual exchange of medium. Despite the numerous advantages of conventional culturing approaches, recapitulating the native microenvironment and supporting the survival of ovarian follicles still represent challenges...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221080/integrated-pillar-scatterers-for-speeding-up-classification-of-cell-holograms
#15
Alessio Lugnan, Joni Dambre, Peter Bienstman
The computational power required to classify cell holograms is a major limit to the throughput of label-free cell sorting based on digital holographic microscopy. In this work, a simple integrated photonic stage comprising a collection of silica pillar scatterers is proposed as an effective nonlinear mixing interface between the light scattered by a cell and an image sensor. The light processing provided by the photonic stage allows for the use of a simple linear classifier implemented in the electric domain and applied on a limited number of pixels...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220830/specific-capture-recovery-and-culture-of-cancer-cells-using-oriented-antibody-modified-polystyrene-chips-coated-with-agarose-film
#16
Jiyun Jeong, Yeolin Lee, Yeongeun Yoo, Myung Kyu Lee
Agarose gel can be used for three dimensional (3D) cell culture because it prevents cell attachment. The dried agarose film coated on a culture plate also protected cell attachment and allowed 3D growth of cancer cells. We developed an efficient method for agarose film coating on an oxygen-plasma treated micropost polystyrene chip prepared by an injection molding process. The agarose film was modified to maleimide or Ni-NTA groups for covalent or cleavable attachment of photoactivatable Fc-specific antibody binding proteins (PFcBPs) via their N-terminal cysteine residues or 6xHis tag, respectively...
December 5, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220646/dissecting-cell-type-composition-and-activity-dependent-transcriptional-state-in-mammalian-brains-by-massively-parallel-single-nucleus-rna-seq
#17
Peng Hu, Emily Fabyanic, Deborah Y Kwon, Sheng Tang, Zhaolan Zhou, Hao Wu
Massively parallel single-cell RNA sequencing can precisely resolve cellular diversity in a high-throughput manner at low cost, but unbiased isolation of intact single cells from complex tissues such as adult mammalian brains is challenging. Here, we integrate sucrose-gradient-assisted purification of nuclei with droplet microfluidics to develop a highly scalable single-nucleus RNA-seq approach (sNucDrop-seq), which is free of enzymatic dissociation and nucleus sorting. By profiling ∼18,000 nuclei isolated from cortical tissues of adult mice, we demonstrate that sNucDrop-seq not only accurately reveals neuronal and non-neuronal subtype composition with high sensitivity but also enables in-depth analysis of transient transcriptional states driven by neuronal activity, at single-cell resolution, in vivo...
December 7, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220192/fluidic-microactuation-of-flexible-electrodes-for-neural-recording
#18
Flavia Vitale, Daniel Vercosa, Alexander V Rodriguez, Sushma Sri Pamulapati, Frederik Seibt, Eric Lewis, Jiaxi Stephen Yan, Krishna Badhiwala, Mohammed Adnan, Gianni Royer-Carfagni, Michael Beierlein, Caleb Kemere, Matteo Pasquali, Jacob Robinson
Soft and conductive nanomaterials like carbon nanotubes, graphene, and nanowire scaffolds have expanded the family of ultra-flexible microelectrodes that can bend and flex with the natural movement of the brain, reduce the inflammatory response and improve the stability of long-term neural recordings. However, current methods to implant these highly flexible electrodes rely on temporary stiffening agents that temporarily increase the electrode size and stiffness thus aggravating neural damage during implantation, which can lead to cell loss and glial activation that persists even after the stiffening agents are removed or dissolve...
December 8, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220116/advances-in-microfluidics-applied-to-single-cell-operation
#19
REVIEW
Xudong Zhu, Ju Chu, Yonghong Wang
The field of microbiology has traditionally been concerned with and focused on studies at the population level. Microfluidic platforms have emerged as important tools for biology research at a small scale, even down to a single cell level. The spatial and temporal control of cells and stimuli transported by microfluidic channels in well-designed microsystems realized the studies of specific cells in a controlled microenvironment. The true cellular physiology responses, which were obtained mostly by inference from population-level data, could be revealed in this way...
December 8, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220055/on-demand-acoustic-droplet-splitting-and-steering-in-a-disposable-microfluidic-chip
#20
Jinsoo Park, Jin Ho Jung, Kwangseok Park, Ghulam Destgeer, Husnain Ahmed, Raheel Ahmad, Hyung Jin Sung
On-chip droplet splitting is one of the fundamental droplet-based microfluidic unit operations to control droplet volume after production and increase operational capability, flexibility, and throughput. Various droplet splitting methods have been proposed, and among them the acoustic droplet splitting method is promising because of its label-free operation without any physical or thermal damage to droplets. Previous acoustic droplet splitting methods faced several limitations: first, they employed a cross-type acoustofluidic device that precluded multichannel droplet splitting; second, they required irreversible bonding between a piezoelectric substrate and a microfluidic chip, such that the fluidic chip was not replaceable...
December 8, 2017: Lab on a Chip
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